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双语+口译交传:2020年李克强总理答中外记者问


来源:新华网    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2020-05-29 12:05   点击: 次  

 

张业遂:各位媒体朋友,女士们、先生们,大家下午好。十三届全国人大三次会议刚刚举行了闭幕会议,现在我们非常荣幸地邀请李克强总理与大家见面,并回答大家的提问。有请李总理。

Zhang Yesui: Friends from the media, ladies and gentlemen, good afternoon. The 3rd session of the 13th National People's Congress has just come to a close. We have the privilege to invite Premier Li Keqiang to meet you and take your questions. First, some opening remarks from Premier Li.

李克强总理:首先感谢媒体的朋友们在特殊的时期,而且克服了特殊的困难,对中国的两会进行报道。因为疫情的原因,我们用视频联线的形式开记者会,我想这个距离不会影响我们之间的沟通。时间有限,请大家提问。

Premier Li: I wish to thank friends from the media for covering China's NPC and CPPCC sessions. At this unusual time, despite much inconvenience and difficulty, the containment protocols require that the press conference today to be held via a video link, but I don't think this distance will impede our communication. Time is limited. Why don't we go straight to questions?

路透社记者:新冠肺炎疫情对世界各国的经济都造成了严重的影响,不少国家的政府出台了数万亿美元的财政和货币措施,来应对新冠肺炎疫情对经济产生的冲击。今年中国政府工作报告中没有设定GDP增速。根据路透社的测算,政府工作报告中出台的财政措施约占中国2019年国内生产总值的4%,这个规模比一些经济学家的预期要低,今年一季度中国经济首次出现了几十年以来的收缩。未来几个月,中方是否会出台更大规模的刺激措施?从更长远看,中方是否有足够的政策工具来应对全球疫情持续蔓延和不断紧张的中美关系?

Reuters: The new coronavirus outbreak has devastated economies around the world. Trillions of dollars in fiscal and monetary measures have been pushed out to deal with the fallout. In this year’s Government Work Report, China did not set a GDP growth target. But it did announce fiscal measures worth about 4% of China’s GDP in 2019 according to our calculations. That’s slightly less than some economists expected after seeing China’s economy contract for the first time in decades in the first quarter. So my question is: can we expect China to deliver more ambitious stimulus in the months to come? Does China have sufficient policy options to deal with a prolonged global pandemic and rising tensions with the United States?

李克强:这次新冠肺炎疫情给世界经济造成了严重冲击,可以说是史上罕见。最近不少主要国际组织都预测,今年全球经济增长是负3%,甚至更多。中国经济已经深度融入世界经济,不可能置身事外。所以今年我们没有确定GDP增长的量化指标,这也是实事求是的。但是我们确定了保居民就业、保基本民生、保市场主体等“六保”的目标任务,这和经济增长有直接关系。经济增长不是不重要,我们这样做实际上也是让人民群众对经济增长有更直接的感受,使经济增长有更高的质量。发展是解决中国一切问题的关键和基础。如果统算一下,实现了“六保”,特别是前“三保”,我们就会实现今年中国经济正增长,而且要力争有一定的幅度,推动中国经济稳定前行。

Premier Li:  The novel coronavirus disease has taken a heavy toll on the global economy in a way rarely seen before. Major international institutions have projected a negative 3 percent global growth or worse this year. As China’s economy has become deeply integrated into the global economy, it is simply impossible for the Chinese economy to stay immune to such impacts. This year we decided not to set a specific growth target. This is a decision informed by the realities on the ground. In the meantime, we have formulated a series of goals and tasks in six key areas which are closely connected with economic development, with a particular focus on protecting employment, people’s basic living needs, and market entities.

Not setting a specific GDP growth target does not mean that economic development is not important. Our decision is designed for economic growth to deliver more real gains to our people and promote higher quality development in China. We believe that development still holds the key and is the foundation for resolving all the problems in China today. Putting protections in place in six key areas, especially in the areas of jobs, livelihoods and businesses, will help us achieve positive and solid growth this year to the extent possible, and maintain steady economic development.

你刚才说到有反映我们出台的政策规模低于预期,但是我也听到很多方面反映,认为我们出台的规模性政策还是有力度的。应对这场冲击,我们既要把握力度,还要把握时机。在新冠肺炎疫情蔓延的时候,我们也出台了一些政策,但是当时复工复产还在推进中,复业复市受阻,一些政策不可能完全落地,很多人都待在家里。在这个过程中,我们也积累了经验。正是根据前期的经验和对当前形势的判断,我们在政府工作报告中推出的规模性政策举措,应该说是有力度的。

In your questions you said our measures are seen by some as below expectations. What I heard from many quarters is that our measures are forceful. For any response to work, we must get both the timing and intensity right. When COVID-19 was still raging, some policies were introduced. But with the economy barely reopened, the situation then made it difficult for these polices to get truly delivered on the ground, as most of the people still had to stay indoors. This has been a process of gaining experience. Based on the experience in the past weeks and months and our assessment of the current situation, we have decided on new policy steps of a sizable scale as set out in the Government Work Report, and we believe these measures are forceful.

过去我们说不搞“大水漫灌”,现在还是这样,但是特殊时期要有特殊政策,我们叫作“放水养鱼”。没有足够的水,鱼是活不了的。但是如果泛滥了,就会形成泡沫,就会有人从中套利,鱼也养不成,还会有人浑水摸鱼。所以我们采取的措施要有针对性,也就是说要摸准脉、下准药。钱从哪里来、用到哪里去,都要走新路。

We have repeatedly said that we will not flood China’s economy with liquidity. We didn’t do it in the past; we will not do it now. But the current unusual time requires extraordinary measures. Just as water is important to fish farming, sufficient liquidity is important to economic development. But too much water will induce froth in the fish pond, whereby some people may attempt to muddy the waters and fish for arbitrage. We must ensure that measures taken are well-focused, the prescription is precise and the medicines for getting out of the hardship effective. New approaches must be employed as to where the money comes from and how it is spent.

