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CATTI备考:国新办举行解读《国家人权行动计划(2021-2025年)》

国新办 2021-09-19 58次

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国务院新闻办新闻局副局长、新闻发言人邢慧娜:

Xing Huina:

各位媒体朋友们,大家下午好!欢迎出席国务院新闻办吹风会。今天下午我们的吹风会主要是向大家解读《国家人权行动计划(2021-2025年)》的主要内容。出席今天吹风会的是:国务院新闻办公室人权事务局宣传处处长、二级巡视员李晓军先生,外交部人权事务特别代表李笑梅女士,生态环境部法规与标准司司长别涛先生,南开大学人权研究中心主任、教授常健先生。今天的吹风会,我想先请几位发布人做一个简要的情况介绍,然后再回答大家感兴趣的问题。首先请李晓军先生作介绍。

Friends from the media, good afternoon. Welcome to today's briefing held by the State Council Information Office (SCIO), which will expound on the Human Rights Action Plan of China (2021-2025). The speakers at today's briefing are Mr. Li Xiaojun, director and second-level inspector of the Publicity Department of the Bureau of Human Rights Affairs of the SCIO; Ms. Li Xiaomei, special representative for human rights of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Mr. Bie Tao, director general of the Department of Laws, Regulations and Standards in the Ministry of Ecology and Environment; and Chang Jian, professor and director of the Research Center for Human Rights of Nankai University. The speakers will first give you a brief rundown and then take your questions. First, I will give the floor to Mr. Li Xiaojun.

国务院新闻办公室人权事务局宣传处处长、二级巡视员李晓军:

Li Xiaojun:

各位记者,下午好!全面建成小康社会是中国取得的非凡人权成就,奠定了中国人权发展进步的新起点,《国家人权行动计划(2021-2025年)》应时而生。它是中国政府贯彻落实党章和宪法关于“尊重和保障人权”原则,贯彻落实党的十九届五中全会提出的“促进人权事业全面发展”的阶段性政策文件,是中国开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程上尊重和保障人权的首份宣言书和路线图。这是中国政府发布实施的第四期国家人权行动计划。

Friends from the media, good afternoon. The realization of all-round moderate prosperity is an extraordinary human rights achievement that China has made and a new starting point on the country's quest for human rights. The National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2021-2025) is born of the times. It is a phased policy document for the Chinese government to implement the principle of "respecting and protecting human rights" from the Constitution of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Constitution, and to implement "promoting comprehensive progress in human rights" as proposed during the Fifth Plenum of the 19th CPC Central Committee. It is the first declaration and road map to respect and protect human rights on the new journey toward fully building a modern socialist country. This is the fourth national human rights action plan issued and implemented by the Chinese government.

本期行动计划突出中国人权事业发展的特色和优势,具有4个主要特点。

This action plan highlights characteristics and favorable conditions of advancing the cause of human rights in China. It has four main features.

第一,坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导。贯彻落实习近平总书记关于人权的重要论述,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,坚持人民幸福生活是最大的人权,针对新阶段、新需求,提出新目标、新任务,着力解决人民群众急难愁盼问题。如在保障健康权利方面,提出为人民提供全方位全生命周期健康服务;针对全面建成小康社会之后人民在精神文化方面更高的需求提出新的目标和任务;保障少数民族受教育权利,加大国家通用语言文字推广力度,同时保障少数民族学习使用和发展本民族语言文字的权利。

First, the formulation and implementation of the action plan is guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. We have implemented General Secretary Xi's important expositions on human rights and stayed committed to a people-centered philosophy of development, believing that a happy life for the people is the most important human right. We defined new objectives and missions to meet new expectations in a new stage, working to resolve the most pressing difficulties and problems which are of great concern to the people. For example, in protecting the right to health, the plan proposes providing a complete range of health services to the people throughout their lifespan; it sets new targets and tasks to meet the people's ever-growing cultural needs after the realization of moderate prosperity; and it protects the right to education for ethnic minority groups and promotes standard spoken and written Chinese in ethnic minority areas while protecting their right to learn, use and develop their own spoken and written languages.

第二,体现新时代中国人权事业全面发展特色。本期《行动计划》内容源自多个方面,共分导言,经济、社会和文化权利,公民权利和政治权利,环境权利,特定群体权益保障,人权教育和研究,参与全球人权治理,实施、监督和评估等8个部分,包含近200项目标和任务。篇幅比第三期大幅增加,目标和任务增加近30项,其中约束性指标占大约1/3。可以说,句句有特点,段段有新意,体现了中国在人权理论、尊重和保障人权的制度、人权发展道路和人权文化方面的特色、优势和自信。

Second, it reflects characteristics of the all-round development of China's human rights cause in the new era. Covering multiple areas, the action plan includes eight sections: introduction, economic, social and cultural rights, civil and political rights, environmental rights, protecting the rights of particular groups, education and research on human rights, participating in global human rights governance, and implementation, supervision and assessment. Nearly 200 objectives and tasks are proposed. Compared with the previous edition, the length of the fourth action plan has been greatly increased, and nearly 30 objectives and tasks have been added, of which indicators with obligatory objectives account for approximately one third. The new action plan reflects China's characteristics, favorable conditions and confidence in human rights theories, systems for respecting and protecting human rights, the human rights development path, and human rights culture.

第三,突出生态环境权利。生态环境保护是习近平生态文明思想的重要内容,是中国建设社会主义现代化国家的有机组成部分,人民群众对优美生态环境的需要日益增长,国际社会也十分关注,本期将“环境权利”单列一章。前三期该项权利被列入经济、社会和文化权利部分。

Third, it highlights the eco-environmental rights. Protection of the ecology and environment is an important part of Xi Jinping Thought on Ecological Civilization and an integral part of building China into a modern socialist country. People's demands for a beautiful environment are growing, and the international community is also very concerned about that. This action plan sets out a separate section on "environmental rights," which was included in the "economic, social and cultural rights" section in the previous three action plans.

第四,便于实施和落实。针对不同权利门类,提出不同目标和任务。既有定性指标,也有定量指标;既有约束性指标,也有非约束性指标;既有阶段性指标,也有长期性指标。注重连续性和可操作性,做到压茬推进,压茬实施。比如巩固脱贫攻坚成果与开展乡村振兴建设相衔接,不断提升全民阅读服务水平,人权教育、研究、培训与知识普及都是长期性任务;提出再增加3家国家人权教育与培训基地,新设3家国家人权研究基地等。

Fourth, the action plan is easy to implement. The action plan has put forward different targets and tasks for different categories of human rights. There are both qualitative and quantitative indicators, both binding and non-binding ones, and both periodic and long-term ones. It focuses on the continuity and operability of implementation. For example, there are long-term targets such as connecting poverty alleviation with rural vitalization; continuously upgrading reading services; promoting on-campus education, specialized research, and training on human rights as well as public understanding of human rights. The action plan also sets the tasks of establishing three more national human rights education and training bases and launching three new national research bases for human rights.

中国的国家人权行动计划在世界人权领域树立了新榜样。世界上有60多个国家制定了国家人权行动计划,但只有中国、印度尼西亚和墨西哥连续制定了4期国家人权行动计划。美国、加拿大、法国、德国、日本等国迄今仍未制定任何国家人权行动计划,在此呼吁这些人权喊得震天响的国家尽快按照国际人权标准制定国家人权行动计划,真正做些保障他们自己国家老百姓人权的实事。

China's human rights action plan has set a new and good example globally. Although more than 60 countries around the world have formulated national human rights action plans, only China, Indonesia, and Mexico have made such action plans for four consecutive terms. Countries such as the U.S., Canada, France, Germany, and Japan haven't formulated any national action plan on human rights yet. I hereby call on countries that engage in loud, empty talks on human rights to formulate their own national action plans based on international standards and make solid efforts to protect the human rights of their own people.

展望未来,相信经过国家人权行动计划联席会议机制40多家成员单位的积极推进,经过各级地方政府的细化落实,经过社会各方面的共同努力,本期《行动计划》一定能够实现“促进人权事业全面发展”的目标,在中国全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程上留下浓墨重彩的一笔。谢谢。

Looking forward, we believe that, with the efforts of the over 40 member parties of the action plan's joint meeting mechanism, the implementation work of all local governments, and the joint efforts of all sectors of society, the Human Rights Action Plan of China (2021-2025) will achieve the goal of "promoting comprehensive development of the human rights cause" and will become a highlight in China's new journey toward fully building a modern socialist country. Thank you.

邢慧娜:

Xing Huina:

谢谢李晓军先生的情况介绍,下面有请李笑梅女士作介绍。

Thank you, Mr. Li Xiaojun. Next, I'll give the floor to Ms. Li Xiaomei.

外交部人权事务特别代表李笑梅:

Li Xiaomei:

各位记者朋友们,大家下午好!很荣幸能够代表外交部参加本次吹风会。

Friends from the media, good afternoon. It is a great honor to participate in this briefing on behalf of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

展望未来五年新一期国家人权行动计划,中国将在国际人权交流合作领域开启新的篇章。

Based on the newly issued human rights action plan, in the next five years, China will open a new chapter in international exchanges and cooperation on the human rights cause.

第一,我们将认真履行国际人权义务。中国高度重视国际人权文书对促进和保护人权的重要作用,坚持把人权普遍性原则同中国实际相结合,不断推动经济社会发展,增进人民福祉,促进社会公平正义,加强人权法治保障。作为世界最大的发展中国家,中国人权事业发展本身就是对世界人权事业的最大贡献。我们愿分享中国人权实践,将及时提交人权条约履约报告并参加审议,与条约机构开展建设性对话,结合中国国情采纳和落实条约机构合理可行建议。

First, China will earnestly fulfill its international human rights obligations. China attaches great importance to the role international human rights instruments play in promoting and protecting human rights. China incorporates the principle of universality of human rights into its national conditions, continuously promotes economic and social development, improves the people's wellbeing, promotes social equity and justice, and strengthens legal protection for human rights. As the world's biggest developing country, the development of China's human rights cause itself is already the country's biggest contribution to the international human rights cause. China is willing to share its practices on human rights with the world. It will submit its performance reports concerning human rights treaties in a timely manner, participate in the relevant review process, join in constructive dialogue with human rights treaty bodies, and adopt and implement suggestions that are reasonable and feasible in the Chinese context.

第二,我们将深度参与联合国人权机构工作。中国将竞选2024-2026年度联合国人权理事会成员,倡导联合国人权机构秉持公正、客观和非选择性原则,同等重视、系统推进各类人权,旗帜鲜明反对将人权问题政治化和双重标准,继续倡导以和平促人权、以发展促人权、以合作促人权、以公平促人权。认真落实中国在人权理事会第三轮国别人权审议中接受的建议,我们还将积极参与第四轮国别人权审议。继续积极推荐中国专家竞聘人权特别机制,推动解决特别机制专家地域代表性不平衡问题。

Second, China will engage substantially in the work of the United Nations (UN) human rights bodies. China plans to campaign for 2024-2026 membership of the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC). It advocates that UN human rights bodies uphold the principle of being impartial, objective, and non-selective, promote all kinds of human rights in an equal and systematic manner, explicitly oppose the politicalization of human rights issues and double standards, and continue to encourage the promotion of human rights through peace, development, cooperation, and equity. China will earnestly implement the proposals it accepted during the UNHRC's third round Universal Periodic Review for China and participate actively in the fourth round review. China will continue to recommend Chinese experts to apply for the posts of the Special Procedures of the UNHRC and advance efforts to address the imbalance in the geographical representation of experts of the special procedures.

第三,我们将开展建设性人权对话与合作。中国致力于在相互尊重、开放包容、交流互鉴基础上开展建设性人权对话和磋商,促进国际人权交流与合作。中国将继续举办国际和区域人权论坛、研讨会等,增进各方在人权问题上的相互了解和交流互鉴。继续同联合国人权机制开展合作,鼓励其客观、公正履职,重视发展中国家关切。

Third, China will carry out constructive dialogue and cooperation in human rights. China is committed to engaging in human rights dialogue and consultations and promoting international human rights exchanges and cooperation on the basis of mutual respect, openness, inclusiveness, communication, and mutual learning. China will continue to host international and regional human rights forums and symposiums to enhance mutual understanding, exchanges, and mutual learning among different parties on the issue. China will also continue to cooperate with the UN's human rights mechanisms and encourage them to fulfill their duty in an objective and fair manner and to pay attention to the concerns of developing countries.

第四,我们将深入参与国际人权治理。促进和保护人权是大家共同的事业,全球人权治理要由各国共同商量,人权发展成果要由各国人民共同分享。中国将继续推动各方恪守联合国宪章宗旨和原则,尊重各国人民根据国情自主选择人权发展道路的权利。继续积极参与国际人权规则制定和议程设置,推动构建公平正义、合理有效的国际人权体系。

Fourth, China will participate substantially in global human rights governance. Promoting and protecting human rights is a shared cause of all countries. In this sense, global human rights governance requires the joint consultation of all countries, and the results of human rights development should be shared by all people around the world. China will continue to encourage all parties to adhere to the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and respect the rights of a country to independently choose its human rights development path that suits its national realities. China will continue to actively engage in creating rules and setting international agendas in the fields of human rights to advocate a fair, just, reasonable, and effective international human rights system.

站在“两个一百年”的交汇点,面对世界百年未有之大变局,中国将在新的历史起点上,促进人权事业全面发展,为国际人权事业发展贡献中国智慧和中国方案,倡导和平、发展、公平、正义、民主、自由的全人类共同价值,构建人类命运共同体。谢谢。

Standing at the historic confluence period of the "Two Centenary Goals" and facing the world's profound changes unseen in a century, China will work to promote the comprehensive development of human rights, contribute its ideas and solutions to the human rights development around the world, advocate the shared human values of peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy and freedom, and promote the building of a community with a shared future for mankind, at a new historical point. Thank you.

邢慧娜:

Xing Huina:

谢谢笑梅,下面有请别涛先生作介绍。

Thank you, Ms. Li. Next, I'll give the floor to Mr. Bie Tao.

生态环境部法规与标准司司长别涛:

Bie Tao:

各位记者朋友们,大家下午好!《国家人权行动计划(2021-2025年)》是中国政府连续发布的第四期国家人权行动计划。其中,“环境权利”在我国也已经连续12年被先后四期《人权行动计划》纳入其中,刚才李晓军先生提到一个观点,“环境权利”的保护是中国人权保护的一个重要特点。

Friends from the press, good afternoon. The Human Rights Action Plan of China (2021-2025) is the fourth successive edition of its kind issued by the Chinese government. Environmental rights have been included in all four editions of the plan since the first edition was issued 12 years ago. Mr. Li Xiaojun just mentioned that the protection of environmental rights is an important feature of China's human rights protection.  

关于人权的保护与环境权益的关系,我从环保角度谈一下个人的几个基本判断,供大家参考。一是对人权的全面保护,包含对公众环境权的保护。二是对环境权的有效保护离不开健全的环境法治。三是中国的立法、行政、司法历来重视对环境权益的保护。四是党的十八大以来,特别是2014年中国新环保法的修订,以及近年来大气污染防治法、水污染防治法、固体废物污染环境防治法的修改,土壤污染防治法的修订,还有正在修订的噪声法、核安全法等法律的制修订,可以说在今天的中国,对于环境权利,无论是从实体权方面,健康的空气、清洁的饮用水源、干净的土壤;还是程序性的环境权利,例如环境的知情权、参与权、监督权;也无论是预防性的环境权利,例如项目规划环评、公众参与听证;还是救济性的环境权利,例如磋商、诉讼等程序规则;也不论是对于公民个体的私益性的环境权利,还是对于NGO等环保社会组织的集体环境权利,中国的立法、执法、司法体系都给予了公正、公平和有力的保护。

As for the relationship between human rights protection and environmental rights and interests, I would like to give some of my basic personal judgments for your reference from the perspective of environmental protection. First, the comprehensive protection of human rights includes the protection of the public's environmental rights. Second, effective protection of environmental rights is impossible without sound and law-based environmental governance. Third, China's legislation, administration and judicature have always attached importance to the protection of environmental rights and interests. Fourth, since the 18th CPC National Congress, many laws have been revised. We revised the Environmental Protection Law in 2014, and we have modified the Law on Atmospheric Pollution Prevention and Control, the Law on Water Pollution Prevention and Control and the Law on Solid Waste Pollution Prevention and Control in recent years. We have also revised the Law on Soil Pollution Prevention and Control, with the revision of the laws on noise pollution prevention and control and on nuclear safety, the formulation and revision of other relevant laws underway. It's fair to say that nowadays, China's legislation, law enforcement and judicial system have provided just, fair and effective protection. Areas of protection include: substantive environmental rights, like fresh air, clean drinking water and unpolluted soil; procedural environmental rights, such as the right to know, to participate and to supervise regarding the environment; preventive environmental rights, including environmental impact assessments for plans and public participation in hearings; remedial environmental rights, such as consultation, litigation and other procedural rules; the environmental rights of individual citizens concerning their personal interests; and the collective environmental rights of NGOs and other environmental social organizations.

刚才李晓军先生提到了一个词——“自信”,我也很赞同。我们今天可以自信或者自豪地说,自1972年联合国人类环境宣言以来,经过近50年的努力,中国对于环境权的法律保护,与其他任何国家相比都不落后。

Just now, Mr. Li Xiaojun mentioned the word "confidence", with which I quite agree. Today, we can say with confidence and pride that after nearly 50 years of efforts since the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was adopted in 1972, China no longer lags behind any other countries in terms of the legal protection of environmental rights.

从环境人权法治的角度看,我国通过推动应对气候变化、控制生态恶化、防治环境污染等一系列环境问题方面入手,有力地维护公众的环境权利。国家人权行动计划经过12年的接续努力,在环境权利保护方面已经取得了显著的成效。主要包括完善生态环境法治,保障公众的环境权益,解决环境民生问题,改善生态环境质量,有效维护公众的健康,有力地提升了公众在生态环境方面的获得感、幸福感和安全感。这不失为中国人权保障的一个亮点。

Regarding the legal safeguards for environmental human rights, China has effectively safeguarded the public's environmental rights by taking a series of actions including tackling climate change, controlling ecological deterioration and preventing and controlling environmental pollution. After 12 years of continuous endeavors, national human rights action plans have yielded remarkable results in environmental rights protection. This mainly includes improving the law-based governance on the ecological environment, ensuing the public's environmental rights and interests, solving livelihood-related environmental issues, enhancing the ecological environment quality, and effectively safeguarding public health. All of these have notably increased the public's sense of gain, happiness and security in the ecological environment, which constitutes a highlight in China's human rights protection.  

新的为期五年的国家人权行动计划,将环境权利独立成章,并与经济、社会、文化权利,公民权利和政治权利并列。同时国家人权行动计划中有关环境权利的规定,其内涵也在不断拓展和丰富。我们也做了一下回顾,从2009年第一期中的“一个方面、七项任务”,拓展到第四期中包含“六个方面、十八项任务”,记者朋友们有兴趣的话可以浏览看看。其内容更加丰富,部署更加系统全面,具有很强的开拓性和引导性,我们觉得现实意义十分重大。

The new five-year Human Rights Action Plan (2021-2025) includes "environmental rights" as a separate chapter, right after the chapters of economic, social and cultural rights, as well as civil and political rights. At the same time, the regulations on environmental rights in the new action plan have also been expanded and enriched. We have reviewed previous action plans and found that the "one aspect, seven tasks" of environmental rights set out in the first edition in 2009 have been expanded to "six aspects, 18 tasks" in the latest fourth edition. You are welcome to glance over them. The contents of the new action plan are richer with more systematic and comprehensive deployments, and they play a pioneering and guiding role, which I think is of great practical significance.  