这次规模性政策筹措的资金分两大块:一块是新增财政赤字和发行抗疫特别国债,共两万亿元。还有另外更大的一块,就是减免社保费,有的国家叫工薪税,并动用失业保险结存,推动国有商业银行让利、自然垄断性企业降价以降低企业的经营成本。这一块加起来大概是前一块的两倍。我们是要将这些资金用于保就业、保民生和保市场主体,支撑居民的收入。这些资金和我们现在全部居民收入40多万亿元的总盘子相比,比例达两位数。

The financing raised through policies of a sizable scale can be grouped into mainly two categories. The first covers the increase of fiscal deficits and issuance of government bonds for COVID-19 control. Together it amounts to 2 trillion RMB yuan. The other category, which is roughly twice as big, covers payment relief for enterprises of their contributions to social security schemes, also known as payroll tax in some other countries, and taps into the balance of the unemployment insurance fund, interest concessions made by state-owned commercial banks, and price reductions in natural monopoly industries to lower enterprises’ operating costs. This money will be primarily used to support jobs, people’s basic living needs and businesses, and sustain household income. It accounts for a double-digit share in the more than 40 trillion RMB yuan of total household income in China.

更重要的是钱往哪里去?我们这次为企业纾困和激发市场活力的规模性政策,主要是用来稳就业、保民生,使居民有消费能力,这有利于促消费、拉动市场,可以说是一条市场化改革的路子。

What’s more important is how the money is spent. Our measures of a sizable scale are designed to provide vital relief to businesses and revitalize the market. With a particular focus on supporting jobs and people’s livelihoods, our people will have money to spend and consumption will drive market vitality. This is in keeping with market-oriented reform.

钱是可以生钱的,用之于民的钱可以创造新的财富,涵养税源,使财政可持续。我们一定要稳住当前的经济,稳定前行,但也要避免起重脚,扬起尘土迷了后人的路。如果经济方面或其他方面再出现大的变化,我们还留有政策空间,不管是财政、金融、社保都有政策储备,可以及时出台新的政策,而且不会犹豫。保持中国经济稳定运行至关重要。

Money well-spent can create new money. Money invested in the people will generate new wealth, help us protect and preserve the tax base and make public finance more sustainable. We will do our utmost to keep China’s economic growth stable and make steady progress. In other words, we will not kick up dirt and leave a trail of dust that will block the sight of those who follow. We have also reserved policy space on the fiscal, financial, social security and other fronts. And we are in a strong position to quickly introduce new measures without any hesitation should the evolving situation calls for it. It is essential that we keep China’s economic growth on a steady course.

我们坚信,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,经过全国人民的共同努力,一定会战胜当前的困难,实现全年目标任务,全面建成小康社会。中国经济保持稳定、稳住基本盘,本身就是对世界的贡献,会为世界经济恢复增长、实现发展作出积极贡献。

I am confident that under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core and with joint efforts of people across the nation, we will be able to prevail over the current difficulties, fulfill our tasks and goals for the whole year, and complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Keeping China’s economic growth and fundamentals stable will be a contribution to the whole world. And China will remain a positive force driving global economic recovery and growth.

彭博社记者:新冠肺炎疫情仍然是未解之谜,科学家认为找到该问题的答案有助于预防未来大流行病的发生。有人呼吁就源头问题开展国际审议。中方对调查持何立场?您认为这样的调查应该达到什么目的?应该避免什么问题?

Bloomberg News: The origins of COVID-19 are still a mystery. Scientists think if we can find out where it came from, we could prevent future pandemics. There have been calls for an international independent inquiry into the origins. What is China’s stance on how such an inquiry should be carried out? What should such an inquiry do and what should it not do?

李克强:中国和许多国家都主张对病毒进行溯源。前不久召开的世卫大会通过了有关决议,中国也参与了。因为科学溯源可以更好地防控疫情,也是为了世界各国人民的生命健康。

Premier Li:  China and many countries believe that it is important to get a clear idea about the sources of the coronavirus. At the recently held World Health Assembly, a resolution was adopted, and China is one of the co-sponsors of this resolution. We believe that getting clear about the sources of the virus on the basis of science will help us better carry out containment of COVID-19, and also contribute to protecting life and health of people around the world.

这次疫情突如其来,对人类来说是个全新的传染病,到现在可以说还是未知大于已知。病毒是没有国界的,它是全世界、全人类的敌人。各国都在进行防控,在探索中前进,目前还没有完整的经验。我们要控制住疫情的发展,加快疫苗、有效药物、检测试剂研发突破,这将是人类战胜这个病毒的强有力武器。中国和许多国家都在进行投入,我们也愿意开展国际合作。这些产品是全球公共产品,我们愿意共享,最终让人类能够共同战胜病毒这个敌人。

The novel coronavirus disease has caught all countries by surprise. It is a completely new disease to humankind. So far, I’m afraid there is still more to the virus that we do not yet know. Viruses respect no borders, and they are the common enemy of the whole world and entire humanity. Nowadays, all countries are still working hard to contain the spread of the virus, and we are gaining experience along the way. We must work together to keep the virus in check. Research efforts need to be intensified for breakthroughs in vaccines, effective medicines and testing reagents, as they will be powerful weapons to help us succeed in checking the virus. China and many other countries are making investments into R&D of these products, and we are open to international cooperation. The deliverables of the R&D will be global public goods that we are ready to share with others. They will help the entire humankind in defeating the virus.

中国人民经过艰苦卓绝努力,现在有效控制了疫情,同时积极参与国际合作,公开透明负责任地及时向国际社会通报有关信息。但现在疫情还在全球流行,在中国也未结束,还有散发病例,不少科学家都强调,还是要保持警惕,防止反弹。我们将继续坚持实事求是、公开透明的原则,一旦发现疫情,坚决予以管控,不允许有任何隐瞒,而且要进行科学防治。

With painstaking efforts, the Chinese people have successfully brought the spread of the virus under control. And China has taken an active part in international cooperation against the virus. We have all along acted with openness, transparency and a sense of responsibility. We have shared information in a timely way with the rest of the international community. The virus is still spreading around the world. And in China it has not come to a complete end yet; there are still sporadic cases. Scientists have cautioned us to stay on high alert to prevent a resurgence of infections. We must continue to adopt a factual, science-based, open and transparent approach in dealing with COVID-19. Any infection, once detected, must be promptly handled, and no cover-up will ever be allowed.