新的国家人权行动计划不仅仅是在篇章结构方面的形式上的改变,从实质内容上来说,这也是以习近平同志为核心的党中央把生态文明建设作为事关中华民族永续发展的根本大计,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,大力推动生态文明理论创新、实践创新和制度创新,形成了习近平生态文明思想。这个思想体系,也是我们维护公众环境权益的根本遵循。

The new Human Rights Action Plan has not only modified its structure and chapters, but also updated its contents. The action plan demonstrates that the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core holds that ecological conservation is of fundamental importance to the sustainable development of the Chinese nation, adheres to the people-centered development philosophy, vigorously promotes innovation in theory, practice and system involving ecological progress, and forms Xi Jinping Thought on Ecological Civilization. This thought serves as the fundamental basis for us to safeguard the public's environmental rights and interests.

现在我们都在学习习近平生态文明思想,特别是环保系统,我个人学习体会到,新时代的生态环保工作与环境权益密切关联,我个人体会,它集中表现在“四观”上面。

Now we are all studying Xi Jinping Thought on Ecological Civilization, especially those of us in environmental protection departments. I have learned that ecological protection work in the new era is closely related to environmental rights and interests, which, in my opinion, is mainly reflected in the following four aspects.

第一,民生观。环境就是民生,这是我们讲的,发展经济是为了民生,保护生态环境同样也是为了民生。我们既要创造更多的物质财富,满足人民群众日益增长的美好生活的需要,也提供更多的优质的生态产品,以满足人民群众日益增长的优美生态环境的需要。特别值得一提的是,我们在努力探索环境与健康相互促进的新路子,着力解决损害群众健康的突出环境问题。新环保法以保障公众健康为立法宗旨,这个法的总则里面有原则性的规定,在专条的规定,也有国家建立健全环境与健康的监测、调查和风险评估制度,组织开展环境质量对健康影响的研究,防治与环境有关的各类疾病,国家根据对环境和人体健康的影响风险评估,制定、公布和调整有毒有害污染物的名录。

First, people's livelihoods. We say that the environment is the basis of people's livelihoods. Developing the economy is for people's well-being, and so is protecting the environment. We should not only create more material wealth to meet people's ever-growing needs for a better life, but also provide more high-quality ecological products to meet people's ever-growing needs for a beautiful ecological environment. In particular, we are exploring new methods for the environment and health to enhance each other and address prominent environmental problems that undermine people's health. The revised Environmental Protection Law makes protecting public health its purpose. Apart from the general principles, the law stipulates in its specific rules that the country should establish and improve the monitoring, investigation and risk assessment mechanism of the environment and health, carry out studies about the impacts of environmental quality on health, and prevent and control various environment-related diseases. The country has also formulated, published and adjusted the lists of toxic and harmful pollutants according to the latest risk assessments of their impacts to the environment and human health.

第二,公平观。良好的生态环境是最公平的公共产品,是最普惠的民生福祉。因此我们要统筹城乡生态环境保护,既要着力解决困扰城市区域的大气污染问题,比如我们关心的PM2.5重污染天气;也要高度重视解决流域性、地区性的水污染问题,包括恶臭污染问题、黑臭水体问题;同样也要加快治理影响农村居民生活环境的面源污染问题、土壤污染问题,着力推进城乡之间环境基本公共服务的均等化。这体现了很强的环境的公平观。

Second, fairness. A good ecological environment is the fairest public product and provides inclusive wellbeing for the people. Therefore, we need to coordinate eco-environmental protection in rural and urban areas. We will take further actions to tackle atmospheric pollution in cities, such as PM2.5 intensity that has concerned many people. We will pay attention to resolving water pollution in river basins and regions, including odor pollution and black and fetid water bodies. We will also speed up to tackle pollution from non-point source and soil pollution that has affected people's living environment in rural areas. By doing these, equal access to basic public environmental services between urban and rural areas will be promoted, which embodies fairness in environment.

第三,开放性或者参与性。生态文明是人民群众共同参与、共同建设、共同享有的事业,要把建设美丽中国转化为全民的自觉行动。我们每个人都是生态环境的保护者、建设者、受益者,没有哪个个人可以成为纯粹的旁观者、局外人和批评家。要开展全民绿色行动,动员全社会为生态环保作出更大贡献。环保部门今年组织了一个专门的行动,“美丽中国,我是行动者”,我也想请大家关注。现行的环保法,把公众参与作为总则中规定的基本原则之一,而且在其中有一个专门的章节即第五章,标题就是“环境的信息公开与公众参与”,这里面有多个条款分别规定了政府的环保的基本责任,政府统一、定时发布环境状况信息。国务院每年都要公布各个部门的数据,汇总成为统一的环境状况公报。各地方政府也是这样,环保部门、其他有关部门要公布各自履行职能中获取的公共环境信息,同时要求企业公开其自身影响公众权益、影响公共健康的环境信息。企业作为经济实体,从事经营性活动,排放污染物,影响公共环境、危害公众健康,就有义务公开自己污染物的排放种类、数量、浓度、去向,特别是有一些上市公司、发债企业和列入重点监管名录的重点排污单位,或者受到违法处罚的企业,必须公开自己的环境信息,包括整改方案。正在进行的中央环保督察,也对一些违法企业作为典型案例,全面公开有关环境违法事实,并督促制定整改方案,保障公众对环境的知情、参与、监督的权利。

Third, openness or participation. Ecological civilization is a cause that all people participate in, work together for and benefit from. It requires us to turn the "Beautiful China" campaign into a voluntary action by all. Everyone should be a protector, builder, and beneficiary of the eco-environment, rather than a mere spectator, outsider, and critic. We will carry out public green actions and encourage the entire society to make more contributions to eco-environmental protection. This year, Chinese environmental protection authorities launched an activity with the theme of "Beautiful China: I'm a doer." And I'd like to ask you to follow its progress. China's Environmental Protection Law includes public participation as one of the basic principles in the general provisions. Its Chapter Five - Environmental Information Disclosure and Public Participation - stipulates the basic government responsibility on environmental protection, including disclosing environmental information to the public in a unified and scheduled manner. Every year, the State Council releases data from all government departments and compiles a communique on the environmental situation, as do all local governments. Environmental protection authorities and other relevant departments need to release public environmental information collected when they perform their functions, while enterprises are asked to disclose their environmental information affecting public rights, interests, and health. As economic entities, enterprises may discharge pollutants during operational activities, which may affect the public environment or cause hazards to public health. On these occasions, they have an obligation to disclose the type, quantity, concentration, and disposition of the pollutants. In particular, some listed companies, bond issuers, heavy-polluting units listed on the key supervision list, and enterprises punished for breaking the law must disclose their environmental information, including rectification plans. The current environmental protection inspection launched by the central government has fully disclosed environmental violations in typical cases and urged relevant polluters to make rectification plans to guarantee people's right to be informed, and to participate in and supervise environmental protection.

还要求建设项目可能影响公众健康、影响公共环境的建设主体,要公开环境信息、征求公众意见,公众可以依法参与相关项目的审查、决策,重大项目可以正式要求参与听证、审查。我们鼓励公众举报各类环境违法行为,为举报人保护其信息,维护举报人合法利益,严惩打击报复举报人的行为。特别要关注的,就是在知情、参与、监督的机制上,提出公益诉讼机制。没有直接受害的环保组织,也可以向人民法院提起针对违法企业的公益性质的诉讼,要求国家机关依法责令违法主体停止侵害、修复生态环境。

Construction units are also asked to disclose environmental information and solicit public opinions if the construction projects affect public health or the environment. The public has the right to participate in the supervision and decision-making of relevant projects in accordance with the law, as well as apply for formal hearings and investigations in some major projects according to the law. We encourage the public to report environmental violations and promise to protect their information, safeguard their legal rights and interests, and severely punish the retaliation against informants. One thing to note particularly is that besides the mechanisms ensuring the public to know, participate, and supervise, we are also exploring a public interest litigation system. The system allows environmental protection organizations, even if not directly victimized, to file public welfare lawsuits against illegal enterprises in people's courts, and request state organs to order law violators to stop encroachment and repair the affected eco-environment.

第四,全球观。我就不再展开。

Fourth, global mindset, which I won't give a further explanation on.

党的十八大以来,生态环保部按照习近平总书记“用最严格制度最严密法治保护生态环境”“依法治污”等指示精神,坚持以人民为中心,一是推动生态环保领域在高质量立法方面取得了突出的进展,维护公众环境权益的法治保障更加有力。二是生态环境标准体系更加完善。三是生态环境损害赔偿制度改革更加深化。企业从事生产经营活动,为了自己的利益,但是损害了公益性质的环境,损害了他人的利益,损害了公众的自然资源、生态环境,要依法承担修复和损害赔偿的责任。

Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment has implemented General Secretary Xi Jinping's instructions such as "protecting the environment requires the best institutional arrangements and the strictest rule of law" and "tackling pollution according to law," and maintained a people-centered approach to protect the environment. First, we have achieved prominent progress on high-quality legislation of eco-environmental protection, which consolidated the legal guarantee of public environmental rights and interests. Second, we have improved the ecological and environmental standard system. Third, we have deepened the reform of the compensation system for ecological and environmental damage. It's natural for enterprises to pursue interests when doing business, but they shall be liable for repair and compensation in accordance with laws if they damage the public environment, natural resources, and eco-environment or harm the interests of others.

“十四五”期间,生态环保系统将认真贯彻学习习近平生态文明思想和习近平法治思想,落实减污降碳的总要求,加快推动绿色低碳发展,进一步改善生态环境质量,有效保障公众健康,维护公众的环境权益,为实现环境权利、建设人与自然和谐共生的美丽中国贡献力量。谢谢大家。

During the 14th Five-Year Plan period (2021-2025), China's ecological and environmental system will continue to earnestly study and implement Xi Jinping Thought on Ecological Civilization and Xi Jinping Thought on the Rule of Law. We will meet the overall requirements of reducing pollution and carbon emissions, accelerate green and low-carbon development, further improve ecological and environmental quality, effectively protect public health, and safeguard the public's environmental rights and interests, thus contributing to building a beautiful China where humanity and nature harmoniously co-exist. Thank you.

邢慧娜:

Xing Huina:

谢谢别司长,下面有请常健先生作介绍。

Thank you, Mr. Bie. Now, let's give the floor to Mr. Chang Jian.

南开大学人权研究中心主任、教授常健:

Chang Jian:

大家下午好!这期《行动计划》已经是第四期了,从本期行动计划来看,我觉得它呈现出全面与重点相结合、继承与创新相结合、巩固与提高相结合的特点。下面我就结合自己的研究,向大家简要分析一下这期《行动计划》中有关公民权利、政治权利、特定群体权利以及人权教育和研究方面的一些亮点。

Good afternoon, everyone. This action plan is the fourth of its kind and is characterized by the combination of comprehensiveness and emphasis, inheritance and innovation, and consolidation and improvement. Based on my own research, I will briefly analyze the highlights of this action plan on the aspects of civil rights, political rights, the rights of particular groups, and human rights education and research.

在公民权利方面,本期计划强调要完善应急状态下生命权保障体系,实施人权侵害禁令制度,依法惩处“软暴力”犯罪,完善个人信息保护法律制度,为流动人口参选创造便利条件。

On civil rights, the action plan stresses improving guarantees for the right to life in emergencies, implementing the principle of injuncting any (imminent) infringement of the right to dignity, punishing "soft violence" as a crime, improving the legal system protecting personal information, and facilitating the participation of migrant populations in elections.

在政治权利方面,本期计划强调要发展全过程人民民主,扩大公民自主参与和自由发展空间,为实现所有人的自由全面共同发展创造更为坚实的民主法治基础。

On political rights, the action plan stresses developing whole-process people's democracy, expanding the space for citizens' independent participation and free development, and creating a more solid democratic and legal foundation for achieving the free, well-rounded and common development of all individuals.

在特定群体权利方面,本期计划强调要加强对特定群体权益的平等保护和特殊扶助,建立常态和非常态相结合的特定群体权利保障机制。对侵害不特定妇女权益的行为,可以发出检察建议或提起公益诉讼;不得对未成年人实施体罚,防范和制止对未成年人的网络欺凌和校园欺凌;为高龄失能失智老人提供护理服务,开展适老化改造,提供适老智慧服务,促进所有人平等分享发展成果。

On the rights of particular groups, the action plan stresses reinforcing the equal protection of their rights and interests, providing them with extra assistance, and introducing a mechanism to protect their rights in both their everyday work and on special occasions. It also states that for behaviors undermining the legitimate rights and interests of a number of unspecified women, the prosecuting bodies can make procuratorial suggestions or initiate public interest lawsuits; corporal punishment in any form is not allowed against minors, and efforts should be made to prevent and stop cyberbullying and school bullying; and care should be provided for incapacitated elderly and people with dementia at an advanced age, elderly-friendly homes should be built, intelligent services should be provided for the elderly, and work should be done to ensure all have an equal share in the fruits of development.

本期计划还要求广泛开展人权教育、研究、培训和知识普及,营造全社会尊重和保障人权的文化氛围。探索在师范类院校建立人权师资培训中心,依托现有人权基地探索建立人权国际教育交流中心,支持在社科院、党校(行政学院)系统建立国家人权研究机构,在公职人员培训方面探索建立人权教育培训示范单位,在企业人权培训方面探索建立人权培训示范企业等等。谢谢各位倾听!

According to the plan, China will conduct extensive research, education and training in human rights, and build awareness in this field, and also create a social atmosphere of respecting and protecting human rights. The plan states that China will set up training centers for human rights teachers in normal universities on a trial basis, and carry out pilot programs to develop national human rights education and training bases in international education centers for human rights. China will support the establishment of national human rights institutions within the systems of social science academies and Party schools (academies of governance), explore methods to select outstanding agencies for training civil servants in human rights, and select model enterprises in human rights training. Thank you for your attention.

邢慧娜:

Xing Huina:

谢谢常健教授的介绍。刚才四位发布人分别作了介绍,大家肯定还有很多问题想交流,下面开始提问,提问前请先通报所在的新闻机构。

Thank you, Mr. Chang. As the four speakers have finished their introductions, the floor is now open for questions. Please identify your media outlet before asking your question.

中央广播电视总台央视记者:

China Central Television:

请问中国在巩固脱贫成果、实现共同富裕方面,有怎样的具体目标和实施计划?谢谢。

Are there any specific goals or plans for consolidating the fruits of poverty alleviation and achieving common prosperity? Thank you.

李晓军:

Li Xiaojun:

巩固脱贫成果,实施乡村振兴战略,开展乡村振兴建设是实现全体人民共同富裕的必然要求。特别要接续推进脱贫地区发展,保障居民基本住房、用水、食品安全和出行便利。

Consolidating the fruits of poverty alleviation, implementing the rural vitalization strategy and carrying out rural vitalization construction are the prerequisites for achieving common prosperity for all. In particular, China will further support the development of formerly impoverished areas by ensuring access to affordable and safe housing, clean water, safe and secure supplies of food, and convenient transport.

在就业方面,促进脱贫人口稳定就业,如统筹用好乡村公益岗位。在教育方面,健全控辍保学工作机制。加强乡村寄宿制学校和乡村小规模学校建设。继续实施家庭经济困难学生资助政策和农村义务教育学生营养改善计划。在医疗方面,深入实施健康中国行动,为人民提供全方位全生命周期健康服务。

In terms of employment, we will secure stable jobs for people raised out of poverty. For example, subsidized jobs in rural areas will be put to better use through improved coordination. On education, the responsibility system will be improved to prevent school dropouts and increase the completion rate of compulsory education. Conditions of small village schools and boarding schools in towns and townships will also be improved. The policy of financial aid for students from impoverished families and the nutrition improvement plan for rural students receiving compulsory education will continue. On medical care, the Healthy China initiative will be fully implemented to provide a complete range of health services to people throughout their lives.

完善养老保障和儿童关爱服务。为参加城乡居民养老保险的低保对象、特困人员、返贫致贫人口、重度残疾人等缴费困难群体代缴部分或全部保费。加大对孤儿、事实无人抚养儿童等保障力度。加强残疾人托养照护、康复服务。

We will improve care for the elderly and children. For people facing financial difficulties, such as those living on subsistence allowances, those who are severely impoverished, those who fell into poverty and those who have serious disabilities, the government will cover part or all of their premiums in the basic pension scheme. The government will also provide better care for orphans and abandoned children, as well as care and rehabilitation services for people with disabilities.

完善农村特困人员救助供养制度,合理提高救助供养水平和服务质量。

China will improve financial aid and support for severely impoverished rural residents through higher-quality relief services.

此外,着眼农牧民精神文化生活需求,完善农村文化基础设施网络,加强乡镇综合文化站、村综合性文化服务中心等的规划建设。谢谢。

Moreover, to meet the demands of farmers and herdsmen for quality of life and cultural activities, we will improve the network of cultural infrastructure in rural areas, and build more comprehensive cultural stations in townships, as well as comprehensive cultural service centers in rural communities. Thank you.

人民日报记者:

People's Daily:

中国进入高质量发展阶段,《国家人权行动计划》如何回应人民对人权的新诉求?谢谢。

As China's economy has moved to a stage of high-quality development, how will the action plan meet people's new pursuits for human rights.

李晓军:

Li Xiaojun:

这个问题比较宏观。人民幸福生活是最大的人权。党的十九届五中全会提出“促进人权事业全面发展”的要求,这就是要让全体中国人民过上幸福美好的新生活,实现全体人民的自由全面共同发展。因此,行动计划重点解决群众的急难愁盼问题,以让全体人民享有更好的教育、更稳定的工作、更满意的收入、更可靠的社会保障、更高水平的医疗服务、更舒适的居住条件、更切实的民主政治权利、更优美的环境,实现共同富裕,满足人民对美好生活的向往。不光保障大多数人的人权,还要对少数民族、妇女、儿童、残疾人、老年人这些特定群体的权益给予特殊的保护。不光促进本国人权事业的发展,还要深度参与国际人权事务,推动建设更加公平、公正、合理、包容的全球人权治理体系,共同构建人类命运共同体。谢谢。

This is a broad question. A happy life is the most important human right for the people. At its fifth plenary session, the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) stressed promoting the all-round development of the cause of human rights, which aims to ensure that all Chinese people can live a good life and to promote the free, well-rounded and common development of all individuals. Therefore, the action plan aims to resolve the pressing difficulties and problems which are of the greatest concern to the people, and ensure that they can enjoy better education, more stable jobs, more satisfactory incomes, more reliable social security, higher-levels of medical care, more comfortable living conditions, more practical democratic and political rights, as well as a better ecological environment. It is aimed at achieving common prosperity and meeting people's aspirations for a better life. The action plan guarantees the human rights of all people and provides special protection for particular groups such as ethnic minorities, women, children, people with disabilities, and the elderly. China not only engages in human rights affairs domestically, but is deeply involved in international human rights affairs, contributing to a better global human rights governance system that is fair, equitable, reasonable and inclusive, and a global community with a shared future. Thank you.

红星新闻记者:

Red Star News:

本期《行动计划》将环境权利单独设章,内容有了很大丰富。行动计划提出完善生态环境损害赔偿制度,目前这项工作进展如何?还存在哪些问题?下一步还有哪些工作计划?谢谢。

The action plan dedicates a special section to environmental rights with rich content. According to the plan, China will improve the eco-environmental damage compensation system. Has there been any progress in this respect? Are there any problems standing in the way? And what are the plans for the future? Thank you.