现在很多人都说疫情可能短期不会结束,还会延续一段时间。实际上国际社会已经面临双重挑战、要做两张答卷:一方面要控制住疫情;一方面要恢复经济社会发展,恢复正常秩序。这两者是有矛盾的,如果只是做一个方面的事就不一样了。我们现在需要在矛盾中平衡、探索中前行,尤其需要国际合作。无论是抗击疫情,还是发展经济,都需要我们同舟共济,使人类能够越过这场巨浪的冲击。

Many people say that COVID-19 will not come to a stop any time soon and we may have to live with it for quite some time to come. All countries now are confronted with dual challenges. It’s like doing double exams. We have to contain the spread of the virus, and at the same time do our best to get life and work back to normal. I’m afraid there is a certain level of trade-off between these two goals. Things would be quite different if we had only one task. So we will have to do our utmost to strike a delicate balance and continue to explore our way forward. In this process, international cooperation is vitally important. Whether it’s fighting the virus or growing the economy, we must come together in a sense of partnership to eventually fight back the onslaught of the epidemic.

中央广播电视总台央视记者:您在政府工作报告中阐述了今年中国经济政策。政府会采取哪些措施保证这些资金真正地惠及企业、避免空转,能让普通老百姓切切实实地感受到?

CCTV: In the Government Work Report, this year’s economic polices have been spelled out. What will the government do to ensure that all these funds will be truly delivered to benefit companies, instead of just circulating within the financial sector, and bring real gains to the general public?

李克强:这是一次前所未有的冲击,我们不可能轻车走熟路,只能是大车行难路。所以我们在政策上要注重创新。我刚才讲了,我们推出的规模性政策叫作纾困和激发市场活力,注重的是稳就业、保民生,主要不是依赖上基建项目。因为现在中国经济结构发生很大变化,消费在经济增长中起主要拉动作用,而且中小微企业在吸纳就业中占90%以上。我们这次所采取的规模性政策,用了70%左右的资金直接或比较直接地去支撑居民收入,这样做可以促进消费、带动市场。而且因为疫情,我们面临一个很大的难题,就是疫情防控措施会抑制消费。我们按这样的方向推动政策实施,也是市场化的改革。

Premier Li: In coping with the current round of unprecedented shocks, we don’t have ready experience to draw from. It’s not something we can manage with ease, and we will have to blaze a trail with hard efforts. We must be creative in crafting and delivering our policies. As I said just now, our policies, which are of a sizable scale, are designed to provide vital relief to businesses and revitalize the market, with particular focus on stabilizing employment and ensuring people’s livelihood. They are not focused on large infrastructure projects. This is because big changes have taken place in China’s economic structure, where consumption is now the primary engine driving growth, and micro, small and medium-sized companies now provide over 90 percent of all jobs in China. So under the sizable-scale policies introduced this time, some 70 percent of the funds will be used to support the increase in people’s income through direct or relatively direct means in order to spur consumption and energize the market. One big challenge we have confronted in coping with COVID-19 is that containment efforts have had a dampening effect on consumption. Hence, measures in this direction are also part of our market-oriented reform.

其次,我们强调政策资金要直达基层、直达企业、直达民生。新增的赤字和抗疫特别国债资金全部转给地方,省里也只是“过路财神”,要直达基层。可能有人会问,那基层就能把这笔钱用好吗?我们要采取一个特殊的转移支付机制,这些钱要全部落到企业特别是中小微企业,落到社保、低保、失业、养老和特困人员身上。要建立实名制,这些都是有账可查的,决不允许做假账,也决不允许偷梁换柱。我们会瞪大眼睛盯着,也欢迎社会监督。我们采取措施的最终效果要让市场主体和人民群众认可。中央政府这次带头过紧日子,我们把中央部门的非急需非刚性支出压缩了一半以上,调出资金用于基层、企业和民生。各级政府都要过紧日子,决不允许搞形式主义,干那些大手大脚花钱的事。

Second, the funds made available will all be used to support primary-level governments and businesses, and ensure people’s livelihood. The increase of budget deficits and funds raised from the issuance of government bonds for COVID-19 control will all be channeled to primary-level governments. Even provincial governments will be just passers-by to these funds. Some people may ask whether primary-level governments can ensure all the funds will be put to best use. In this respect, a special transfer payment mechanism will be established to see that companies, especially smaller firms, will truly benefit from these funds, and people who live on social security schemes, subsistence allowance, unemployment benefits, old-age support and those living in difficulties will be able to benefit. Real-name records will be established, and no cooking of books or embezzlement will ever be allowed. We will keep our eyes wide open and welcome public supervision. Eventually, the delivery of these measures will have to be recognized by businesses and our people.

The Central Government will lead by example in living on a tight budget. We will cut over 50 percent of outlays on non-essential, non-obligatory expenditures at the central government level, and the money saved will be mainly used to support primary-level governments, enterprises and people’s basic living needs. Governments at all levels must tighten their belts, and reject pointless formalities and spending splurges.

刚才我比较多地讲了扩大消费,但并不是说不要投资,我们还要扩大有效投资。这次新增地方政府专项债券1.6万亿元,再加上一些国债,有2万亿元的规模,这在规模性政策当中占到百分之二三十。我们投资的重点是“两新一重”,就是新型基础设施、新型城镇化和涉及国计民生的重大项目,而且要用改革的办法,用这些资金来撬动社会资金的投入。项目要有效益、有回报,要经过科学论证、按规律办事、不留后遗症。

Just now, I talked more about boosting consumption. That doesn’t mean investment is not important. We will also expand effective investment. There will be an increase of 1.6 trillion RMB yuan of special local government bonds this year, and some treasury bonds as well, with the total amount topping 2 trillion RMB yuan. They account for between 20 and 30 percent of the funds made available under the sizable-scale policies we introduced this year. The focus of the funds will be on new infrastructures and new-type urbanization and key projects for national development. We will rely on reforms in undertaking these programs and mobilize private sector investment. And the projects supported must generate good returns, and be well-calibrated and delivered according to economic laws to avoid undesirable results.

中国时报记者:今年两会因为疫情延到5月举行,这个时间点刚好跟“5·20”非常接近。在民进党继续执政的情况下,未来大陆对台政策的总体考量是什么?未来将如何继续推进两岸关系发展?

China Times: Because of COVID-19, the Two Sessions this year have been postponed to May, which is quite close to the date of 20 May. As the DPP continues to govern in Taiwan, what is the overall consideration of the mainland concerning its policy toward Taiwan? And what will the mainland do to promote relations across the Taiwan Strait?

李克强:我在政府工作报告中已经说了,我们对台的大政方针是一贯的,也是世人共知的。要坚持一个中国原则、坚持“九二共识”、坚决反对“台独”。在这个政治基础上,我们愿同台湾各党派、团体和人士就两岸关系和民族未来对话协商,推动两岸和平发展,我们愿以最大诚意,尽最大努力促进祖国和平统一。台湾问题是中国的内政,我们从来都反对外来干涉。中华民族有智慧、有能力解决好自己的事。

Premier Li:  As I said in the Government Work Report, our principles and policies toward Taiwan have been consistent and well-known to the international community. We will stay committed to the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus. We will continue to firmly oppose “Taiwan independence”. Based on this political foundation, we are ready to have dialogue and consultation with any party, group or personage in Taiwan regarding cross-Strait relations and the future of the Chinese nation, and promote peaceful growth of cross-Strait relations. We will continue to show maximum sincerity and do our very utmost to promote peaceful reunification of China. The Taiwan question is China’s internal affair. And we have all along opposed external interference. The Chinese nation has the wisdom and the ability to handle its own affairs.

我们视台湾同胞为手足,血浓于水,始终高度重视台湾同胞的福祉。就像这次疫情发生后,大家共同努力,没有台湾同胞在大陆因感染新冠肺炎失去生命。面对疫情,我们祈福两岸同胞都平安健康。

We view our fellow compatriots in Taiwan as brothers and sisters. Blood is thicker than water. We will continue to pay high attention to their well-being. Thanks to our joint efforts, there has been no loss of life to COVID-19 among Taiwan compatriots working and living on the mainland. In the face of the epidemic, we wish people on both sides of the Taiwan Strait safety and good health.

中国日报记者:今年您在政府工作报告中调低了城镇新增就业目标,调高了城镇调查失业率。面对严峻的就业形势,政府将如何遏制失业潮?如何帮助大学生和农民工找到工作?

China Daily: In this year’s Government Work Report, the target of new urban jobs has been revised downward, and the target of surveyed urban unemployment rate upward, compared with the levels last year. In the face of the severe employment situation, what will the government do to avert massive job losses and help college graduates and rural migrant workers find jobs?

李克强:今年我们确定城镇新增就业900万人以上,的确比去年低,实现这个目标要有一定的经济增长作支撑。我们把城镇调查失业率定为6%左右,今年4月份城镇调查失业率已经是6%了,我们这样做也是实事求是。

Premier Li:  We have set this year’s target of new urban jobs at over 9 million, somewhat below last year’s level. To attain this goal, we need to maintain a certain level of economic growth. The urban surveyed unemployment rate target is set at around 6 percent. In fact, in April, that figure already hit 6 percent, so such a target was set on the basis of the situation on the ground.

就业是最大的民生,对于一个家庭来说是天大的事情。这几天我看中国政府网上的留言,大概三分之一都是谈就业的。其中有一位农民工说他50多岁了,在外打工30多年,每年如此,但今年还没有找到工作,全家都陷入困境。还有一些个体工商户,已经歇业几个月了。一些外贸企业现在没有订单,影响员工就业。对他们的困难,我们要给予救助,但是从根本上说,还是要帮助他们就业。中国有9亿劳动力,没有就业,就只是9亿张吃饭的口;有了就业,就是9亿双可以创造巨大财富的手。

Employment matters the most in people’s lives. It is something of paramount importance for all families. Of all the comments posted by netizens on the Chinese government portal website, some one third are about jobs. One of them was posted by a rural migrant worker in his 50s. He said that over the past 30 plus years, he had been working in cities every year. But so far this year he has been unable to find a job and the whole family is now in difficulty. Many self-employed individuals have seen their businesses grinding to a halt for several months. And some export companies have also been in great difficulty for lack of orders. This is affecting the jobs of their employees. We must provide support to all these people. But most importantly, we must help them land jobs. There is a labor force of 900 million in China. If they are out of work, there will be 900 million mouths to feed; if they are all put to work, 900 million pairs of hands will be able to generate tremendous wealth.

为了稳住现有就业岗位,可以说政策是能用尽用,投入的钱也是最多的。我们规模性政策的资金,允许基层用于减税降费,而且允许用于为企业减房租、贴利息。采取这样的措施就是要把企业稳下来,岗位保得住,而且要公平合理。我们还要采取资助企业以训稳岗的政策,今明两年将有3500万人次通过失业保险结存资金来进行岗位培训,给他们缓冲的机会。即便失业了,也要努力让他们短时期内有再就业的机会。

In order to retain existing jobs, all our pro-job measures will be fully employed with the largest input of funds. Such sizable policy funds can be used by primary-level governments to implement tax and fee cuts, and subsidize rents or interest payment in support of companies. So all these measures are designed to keep companies in business and secure the jobs of their employees and they will be implemented in a fair and reasonable way. We will also finance skills training initiatives by businesses to stabilize employment. This year and the next, we will tap into the balance of the unemployment insurance fund to provide some 35 million vocational skills training opportunities. This will cushion the impact of unemployment, and we will help people who lose their jobs get reemployed as soon as possible.