别涛:

Bie Tao:

好,这个问题我回答一下。我刚才在介绍时谈了几个判断,我想重申其中一个,就是对人权的全面保护包含了对环境权利的有效保护。人权的全面改善,也要求环境权利的全面改善。要进一步引申的话,对环境的损害、侵害或者破坏,也应当依法得到有效的修复、治理和赔偿,要严格追责到位。所以你提的问题,正好是涉及到环境权利相关的问题。

I will answer this question. I have mentioned several judgments during the introduction. I would like to reiterate one of them: the comprehensive improvement on human rights requires the comprehensive improvement on environmental rights as well. For further expounding, any damage, infringement, or sabotage to the environment should be effectively restored, managed, and claimed for compensation in accordance with the law. A strict system of accountability must be well established. As such, your question coincidently involves aspects of environmental rights.

为了破解环境受损、公众受害的不合理状况,党中央部署了生态环境损害赔偿这项改革任务。这项改革从2016年初启动,先是在全国7个地方试点,经过两年之后,在2018年开始,在全国31个省(区、市)和新疆生产建设兵团全面试行。从2020年起,进入正式实施。借此机会,跟大家介绍一下实施试点以来的进展情况。

As part of the efforts to address the issues of damage to both environment and public interests, the CPC Central Committee has launched the eco-environmental damage compensation reform. This reform started its trial implementation in seven cities at the beginning of 2016. After two years of practice, the pilot reform was expanded nationwide in 2018, including 31 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities, and the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. The reform was officially implemented in 2020. I would like to take this opportunity to introduce the progress we have made since the trial implementation of the reform.

近5年来,各地各部门认真贯彻落实党中央关于生态环境赔偿改革的部署,经过努力,现在已经初步构建起了责任明确、途径畅通、技术规范、保障有力、赔偿到位、修复有效的生态环境损害赔偿制度框架,在推动国家和地方立法、规范诉讼规则、完善技术和资金保障、开展案例实践、修复受损的生态环境方面,取得了明显的成效,阶段性的改革目标已经全面完成,表现在四个方面:

Over the past five years, all localities and departments have earnestly implemented the arrangement of the eco-environmental damage compensation reform made by the CPC Central Committee. Through our tireless efforts, an eco-environmental damage compensation institutional framework featuring clear lines of responsibility, smooth flow of procedures, standard technologies,  strong guarantees, compensation in place, and effective restoration has taken shape, achieving noticeable progress in promoting national and local legislative work, standardizing the rules of litigation, reinforcing technological and financial supports, carrying out cases in practice, and restoring the damaged ecological environment. We have completely achieved the phased reform goal, which manifested in the following four aspects.

一是法律制度的建设成效显著。去年通过的民法典设专章规定了生态环境损害赔偿责任,包括实体性的规则和程序性的规则。明确要求国家规定的机关,包括行政机关和检察机关,或者法律规定的符合条件的社会组织,就是我们通常说的环保NGO,有权就环境生态损害提起索赔,包括磋商和诉讼。改革试点的成果纳入到了民法典这样国家基本法律的规范之中,从实体化的角度确立了生态环境损害赔偿制度的法律地位。民法典是基本法。同时相关的专项法,包括水污染防治法、土壤法、固体法等法律,也对生态环境损害赔偿作了专门规定。特别值得一提的是去年刚通过的长江保护法,也专门引入了生态环境损害赔偿的制度。森林法这些资源保护的法律同样也将这个制度纳入其中。还有不少地方立法也规定了生态环境损害赔偿。目前我们掌握,已有19个省份出台了包括生态环境损害赔偿的地方性法规。

First, we have made noticeable progress in the construction of legal systems. The Civil Code, which was adopted last year, has set up a special provision for punitive compensation for eco-environmental damage, including substantive and procedural rules. It has made it a clear requirement that state organs, including administrative organs and procuratorial organs or any legitimate social organizations, also known as environmental NGOs, are entitled to lodge claims for eco-environmental damages through negotiations or litigation. Adopting the results of the pilot reform into basic national law represented by the Civil Code is a substantive move to establish the legal status of an eco-environmental damage compensation system. At the same time, a series of special laws, such as the Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law, Soil Pollution Prevention and Control Law, and Law on the Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution by Solid Wastes have made special provisions for eco-environmental damage compensation. Noticeably, the Yangtze River Protection Law, which was adopted last year, has introduced the eco-environmental damage compensation system as well. Other relevant laws on resources protection represented by the Forest Law have adopted this system as well. Moreover, many local legislatures have made provisions for eco-environmental damage compensation. As far as we know, a total of 19 provinces have rolled out local laws and regulations on eco-environmental damage compensation.

二是管理制度更加完善。生态环境部联合公检法及司法、自然资源、农林水等11个部门印发了《关于推进生态环境损害赔偿制度改革若干具体问题的意见》,对地方在改革实践中反映出来的案件线索的筛查、赔偿的磋商、磋商协议的司法确认等具体问题,提出了明确的指导意见。最高法制定了《关于审理生态环境损害赔偿案件的若干规定》,对生态环境损害赔偿、磋商协议、司法确认等问题作了专门的规范。财政部等九部门联合印发了生态环境损害通过磋商和诉讼获得赔偿资金的管理办法,规范了赔偿资金的缴纳、使用和监督规则。同时,生态环境部对腾格里沙漠污染案、木里煤矿矿区生态环境污染案等具有全国影响的重大案件的生态环境损害鉴定、评估、磋商,也开展了调研监督,从案例实践中评选出若干案例,供各地借鉴,推动各地加快改革落地落实。

Secondly, the management system has been increasingly refined. The Ministry of Ecology and Environment, together with public security organs, procuratorial organs, people's courts, departments of justice, natural resources, agriculture, forestry and water resources, jointly issued the opinions on promoting the eco-environmental damage compensation system reform, which has helped to provide explicit guidance on the specific issues exposed during the pilot reform, including clue screening, compensation negotiation, and judicial confirmation of consultative agreement. China's Supreme People's Court has released provisions on handling cases of eco-environmental damage compensation, consultative agreement, and judicial confirmation. Working collectively with nine other departments, the Ministry of Finance has issued measures on management of compensation funds for ecological and environmental damage through consultation and litigation in a bid to standardize rules on the compensation payment, use, and supervision. At the same time, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment has conducted investigation and supervision over the assessment and consultative agreement of eco-environmental damages in major cases with nationwide impact, such as the Tengger Desert pollution case, the Muli coalfield pollution case, and so on. We have selected several representative cases and provided references for the rest of the country in a bid to promote the reforms across China.

三是技术体系日益规范。生态环境损害赔偿涉及到很强的技术性,它的基础是要鉴定评估,把损害量化,才可以去磋商、诉讼,要求修复或者索赔。因此生态环境部组织研究制定了生态环境损害鉴定评估推荐方法、总纲、损害调查、鉴定评估等九个方面的技术规范和相关指导文件,为生态环境损害赔偿改革试点和全国试行提供了有力的技术支撑。去年12月,生态环境部联合市场监管总局发布了生态环境损害鉴定评估的总纲、损害调查、土壤和地下水、地表水和沉积物、水污染虚拟治理成本法、大气污染虚拟治理成本法等六项国家标准,初步构建起了生态环境损害鉴定评估的技术标准体系。现在这些技术标准体系基本覆盖了生态环境损害鉴定评估涉及的主要环节和基本的环境要素类型。

Third, the technological system has been increasingly standardized. The eco-environmental damage compensation is highly technical, with quantitative assessment as its foundation. Only when the damages can be well quantified can we have access to negotiate, lodge complaints, demand restoration, or claim for compensation. Therefore, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment has rolled out an array of technical guidance covering nine aspects of recommended method of damage assessment, general principle, damage survey, and so on, providing compelling technical support for the pilot reform and the national trial implementation. Last December, under the joint efforts of the State Administration for Market Regulation and the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, a total of six national standards have been released, including the general principle of eco-environmental damage assessment, damage survey, virtual treatment cost laws on soil and groundwater, surface water and sediments, and water pollution and air pollution. A technical standard system for eco-environmental damage assessment has taken initial shape, basically covering all key steps and basic types of environmental factors involved in eco-environmental damage assessments.

四是各地改革实践有力推进。各省(区、市)和新疆生产建设兵团都已制定了省一级的实施方案,全国同时有380多个地级市,含直辖市所属的区县都印发了实施方案,明确了本地的改革目标、推进路径、部门分工。各地还根据磋商、调查、鉴定评估、赔偿资金的管理等具体问题,共制定了327份配套文件。各地各部门积极办理生态环境损害赔偿案件,及时组织修复受损的生态环境。根据统计,截至去年底,全国共办理生态环境损害赔偿案件4300余件,涉及金额超过78亿元,一大批受到损害和破坏的土壤、林地、基本农田、地表水体、地下水和固体废物,得到了治理修复和清理。

Fourth, the reform practice of various regions has been vigorously promoted. All provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities and the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (XPCC) have formulated implementation plans at the provincial level. More than 380 prefecture-level cities across the country, including districts and counties of municipalities directly under the central government, have all issued implementation plans, confirming local reform goals, advancement paths, and the division of labor among departments. Local governments have also formulated 327 supporting documents based on specific issues such as consultation, investigation, appraisal and evaluation, and the management of compensation funds. All localities and departments are actively handling eco-environmental damage compensation cases, and organizing the timely restoration of damaged ecological environments. According to statistics, as of the end of last year, more than 4,300 cases of eco-environmental damage compensation were handled nationwide, involving more than 7.8 billion yuan. A large number of damaged soils, forest land, basic farmland, surface water, groundwater and solid waste have so far been treated, restored and cleaned up.