同时还要创造更多新的就业岗位。现在新业态蓬勃发展,大概有1亿人就业。我们的零工经济也有2亿人就业。不仅要采取更多扶持政策,而且要打破那些不合理的条条框框,让更多新就业岗位成长起来。去年我们平均每天净增企业超过1万户,今年也要按这个目标去努力。We also need to do our best to create new jobs. Nowadays, some 100 million people are employed in new forms of business and industry, and some 200 million people are working in the gig economy. The government must continue to provide support and at the same time lift all unwarranted restrictions that prevent the development of those industries and sectors. We also need to create a favorable environment for the increase of new job opportunities. Last year, more than 10,000 new businesses were created on an average day, and we will continue to work hard to see that the figure stays at this level this year.

人民群众有无穷创造力。回想改革开放之初,大批知青返城,就一个“大碗茶”解决了多少人的就业!两周前,我看到报道,西部有个城市,按照当地的规范,设置了3.6万个流动商贩的摊位,结果一夜之间有10万人就业。中国人民是勤劳的,中国的市场也在不断开拓和升级。当然,对重点人群就业,我们有重点扶持政策。今年大学毕业生创新高,达到874万人,要让他们成为“不断线的风筝”,今明两年都要持续提供就业服务。对农民工,不论是在常住地还是返乡,都要给他们提供就业服务平台。对退役军人,要切实把安置政策落实好。

We can certainly rely on the innovation and initiative of the Chinese people in this respect. One may recall when young people returned to the cities from the countryside in large numbers in the early days of reform and opening-up, the opening of roadside tea stands helped to put many of them to work. About two weeks ago, I saw in the news that a city in China’s western region, in keeping with local rules and regulations, set up 36,000 mobile stalls, adding some 100,000 new jobs overnight.

Our people are hardworking and the Chinese market keeps expanding and upgrading. In this process, the government must focus on providing support to key groups in their employment. The number of new college graduates will reach a record high of 8.74 million this year. We must provide employment services to these people, both this year and next, so that they will not be left to their own devices. And for rural migrant workers, no matter whether they are still working in a city or have returned to their hometown, we will put in place employment service platforms to support them in landing jobs. We must also fully implement all the support measures for demobilized military personnel as well.

凤凰卫视记者:这次全国人大会议作出了关于建立健全香港特别行政区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制的决定,全国人大常委会将就此制定专门的法律。这是否表明中央调整了对香港的政策,是否放弃了“一国两制”?对于当下各方的反应您如何看待?

Phoenix TV: At this year’s NPC Session, a decision was adopted on establishing and improving the legal system and enforcement mechanisms for safeguarding national security in the Hong Kong SAR. The Standing Committee of the NPC will also set in motion a legislative process in this respect. Does this mean that the Central Government has adjusted its policy toward Hong Kong and abandoned “one country, two systems”? How do you respond to the various comments in this respect?

李克强:“一国两制”是国家的基本国策,中央政府始终强调要全面准确贯彻“一国两制”、“港人治港”、高度自治方针,严格按照宪法和基本法办事,支持特区政府和行政长官依法施政,这是一贯的。你提到全国人大刚通过的有关维护国家安全的决定,是为了确保“一国两制”行稳致远,维护香港长期繁荣稳定。

Premier Li: “One country, two systems” is China’s basic state policy. The Central Government has all along fully and faithfully implemented the “one country, two systems” under which the people of Hong Kong administer Hong Kong with a high degree of autonomy, acted in strict accordance with the Constitution and the Basic Law, and supported the Hong Kong SAR government and the Chief Executive in exercising administration according to law. The decision adopted at the NPC Session to safeguard national security is designed for the steady implementation of “one country, two systems” and for Hong Kong’s long-term prosperity and stability.

美国全国广播公司记者:美国继续将新冠肺炎疫情全球大流行归咎中国,出现了更多关于中美之间“新冷战”的说法。与此同时,美中双方官员还在讨论如何为落实两国之间第一阶段经贸协议创造有利条件,推动中美关系稳定发展。考虑到中国自身经济遇到的困难,您是否认为中国的经济改革和让步足以解决美方关切呢?如果合作努力失败,中国经济能否抵御“新冷战”和“脱钩”的威胁?

NBC News: The United States continues to blame China for the global pandemic. There’s more and more talk of a cold war between the US and China. At the same time, Chinese and American officials talk of creating favorable conditions for the phase one trade deal that could help stabilize the relationship. Are you still confident that more economic reforms and concessions of China can adequately address America’s concerns, given that China’s economy has been weakened? Or if the efforts for cooperation fail, can China’s economy withstand the threat of a “cold war” and “decoupling”?

李克强:当前中美关系的确出现一些新问题、新挑战。中美关系很重要,两国都是联合国安理会常任理事国,在应对传统和非传统挑战方面都有很多可以、而且应当合作的地方,在经贸、科技、人文方面也有广泛的交流,两国之间存在着广泛的共同利益。中美两国合则两利、斗则俱伤,不仅关系两国人民的利益,而且关系到世界,所以一些问题发生后引起世界的担忧。至于你说到“新冷战”,我们从来都主张摒弃“冷战”思维。所谓“脱钩”,可以说两个主要经济体“脱钩”,对谁都没有好处,也会伤害世界。我们应该按照两国元首达成的重要共识,推动建立以协调、合作、稳定为基调的中美关系。

Premier Li:  It is true that at the moment, China-US relations have encountered some new problems and challenges. This is a very important bilateral relationship. Both countries are permanent members of the UN Security Council. There are many areas where the two countries can and should work with each other in tackling both traditional and non-traditional challenges. There are also extensive exchanges between the two countries in the economic, trade, scientific, technological, cultural and other fields. So it is fair to say that there is extensive common interest between China and the United States. Both countries stand to gain from cooperation and lose from confrontation. Getting Sino-US relationship right is in the interest of people of both countries and the whole world. Given the importance of this relationship, the problems that occurred in this relationship have been a cause for concern for the international community. As for a cold war, you know that we have all along rejected the “cold war” mentality. And “decoupling” between major economies will do neither side any good. It is also harmful to the world. I believe we should continue to work together to follow through on the important consensus reached between our two presidents and work jointly to foster a Sino-US relationship based on coordination, cooperation and stability.

中美两国经济你中有我、我中有你,一路走来很不容易,双方都从中获益。这使我想起,就在几天前,一家美国高科技公司宣布在中国武汉的投资项目开工。我不是做商业广告,但是我对他们的行为是赞赏的,所以发了贺信。这个例子表明,中美商贸界是互有需要的,是可以实现合作共赢的。

The economies of our two countries have become closely interconnected. Our economic and trade ties have come a long way, and both sides have benefited tremendously. Just a few days ago, an American high-tech firm announced the launch of an investment project in Wuhan. I shouldn’t do any commercial promotion for any company, but I highly appreciate this move and sent my message of congratulations to mark the occasion. I believe this example shows that the business communities of our two countries need each other, and our business cooperation can be of mutual benefit.

中美之间的商贸合作应该遵循商业规则,由市场来选择,由企业家判断、拍板,政府起搭平台的作用。中美两国,一个是世界上最大的发展中国家,一个是世界上最大的发达国家,有不同的社会制度、文化传统、历史背景,存在矛盾、分歧不可避免,问题在于怎样对待。中美关系几十年来风风雨雨,一方面合作前行,一方面磕磕绊绊,的确很复杂,这需要用智慧去扩大共同利益,管控分歧和矛盾。总之,要相互尊重,平等互利,尊重对方的核心利益和重大关切,寻求合作共赢。这于己、于人、于世界都有利。

I believe the economic cooperation and trade between our two countries should follow commercial principles. We should leave the decisions to the market and to the business leaders. The job of the government is to establish platforms for the business communities of the two countries. China and the United States are the world’s largest developing and developed countries respectively. Given the differences in our social systems, cultural heritage and historical backgrounds, some disagreements and even frictions may be unavoidable. What’s important is how we manage them. The relationship has been moving forward amid twists and turns in the past several decades, featuring both growing cooperation and some bumps along the way. Indeed, this is a complex relationship. We must use our wisdom to expand common interests and manage differences and disagreements. In a word, I believe that the two countries should develop a relationship on the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, respect each other’s core interests and major concerns, and embrace cooperation. That will be conducive to the interests of both countries and the world.

新华社记者:讲到今年的经济工作,我们听到频率最高的词就是“稳”和“保”。请问总理,这和市场化改革之间是什么关系?政府在这方面的重点是什么?

Xinhua News Agency: When we talk about the economic work agenda for the Chinese government this year, the words we have heard most frequently are stability and protections. What are their relations with market-oriented reforms? What will be the priorities of reform this year?

李克强:中国改革开放40多年的经验表明,越是困难越要坚持改革。我们宏观政策提出的“稳”和“保”,是通过市场主体去支撑的,而且是奔着市场主体的困难和关切去做的,这本身就是市场化改革的做法。

Premier Li:Premier Li: important it is for us to keep to reform. In our macro policies, we outlined sets of priority areas where stability is key and where protections are needed. Our measures are designed to help those vast numbers of market entities and are built around addressing their difficulties and concerns. This in itself is consistent with our market-oriented reform.

我们首先是要让市场主体活下来。政策的真金白银主要是为市场主体纾困,激发市场活力。真金白银要确保落到企业和个体工商户身上。这次政府工作报告说,要留得青山,赢得未来。我们现在有1.2亿市场主体,他们就是青山,留住他们,就会赢得未来。

First and foremost, we must help all our businesses survive. Our solid measures must serve to provide vital relief to businesses and revitalize the market. Hence, all these measures must deliver real gains to companies and support self-employed individuals. As I said in the Government Work Report, we must do our utmost to help the 120 million market entities in China sustain themselves, and that will help us assure success for the future.

不仅要让市场主体活下去,更重要的是通过“放管服”改革把他们激活起来。要打造市场化、法治化、国际化的营商环境,打掉那些不合理的条条框框,让他们公平竞争。这种措施看似无形,但能创造出有形的财富,干好了,不亚于真金白银的投入。

At the same time we must work hard to help our businesses thrive by pressing ahead with reform of government functions. We will continue to foster a market-oriented and world-class business environment governed by a sound legal framework. The government must lift all unnecessary restrictions on market entities to facilitate fair competition. Such policies and measures, intangible as they are, will create tangible wealth in our businesses just like real investments.

再有,就是要让新的市场主体更多地长出来。大家都知道,这次应对疫情中,像网购、快递、云办公等等一些新业态是逆势增长,有的营业收入增长了三分之二,而且现在新业态还层出不穷。这和我们这些年来深化供给侧结构性改革,推动高质量发展,培育壮大新动能,开展大众创业、万众创新都有关。我们应该把这些经验推广开,促使新动能、新的市场主体更多地成长。今年我们要努力做到平均每日新注册企业2万户左右,这是观察中国经济活力的一个重要指标。

Furthermore, we must work hard to help more new market entities emerge. We have seen a trend-bucking surge of growth in new forms of business and industry during the COVID-19 response, including online shopping, express delivery services, and teleworking. Some new forms of business have even seen their revenues increase by two thirds. I believe such developments are very much attributable to our initiatives and reforms in recent years, including the supply-side structural reform, our efforts to promote high-quality development and foster new drivers of growth, and our initiative of encouraging business start-ups and innovation. We must use the experience gained in this process to the fullest extent to foster more growth drivers and help more market entities grow. This year, our goal is to see that the number of newly registered businesses stay at about 20,000 on an average day. And that figure has become an important indicator gauging the economic vitality of China.

我们重视中小微企业,并不是不重视大企业,还是希望大中小企业共生共荣,而且期待一些中小微企业将来会成长为大企业,形成一个相互融通发展的局面。今年我们不仅要看纾困政策用得怎么样,还要看营商环境的改善是否明显,这样可以产生乘数效应。

We pay close attention to these smaller firms, but we also highly value the role of big companies. We hope that companies of all sizes will be able to thrive together through close cooperation and collaboration. We also expect that more smaller firms will one day grow into large companies. This year,we must ensure full delivery of all these relief and support measures, and at the same time work for notable improvement in China’s business environment. These measures, when combined, will produce multiplying effects.