目前,中央也在开展督察。我们分析也存在着几个方面的基本问题。一是各地的改革进展不均衡。有的省办理的案件数百件甚至上千件,有的省一级行政单位还停留在个位数、十位数,相差很大,远不均衡。二是技术方法体系还有待于健全。我司发了六个标准,但是还没有覆盖所有方面。三是从程序法方面看,相关的法律规定和管理规则还有不够完善的地方。

At present, the central government is also conducting inspections. Our analysis has concluded that there exist several basic problems. First, the progress of reform is uneven across various regions. Some provinces handle hundreds or even thousands of cases, while some provincial-level administrations only handle several or tens of cases. The difference is very large and too unbalanced. Second, the technical method system has yet to be improved. Our department has issued six standards, but they have not yet covered all aspects. Third, from the perspective of procedural law, the relevant legal provisions and management rules are still imperfect.

下一步,我们将按照中央关于生态环境损害赔偿改革的统一部署,进一步总结试点的进展、问题和原因分析,提出对策,深化生态环境损害赔偿的改革工作。同时积极联合中央和国家机关有关部门将重点推进四个方面的工作:一是研究起草关于生态环境损害赔偿的统一规范性文件。这项工作现在的依据还是以改革方案作为依据,转入正常实施应该要有法规性文件,推动这项改革进入法治化轨道。二是继续加大对重大典型案例的筛选、评析、发布和推荐指导。三是加强生态环境损害鉴定评估的基础研究,统一技术规范。四是进一步强化部门之间的协同配合,形成部门合力,推动生态环境损害赔偿改革落地见实见效。谢谢。

Next, we will further summarize the progress, problems and cause analysis of the pilot in accordance with the unified deployment of the central government on the reform of eco-environmental damage compensation, and propose solutions to deepen the reform of eco-environmental damage compensation. At the same time, we will actively work with the relevant departments of the central and state organs to focus on four areas of work. First, we will study and draft a unified normative document on eco-environmental damage compensation. The current basis of this work is still based on the reform plan, and the transition to normal implementation should require legal and regulatory documents. We must promote this reform onto the track of rule of law. Second, we will continue to increase the selection, evaluation, release, and recommendation guidance for major typical cases. Third, we will strengthen the basic research of eco-environmental damage identification and assessment, and unify technical specifications. Fourth, we will further strengthen coordination and cooperation among departments, form a joint effort among the departments, and promote the implementation of the reform of eco-environmental damage compensation for practical results. Thank you.

中国日报记者:

China Daily:

在最近结束的东京残奥会上,中国的残疾人运动员取得了优异的成绩,全国人民也为他们感到非常自豪。请问是否可以介绍一下行动计划中有关残疾人权益保障方面有哪些新的举措?谢谢。

At the recently concluded Tokyo Paralympic Games, Chinese disabled athletes achieved excellent results, and people across the whole country are very proud of them. Can you please tell us about the new measures in the action plan regarding the protection of the rights and interests of people with disabilities? Thank you.

李晓军:

Li Xiaojun:

这个问题我来回答一下。2019年,国务院新闻办公室发表了关于中国残疾人权益保障的白皮书——《平等、参与、共享:中国残疾人权益保障70年》。我们带着深厚的感情,带着对8500万中国全体残疾人的敬意来撰写这个白皮书。我们参与过一些白皮书的撰写工作,但是像投入感情这么多的,带着对残疾人的敬意去写的,这还是很突出的一例。

Let me answer this question. In 2019, the State Council Information Office published a white paper on the protection of the rights and interests of the disabled in China. This paper was called "Equality, Participation and Sharing: 70 Years of Protecting the Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in the PRC." We compiled and wrote this white paper with deep feelings and respect for all the 85 million disabled people in China. We have participated in the writings of some white papers, but writing with such respect and having invested so much in emotions for the disabled, it was still a very prominent example.

广大残疾人是我们国家的宝贵财富,习近平总书记对残疾人给予特殊关心和爱护。2014年,向中国残疾人福利基金会成立30周年发去贺信,提出“残疾人是一个特殊困难的群体,需要格外关心,格外关注”。2016年,在河北省唐山市考察时提出“2020年全面建成小康社会,残疾人一个也不能少”的任务目标。2017年,提出“中国将进一步发展残疾人事业,促进残疾人全面发展和共同富裕”。随着我国全面建成小康社会,这些重要的指示和要求,很多已经落到实处。

People with disabilities are a valuable asset to our country, and General Secretary Xi Jinping has given special care and love to them. In 2014, he sent a congratulatory letter to the 30th anniversary of the founding of the China Foundation for Disabled Persons, proposing that the disabled are a group with special difficulties and need to be particularly cared for and paid attention to. In 2016, during his inspection tour in Tangshan city, Hebei province, he proposed the goal that not a single disabled person should be left behind while building a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020. In 2017, he proposed that China should further develop the cause of the disabled and promote the comprehensive development and common prosperity of the disabled. As China has built a moderately prosperous society in all respects, many of these important instructions and requirements have been implemented.

这些年中国残疾人事业取得长足进展,残疾人平等参与共享的含金量不断提高,中国残疾人运动员在东京夏季奥运会上取得骄人的成绩,他们的顽强拼搏精神和为国争光精神,激励着我们每一个人。这也生动地表明我国残疾人人权保障取得重要成就,本期《行动计划》在残疾人平等参与、福利保障、康复服务、教育、就业、无障碍建设、辅助器具的生产等方面都提出具体的目标和任务。如城镇新增就业残疾人数达到50万人,建成康复大学,建设100所精神卫生福利设施等。谢谢。

In recent years, China's work for people with disabilities has made great progress, and the value of causes that can have equal participation and sharing by people with disabilities has continued to increase. Chinese disabled athletes have achieved impressive results in the Tokyo's Summer Paralympics, and their tenacious fighting spirit and the spirit of winning glory for the country have inspired all of us. This also vividly shows that China has made important achievements in the protection of the human rights of people with disabilities. This new edition of the action plan puts forward specific goals and tasks in terms of equal participation of disabled persons, welfare guarantees, rehabilitation services, education, employment, barrier-free construction, and the production of assistive devices. For example, the number of newly employed disabled persons in cities and towns shall reach 500,000, rehabilitation universities shall be built, and 100 welfare facilities specifically for mental health shall be built. Thank you.

香港经济导报记者:

Hong Kong Economic Herald:

我们注意到,行动计划提出了“智慧推进”原则,请问在个人信息保护方面,中国采取了哪些措施?谢谢。

We have noticed that the action plan sets out the principle of "smart advancement." What measures has China taken in terms of personal information protection? Thank you.

常健:

Chang Jian:

我来回答这个问题。的确,在这期行动计划里,对信息权利,特别是数字化时代人权保障方面的挑战,作出了具体的回应。我们知道,人类正在进入数字化时代,数字化生存已经成为人们的基本生存方式和重要组成部分,并且产生了一系列在数字化情景之下相关的人权保障需求,包括平等利用数字化技术而不受歧视,免受利用数字化技术造成的各种侵害,免于数字化技术对人的操控,以及对个人数字化信息和财产的自主支配等这样一些权利需求。

I will answer this question. Indeed, in this action plan, specific responses have been made to the challenges of information rights, especially the protection of human rights in the digital age. We know that human beings are entering the digital age. Digital life has become a basic way and an important part of our life. A series of human rights protection needs are generated in the context of digitalization, including the equal use of digital technology without discrimination, freedom from various violations caused by the use of digital technology, freedom from the manipulation of digital technology on people, and the independent control of personal digital information and property.

针对数字化时代人权保障的新需求,本期《行动计划》一方面提出了“智慧推进”人权事业发展的新的原则。因为我们知道,前几期行动计划提出了五个方面的推进原则,就是依法推进、务实推进、协调推进、平等推进和合力推进,这期《行动计划》又增加了一个行动原则,就是智慧推进,它的内涵就是要求充分利用数字化技术,拓展所有人自由全面发展的空间。具体措施和任务,我们看到,该计划中包括了智慧医疗、适老智慧服务、智慧城市与数字乡村、智慧图书馆体系、无障碍设施数字化,还有智能化升级、智慧诉讼服务、互联网政务便民服务、网络议政,以及利用大数据、云计算、人工智能等技术手段全面收集和及时回应民众的意见和建议。

On one hand, in view of the new demand for human rights protection in the digital age, the action plan puts forward a new principle of "smart advancement," that is, "tapping the potential of digital technology" to advance human rights progress. As we know, the previous action plans put forward five principles, namely, pushing forward the work in accordance with the law, in a pragmatic, coordinated and balanced way, and with joint efforts. This action plan adds another principle: smart advancement. With this principle, we intend to make full use of digital technology and expand the free and all-round development of every person. The plan makes clear specific measures and tasks, including smart medical care, smart services for the elderly, smart cities and digital villages, smart library systems, barrier free facility digitization, as well as intelligent upgrading, smart litigation services, internet government convenience services, online deliberation of state affairs, and the use of big data, cloud computing, artificial intelligence and other technical means to comprehensively collect and respond to people's opinions and suggestions in a timely manner.

另一方面,针对数字化时代产生的新的人权问题,专门设节讨论了个人信息权益保护,要求完善个人信息保护法律制度,深入开展个人信息保护监管执法和宣传,维护网络和数据安全。深入开展个人信息的监管执法,同时要求采取有效措施,弥合城乡数字鸿沟,预防在线教育所产生的数字鸿沟,制定互联网平台劳动就业的保障政策,打击网络欺凌、窃取网络数据等犯罪范围。

On the other hand, in view of the new human rights issues arising in the digital era, the action plan includes a special section on the protection of personal information rights and interests, requiring the improvement of the legal system of personal information protection, the in-depth implementation of the supervision, law enforcement and publicity of personal information protection, and the safeguarding of cyber and data security. We will carry out in-depth supervision and enforce the law regarding personal information, and require that effective measures be taken to bridge the urban-rural digital divide, prevent the digital divide in online education, formulate employment security policies for online jobs, and crack down on a whole scope of crimes such as cyber bullying and stealing network data.

今年6月10日,全国人大通过《数据安全法》,今年8月,又通过了《中华人民共和国个人信息保护法》,这都明确规定任何组织和个人不得非法收集、使用、加工、传输他人的个人信息,不得非法买卖、提供或者公开他人的个人信息等。中国还将制定出台个人信息保护的配套法律法规、标准和司法解释,不断完善个人信息的法律保护制度。谢谢。

The National People's Congress passed the Data Security Law on June 10 this year and the Personal Information Protection Law of the People's Republic of China in August. Both clearly stipulate that no organization or individual is allowed to illegally collect, use, process or transmit other people's personal information, or illegally buy, sell, provide or disclose other people's personal information. China will also formulate and issue supporting laws, regulations, standards and judicial interpretations for the protection of personal information, and continue to improve the legal system for the protection of personal information. Thank you.

凤凰卫视记者:

Phoenix TV:

中国如何参与全球的人权合作?下一步会采取哪些新的措施去参与全球的人权合作?谢谢。

How does China participate in global human rights cooperation? What new measures will be taken next to participate in global human rights cooperation? Thank you.

李笑梅:

Li Xiaomei:

谢谢你的问题。可能大家会注意到,在这一期的人权行动计划当中,涉及国际合作领域的标题发生了变化,上一期的国际人权行动计划是“人权条约履行和国际交流合作”,这一期我们采用了“参与全球人权治理”的提法,并且从履行国际人权条约义务、深度参与国际人权工作、开展建设性人权合作与对话、为全球人权事业作出中国贡献四个方面,提出中国在促进本国和国际人权事业发展方面新的目标和承诺。

Thank you for your question. You may notice that in this issue of the action plan, there has been a change in the title of the section concerning international cooperation. As for the last issue of the action plan, the section was titled "Fulfillment of Obligations to Human Rights Conventions, and International Exchanges and Cooperation in the Field of Human Rights." We changed it to "Participating in Global Human Rights Governance" in the new issue. We put forward China's new goals and commitments in promoting domestic and international human rights progress from four aspects, namely fulfilling obligations to international human rights conventions, engaging substantially in the work of UN human rights bodies, joining in constructive dialogue and cooperation on human rights, and contributing to the international cause of human rights.

这里想强调一点,办好自己的事,是中国参与全球人权治理的最大底气。中国全面建成小康社会,历史性解决绝对贫困问题,这是最大的人权工程、最好的人权实践,不仅谱写了中国人权事业的新篇章,也是世界人权事业发展史上的重要里程碑,丰富发展了人权文明的多样性,为解决人类问题贡献了中国智慧和中国方案。

Here I want to stress that running our own affairs well is the best way for China to participate in global human rights governance. China has built a moderately prosperous society in all respects and historically solved the problem of absolute poverty. This is the largest human rights project and the best practice for human rights progress. It not only writes a new chapter in China's human rights progress, but is also an important milestone in the development of the world's human rights cause. While enriching and developing the diversity of human rights, the country contributed Chinese wisdom and Chinese solutions to solving human problems.

可以说,今年中国有两件事,是特别值得骄傲的。举两个例子,一个是提前十年实现2030年可持续发展议程中关于减贫的目标。另外是从去年到今年抗疫过程中,保护人权,成为全世界的楷模。光这两点,就足以体现中国党和政府对人权的保障,也足以向全世界证明,中国结合自己的国情,落实国际人权义务,促进和保障本国人民人权的巨大努力和取得巨大的成功。

There are two things that China can be particularly proud of this year. One is that we achieved the poverty reduction targets in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 10 years ahead of schedule. The other is that we protected human rights in the process of fighting the epidemic from last year to this year, setting a good example for the world. These two points alone not only reflect the protection of human rights by the Party and the government, but also prove to the world that China has made huge efforts and achieved great success in implementing international human rights obligations and promoting and protecting the human rights of its people in combination with its own national conditions.

在百年变局和世界疫情交织叠加的情况下,可以说全球人权状况面临严峻挑战,人权赤字持续扩大,疫情冲击了全球的人权事业,特别是健康权和发展权受到严重的损害。在这个背景之下,维护多边主义、完善全球人权治理的呼声愈加高涨。发展中国家期待中国发挥引领作用。刚才我在一开始的介绍中提到,中国的参与是四个层面的,这四个层面可以说是全方位的参与。在这个参与过程中,中国的人权理念也在不断为国际社会所接受。昨天,联合国第48届人权理事会开幕,在人权理事会和联合国联大三委,中国提出了一系列人权主张和倡议,得到了发展中国家和友好国家的广泛支持。

Against the backdrop of the combined forces of profound changes on a scale unseen in a century and the raging Covid-19 pandemic, the global human rights situation is facing severe challenges: the human rights deficit continues to expand, and the epidemic has impacted the human rights cause around the world, especially the right to health and development, which have been severely damaged. In this context, the voices for upholding multilateralism and improving global human rights governance have grown stronger. Developing countries have expected China to play a leading role. As I mentioned in the introduction, China has participated in four levels of human rights promotion, which can be said to be all-dimensional. In the process of participation, China's human rights concept has also been continuously accepted by the international community. The UN Human Rights Council opened its 48th regular session yesterday. In the UN Human Rights Council and the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly, China has put forward a series of propositions and proposals on human rights, which have received extensive support from developing countries and friendly countries.

下一步,推动国际人权事业的健康发展,是中国的使命担当,和平、发展、公平、正义、民主、自由,是全人类的共同价值。我们将继续在习近平外交思想的指引下,同各方加强人权交流与合作,共同推动国际人权事业的健康发展,构建人类命运共同体。谢谢。

In the next step, it is China's mission to promote the healthy development of the international human rights cause. The peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy, and freedom, are the common values of all mankind. Guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy, we will continue to strengthen exchange and cooperation on human rights with all parties, jointly promote the healthy development of international human rights cause, and build a community with a shared future for mankind. Thank you.

中央广播电视总台国广记者:

CRI:

我们看到,十八大以来,我国围绕保障公民环境权益,积极推进生态环境立法,取得了积极进展。我们想问一下,下一步还有哪些工作计划和打算?谢谢。


We have seen that since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), China has made positive progress in protecting citizens' environmental rights and promoting ecological environmental legislation. What are the plans for the next step? Thanks.

别涛:

Bie Tao:

谢谢你关心环境法治特别是环境立法的问题。围绕着保障公民的环境权益,一直是最高权力机关立法的目标和宗旨之一。十八大以来,生态环境部认真学习贯彻习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想、习近平生态文明思想和习近平法治思想,按照习近平总书记关于“依法治污”等重要指示精神,全力推动构建生态环境法律法规体系,生态环境立法工作力度之大、成果之丰硕前所未有。环境保护法、大气污染防治法、土壤污染防治法、核安全法、固体废物污染环境防治法、长江保护法等13部法律,以及城镇排水与污水处理条例、畜禽规模养殖污染防治条例、排污许可管理条例等13部行政法规完成制修订。截至目前,由生态环境主管部门作为主要执法部门的生态环境法律已达15件,占现行有效法律总数约1/20。此外还有资源开发利用方面的法律20余件,生态环境行政法规30余件,再加上40余件与生态环境保护密切相关的党内法规,总体而言,生态环境法律框架体系已基本形成,生态环境保护各领域已基本实现有法可依。

Thank you for your concern about the environmental rule of law, especially environmental legislation. Protecting citizens' environmental rights has always been one of the legislative goals and purposes of the highest organ of state power. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment has earnestly studied and implemented Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, Xi Jinping Thought on Ecological Civilization, and Xi Jinping Thought on the Rule of Law. In accordance with General Secretary Xi Jinping's important instructions on ‘preventing pollution in accordance with the laws,' we have made every effort to promote the establishment of an eco-environmental legal system. The legislative work on the eco-environment has been more vigorous than ever before, and richer fruits have been yielded. Thirteen laws have been formulated and revised, including the environmental protection law, the law on the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the law on soil pollution prevention and control, the law on nuclear safety, the law on prevention and control of environmental pollution by solid waste, and the Yangtze river conservation law, etc. Thirteen administrative regulations have also been formulated and revised, including the regulation on urban drainage and sewage treatment, regulations on the prevention and control of pollution caused by large-scale breeding of livestock and poultry, and the regulation on administration of pollutant discharge permits. Until now, ecological and environmental authorities have acted as the main law enforcement departments in 15 laws, accounting for about one-twentieth of the total number of laws currently in force. In addition, there have been more than 20 laws on resource development and utilization, more than 30 administrative laws and regulations on the ecological environment, and more than 40 intra-Party regulations closely related to ecological environment protection. Overall, the legal framework for ecological environment protection has basically taken shape, which provides laws to abide by in all areas of ecological and environmental protection.

中国的环境立法,始终把保障公民的环境权益作为重要内容之一。2002年制定的《环境影响评价法》就已明确提出,可能造成不良环境影响并直接涉及公众环境权益的专项规划,应当举行论证会、听证会,或者采取其他形式,征求有关单位、专家和公众对环境影响报告书草案的意见。2014年修订的《环境保护法》增设“信息公开和公众参与”专章,明确规定公民、法人和其他组织依法享有获取环境信息、参与和监督环境保护的权利。

Protecting citizens' environmental rights has always been an important part of China's environmental legislation. The Environmental Impact Assessment Law enacted in 2002 has clearly stated that if special plans may cause adverse environmental impacts and directly involve the public's environmental rights, demonstration meetings and hearings shall be held or other forms taken to solicit the opinions from related units, experts, and the public on the draft report on environmental impacts. A special chapter on 'information disclosure and public participation' was added to the revised Environmental Protection Law in 2014 which is clear that citizens, legal persons, and other organizations, have the right to obtain environmental information, participate in, and supervise environmental protection in accordance with the law.