日本朝日新闻记者:世界经济因为新冠肺炎疫情的蔓延正在遭受严重打击,中国已控制住疫情,今后是否有同包括日本在内的周边各国开展经济合作的计划?中国今后在中日韩自贸协定和自由贸易体系建立方面计划如何推进?中国打算参加跨太平洋伙伴关系协定(TPP)吗?

Asahi Shimbun: COVID-19 has taken a big hit on the global economy. But China has been successful in bringing the spread of the virus under control. What does China plan to do to advance economic cooperation with Japan and other neighboring countries? What is China’s plan for advancing the FTA among China, Japan and the Republic of Korea, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and other free trade arrangements? Does China have a plan to join the TPP?

李克强:在去年东亚合作领导人系列会议上,十五国领导人共同作出承诺,今年要如期签署区域全面经济伙伴关系协定,我希望并相信这个承诺不会落空。我们也在积极推进中日韩自贸区建设。中日韩都是近邻,我们愿意在经济大循环中建立中日韩经济小循环。比如说最近中国和韩国就开辟了快捷通道,让商务、技术等人员能够顺利往来,这有利于复工复产,可以说是近水楼台先得月。

Premier Li: I recall that last year at the leaders’ meeting of East Asian cooperation, leaders of 15 countries made the commitment of signing the RCEP by the end of this year. I hope and believe that this commitment will not come to nothing. China, Japan and the ROK are also working closely together to advance their FTA development. The three countries are close neighbors, and we would like to work with the other two countries to develop a mini economic cycle within the bigger economic cycle. For example, recently China and the ROK have opened a fast-track service for personnel inter-flows in areas such as commerce and technology. We believe this will benefit the resumption of economic activities, and our geographical proximity has put us in a good position to benefit from this earlier.

至于刚才你提到TPP,我理解,可能指的是全面与进步跨太平洋伙伴关系协定(CPTPP)。对于参加CPTPP,中方持积极开放态度。

As for your question about TPP, I suppose what you mean is the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). China has a positive and open attitude toward joining the CPTPP.

人民日报社记者:今年是脱贫攻坚的决胜之年,但是受疫情影响很多家庭收入都有所下降,甚至一些人还面临着返贫。在这种情况下今年脱贫攻坚任务还能顺利完成吗?政府将如何保障基本的民生?

People’s Daily: This year, China plans to win its battle against poverty. But because of COVID-19, many families have seen a decline in their household income. And some are even at the risk of falling back into poverty. So are we able to fulfill the task of winning the battle against poverty this year? And what will the government do to meet people’s essential needs?

李克强:中国是一个人口众多的发展中国家,我们人均年可支配收入是3万元人民币,但是有6亿中低收入及以下人群,他们平均每个月的收入也就1000元左右,1000元在一个中等城市可能租房都困难,现在又碰到疫情。疫情过后,民生为要。怎么样保障困难群众和受疫情影响的新的困难群众的基本民生,我们应该把这项工作放在极为重要的位置。我们采取的纾困政策,有相当一部分就是用于保障基本民生的。

Premier Li: Our country is a developing country with a big population. The per capita annual disposable income in China is 30,000 RMB yuan. But there are still some 600 million people earning a medium or low income, or even less. Their monthly income is barely 1,000 RMB yuan. It’s not even enough to rent a room in a medium Chinese city. And because of COVID-19, many families have encountered difficulties. So it is a very high priority on the government’s work agenda to meet the essential needs of vulnerable groups and those families who have encountered new difficulties because of COVID-19. This is a very important part of the government’s work agenda. And a fairly big part of our support policies are designed for this very purpose.

今年要如期完成脱贫攻坚任务,这是以习近平同志为核心的党中央向全社会作出的庄严承诺。按原本的账还有500多万贫困人口,受这次疫情冲击,可能会有一些人返贫,脱贫的任务更重了。我们会多策并举,特别是要采取措施把脱贫的底线兜住,我们有把握完成今年决胜脱贫攻坚的任务。

This year, we are determined to end poverty as scheduled. This is a serious commitment made by the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core to the whole of Chinese society. Before COVID-19 struck, there were some 5 million people living below the poverty line. But because of the disease, some may have fallen back into poverty. Hence we now face a greater task in meeting our goal. But with our multi-pronged policies and measures to ensure the essential needs of our people, we have the confidence to win the battle against poverty this year.

各级政府都要以人民利益为上,以万家疾苦为重。每出一策,都要考虑是否有利于千家万户、有利于民生。今年我们在应对疫情冲击过程中,要特别认真细致地考虑把各方面困难人群保障起来,扩大低保和失业保障的范围。现在低保、失业保障、特困救助等人员大概一年6000万人左右,我们预计今年人数会增加较多。保障和救助资金是足够的,把他们保障住是有能力的。我们要求一定要把账算细,把钱用到刀刃上,使民生得到切实保障。全国还有近3亿领养老金的人员,今年我们提高了养老金的标准,说到就要做到。

Governments at all levels must always put people’s interests first and bear in mind the hardships of the Chinese people. In introducing each and every policy, we must make sure that it contributes to the well-being of all families and to the better lives of our people. In responding to COVID-19 this year, we must make thoughtful and meticulous plans to ensure the basic needs of all vulnerable groups. In this respect, we have decided to expand the coverage of subsistence allowance and unemployment benefits. Some 60 million people in China still live on subsistence allowance or receive unemployment benefits, penury assistance, or other relief or support. This year, we are expected to see a big increase in the number of recipients. We have sufficient funds to support these vulnerable groups. We must use the money wisely to ensure that every cent will be well spent. Some 300 million senior Chinese citizens live on old-age pension. We decided to raise the pensions for these retirees this year. We must fully deliver all our commitments.