总体而言,近年来制修订的生态环境法律法规在完善监管制度、健全政府责任、提高违法成本、推动公众参与等方面有了重大突破,解决了一部分实践中长期存在的突出问题。但整个生态环境法律体系仍然存在一些明显的短板,比如,气候变化应对、生态环境监测、危险化学品环境管理等部分领域尚存立法空白;部分监管制度交叉重叠;对违法行为惩治力度偏弱;约束政府行为的法律制度不完善;环保社会监督的法律机制不健全等。构建符合国家治理体系和治理能力现代化要求的生态环境法律法规框架,还任重道远。

Overall, in recent years, the environmental protection laws and regulations that we formulated and revised have contributed greatly to improving the supervision system, strengthening government responsibilities, imposing higher penalties for violations, and promoting public participation. Hence, some prominent problems have been resolved. Shortcomings in the system of environmental protection laws, however, remain a salient problem, such as gaps in some legislation related to fighting climate change, environment monitoring, and the management of dangerous chemicals. Moreover, there are overlapping supervisory mechanisms, and more efforts are required to punish violations, improve the legal system to restrain government behaviors, and enhance the legal system for the public supervision of environmental protection. Establishing a framework of environmental laws and regulations that meets the needs of modernizing China's system and capacity for governance is an arduous task.

“十四五”期间,生态环境部将继续全面深入贯彻落实习近平生态文明思想和习近平法治思想,进一步强化生态环境立法工作,为深入打好污染防治攻坚战提供更为全面、更为有力的法治保障。重点抓好以下工作:

During the 14th Five-Year Plan period (2021-2025), the Ministry of Ecology and Environment will continue to thoroughly implement Xi Jinping Thought on Ecological Civilization and Xi Jinping Thought on the Rule of Law, and further enhance the legislative work on the eco-environment, so as to provide more comprehensive and effective legal protection for the country in its battle against pollution. We will focus on the following aspects:

一是整合体系、填补空白,进一步加强重点领域立法。推动黄河、噪声污染防治、海洋环境保护、环境影响评价、气候变化应对、生态环境监测等重点领域法律法规的制修订,加快构建与美丽中国目标相适应的生态文明法律法规体系。大力推动与生态文明体制改革相关的法制建设,加强生态环境损害赔偿、自然保护地、生态保护红线、环保信用评价等方面的立法,确保重大改革举措于法有据、落地见效。

First, we will strengthen legislature in key areas to integrate systems and fill gaps. China will improve its eco-environmental legal system in line with the goal of building a beautiful China. It will formulate and revise laws and regulations on Yellow River protection, noise pollution prevention and control, marine environmental protection, environmental impact evaluation, fighting climate change, and eco-environmental monitoring. We will push forward the construction of China's legal system in the area of ecological reform, and enhance legislative work in areas like eco-environmental damage compensation, nature reserves, ecological red lines and an environmental protection credit rating system, to ensure major reforms are implemented effectively and in accordance with the law.

二是积极开展环境法典编纂的研究论证。全国人大常委会2021年立法工作计划已明确提出要研究启动环境法典编纂工作。环境法典编纂,是全面贯彻落实习近平生态文明思想和习近平法治思想的必然要求,也有助于完善生态环境保护的顶层设计。生态环境部将全力配合立法机关,积极开展环境法典编纂的研究论证,加强制度之间的衔接协调,减少相互之间的交叉重叠,构建源头严防、过程严管、责任追究的生态环境保护制度体系,推动环境治理体系和治理能力现代化。

Second, we will push forward research and discussions on the codification of environmental laws. According to its annual legislative agenda for 2021, China's top legislature will explore the possibility of initiating the codification of environmental laws, which meets the requirements of fully implementing Xi Jinping Thought on Ecological Civilization and Xi Jinping Thought on the Rule of Law and supports the top-level design to improve environmental protection. The Ministry of Ecology and Environment will work with legislative bodies in fully promoting research and discussions on the codification of environmental laws, strengthening connections and coordination, and reducing overlap among different laws and regulations, so as to establish an eco-environmental protection law system featuring strict prevention at the sources of pollution, strict regulation of operations, and accountability for those responsible, and to modernize China's environmental protection system and capacity for governance.

三是认真总结生态环境立法的成功经验,做到四个“坚持”。坚持两个“最严”,以最严格制度和最严密法治保护生态环境;坚持实事求是,尊重客观规律,从中国国情出发,合理构建生态环境监管制度体系;坚持新发展理念,妥善处理生态环境保护与经济社会发展的关系,深入打好污染防治攻坚战;坚持以改善生态环境质量为核心,紧紧围绕改善生态环境质量进行法律制度设计。

Third, we will learn from the successful experience of legislation for protecting the eco-environment and step up efforts in four aspects. We will enforce the best institutional arrangements and implement the strictest rule of law to protect the eco-environment. We will establish a supervision system on eco-environment by taking a fact-based approach, abiding by the objective laws and based on national conditions. We will stick to the new development philosophy, so as to properly handle relations between eco-environmental protection and socioeconomic development, and win the fight against pollution. We will focus on improving the environment, and establish a legal system for improving the environment.

四是严格贯彻落实习近平总书记关于“严惩重罚”生态环保违法行为的指示精神,进一步完善生态环保领域里面对违法行为的惩处力度,包括行政责任、刑事责任和民事责任,特别是要明确打击重点,包括恶意违法排污行为,往往这些恶意违法排污行为损害公共环境权益,危害公众健康。我们今天的主题是人权保护,恶意违法排污,为了追求一个小集体的私利,漠视、损害公众环境权益和公众环境健康,这是不公平,也不道德,当然也是违法的。从人权角度来说,这种恶意违法行为,损害了发展权、生存权,危害了健康权和人身权,恶意违法是我们的打击重点。二是涉及到一些重金属排放、医疗废物、工业危废这些对人体健康直接有害,对土壤、饮用水、空气直接有害,更是打击的重点。三是协同有关部门,加强对非法狩猎野生动物、非法捕捞水生生物等违法行为的打击力度,也是我们国家的重点,其中包括林草部门,长江保护法生效之后,一个重大的措施,十年禁捕,这是下了大的决心。习近平总书记说,长江的问题是,长江母亲河病了,一个重要表现是有的地方到了无鱼的地步,所以中央下决心,十年禁渔,特别是可能涉及到数十万以水为生的渔民及其家庭要转产,要妥善安置,要财政补贴。在这种情况下,非法捕捞、非法捕猎,都是打击重点。

Fourth, we will strictly implement the instructions of General Secretary Xi Jinping on toughening punishments for ecological and environmental violations, further strengthen the punishment of illegal acts related to ecological and environmental protection, including those concerning administrative, criminal and civil liabilities. In particular, we should clearly identify the key targets for the crackdown, including the malicious act of illegally discharging pollutants, which damages the public's environmental rights and interests and threatens public health. Our theme today is human rights protection. Maliciously discharging waste disregards and damages the public's environmental rights and interests as well as public environmental health for the private gain of a small group. It is unfair, immoral, and of course illegal. From the perspective of human rights, such malicious acts harm the rights to subsistence and development, as well as health and personal rights. Therefore, malicious illegal acts are key targets of our crackdown efforts. In addition, the discharge of heavy metals, medical waste and industrial hazardous waste, which directly harms human health, soil, air and drinking water, has also been the focus of the crackdown. Furthermore, we will work with relevant departments, including the forestry and grassland departments, to strengthen the crackdown on the illegal hunting of wild animals, illegal fishing of aquatic creatures and other illegal activities, which are also key targets of the crackdown. After the Yangtze River Protection Law came into effect, the major measure of a 10-year fishing ban in key areas of the Yangtze River was taken with great determination. General Secretary Xi Jinping said that the Yangtze River had got sick. An important manifestation was that some parts had no fish left. As a result, the central authorities decided to ban fishing for 10 years. In particular, this move will involve finding other ways of making a living, proper resettlement and providing government subsidies for the hundreds of thousands of fishermen and their families who rely on the river to earn a living. In this case, both illegal fishing and illegal hunting are the key crackdown targets.

最近在生态环保领域有一个故事,大家都比较关注,就是云南的十几头大象,在昆明以南,没有千里也有百里的迁徙,沿途受到了广泛的关注和有效的保护,大家为它开路,为它引导,沿途投放食物,画面看着很温馨,当地政府、环保志愿者、NGO组织都发挥了积极的作用,最近它们已经顺利回到它们本来的天然栖息地,这也是中国生物多样性保护的一个生动的实例,同时也为即将在昆明召开的生物多样性会议提供了一个非常漂亮的花絮,这是值得我们自豪的。这是我们关于生物多样性保护的立法及生动实践,这也是我们今后的重点。谢谢。

Recently, an event related to ecological and environmental protection has received widespread attention. A herd of elephants travelled hundreds, if not thousands of kilometers, to the southern part of Kunming city, the capital of Yunnan province. While attracting quite a lot attention, the wandering elephants were also effectively protected along the way. People opened up paths for them, helped them find their way, and provided food supplies along their journey. These behaviors were very heartwarming. Local governments, conservation volunteers and non-governmental organizations all played positive roles in this regard. The elephants recently returned to their natural habitat. This event has become a vivid example of China's biodiversity conservation efforts and represents an interesting side note for the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15) which will soon kick off in Kunming. We are very proud of this achievement. These are China's legislative efforts and practices on biodiversity conservation, which will also become a focus of our work in the future. Thank you.

邢慧娜:

Xing Huina:

今天的吹风会就到这里,谢谢四位发布人,也感谢各位媒体朋友们,大家再见!

Today's briefing is hereby concluded. Thank you to all four speakers and friends from the media. Goodbye.


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