实干为要,行胜于言。我们现在的社保基金结存和储备足以保证养老金按时足额发放,但工作不能出任何纰漏。在这个事上出纰漏,就会让人们对未来没有信心。中华民族有尊老传统,我们要让社会各方面都感到希望。要统筹把各项保障落实到位,这也会有力支撑民心安定,推动经济发展。民为邦本,本固邦宁。这方面的工作不是一件事,而是多件事,我们都要做好、做到位。相信中国人民的生活会更好。

Actions count, and actions always speak louder than words. We have sufficient balance in our social security fund to ensure that pension benefits will be paid on time and in full, and there should be no loopholes in the operation of the fund. This way, we will be able to give our people more hope about their future. More importantly, the Chinese have a tradition of respecting and taking good care of the elderly. We must ensure that all the benefits and support will be duly provided. This will reassure our people and also help us promote China’s economic development. As the saying goes, the people is the foundation of a state. When the foundation is strong, the state will be secure. So we must fully deliver on all those policies and measures. And that will make our people more hopeful about their future.

新加坡联合早报记者:您在政府工作报告中提到,因为全球疫情和经贸形势不确定性很大,中国发展面临一些难以预料的影响因素。您对目前中国面对的外部形势有怎样的判断?中国将如何应对外部环境的变化?对于全球应对公共卫生挑战和经济严重衰退挑战,中国将发挥什么作用?

Lianhe Zaobao: In the Government Work Report, you said that China will face some factors that are difficult to predict in its development due to the great uncertainty regarding the COVID-19 pandemic and world economic and trade environment. So what is your reading of the external situation China faces? What will China do to cope with the changes in the international environment? And what role will China play in the global responses to the public health challenge and the challenge of serious global recession?

李克强:我们先看一下现在世界的变化。这次新冠肺炎疫情全球大流行,给世界造成了严重冲击,带来了巨大影响。现在因为防控疫情,各国之间的交流合作明显减少,如果再持续下去,世界经济会更加严重衰退,这是危险的。如果世界经济不能够恢复增长,可能将来连疫情都很难防控。在抗击疫情过程中特别需要公共产品,需要保持产业链、供应链稳定,更需要开放,推进贸易投资自由化与便利化。这样我们才能共同战胜疫情给世界带来的冲击,把损失减少到最小。

Premier Li: Let’s look at what’s happening around us. COVID-19 has impacted our world profoundly. There has been a significant deceleration and decline of exchanges and cooperation between countries because of the containment requirements. Should such a trend continue, the global economy will be pushed into deeper recession and that is something dangerous. And if the world economy cannot resume growth, it may be even challenging to sustain the COVID-19 response. In responding to COVID-19, we need public goods more than ever before; we need to keep the international industrial and supply chains stable. This requires even greater openness and the pursuit of trade liberalization and investment facilitation. With such joint efforts we will be able to prevail over and minimize the effects of COVID-19 on the world.

关起门来搞发展行不通,那就等于回到了农耕时代。中国坚定不移地推进对外开放,这不会、也不可能改变。我们会继续扩大与世界的合作,自主出台更多扩大开放措施。开放对各国如同空气对人一样,须臾不可离,否则就窒息了。我们在开放当中还要维护国际产业链、供应链稳定。当然也有人会说,要对产业链、供应链进行调整。至于企业的调整布局,是按市场规律办事,市场规律本来就是企业进进出出、生生死死。我们不能违背市场规律,凭空设计,而是要让市场更加相互开放。

It is impossible for any country to achieve development with its door closed or retreat back to the agrarian times. China will keep to its opening-up policy. China will not waver in this commitment, nor is it possible for us to shut our door to the outside world. Instead, we will further expand our cooperation with the rest of the world and introduce more opening-up measures on our own initiative.

坚持双向开放,那就要友好相处。第一,我们希望同世界各国相互尊重、平等相待。国家不管大小、贫富、强弱,都应该遵循这个规则。相处规则如果有不完善之处需要调整改革,大家一起商量着办。第二,互利互惠。既然是合作,就要共赢,独赢是不会长久的,吃独食也是行不通的。只有在共赢中大家才能够共同成长。再有,就是相互帮助、相互学习。各国都有各自的长处,都要担负起应尽的国际责任,携手应对各种困难和挑战。中国作为一个发展中大国,会担负起我们应当担负的国际责任。

Openness is as indispensable to a country’s development as air is to human beings. One will suffocate in an enclosed space. We, in this process, will work with others to keep global industrial and supply chains stable. Some have made plain their intention to readjust the global industrial and supply chains. We believe the shifts in global production of businesses should be done in accordance with market principles. In the marketplace, it is only natural for companies to come and go, succeed or fail. People should not make arbitrary plans against market rules. Instead, we should open up our markets wider to each other.

In an environment of mutual openness, we believe it’s important for countries to live side by side in amity. We hope that all countries will observe the principles of mutual respect and equality. We believe that all countries should be equals, big or small, rich or poor, strong or weak. And if there are some rules in today’s world that need to be improved, we can all sit down and work things out through discussions. We need to pursue mutual benefit in our cooperation. We don’t think for any one particular party to take all the benefits will work. Instead, we should pursue win-win. And in this environment we may achieve shared success. Countries should also support, help and learn from each other, as we can make the most of our comparative advantages. We believe all countries should fulfill their due international obligations and work together to tackle common challenges and difficulties. And China, as a large developing country, will surely live up to its share of international responsibilities.

中国是一个庞大的市场,我们推进的纾困和激发市场活力的规模性政策,会进一步扩大消费市场。希望中国还是大家看好的投资沃土。我们愿意进口更多国外商品,成为面向世界的大市场。

China is a huge market. All these policies of a sizable scale that we have introduced to provide relief to businesses will further spur consumption and energize our market. And we hope that people will stay optimistic about coming to invest in this big market of China. China is also prepared to boost imports from other parts of the world and we will be a big market for the whole world.

至于说到怎么应对疫情这场公共卫生挑战,让世界经济走出困境,我前面多次说了,要同舟共济、携手同行。我希望并相信,各国人民共同努力,疫情之后会更开放,衰退之后会有新繁荣。

As for how to respond to the public health crisis and global economic recession, as I have said in my previous remarks, we believe all members of the global community should pull together in a sense of partnership to prevail over the current difficulty. We hope and believe that with joint efforts of people around the world, the post-COVID-19 world will be a more open one. And this post-recession world will embrace new prosperity.


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