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双语对照:庆祝中华人民共和国成立70周年活动新闻发布会


来源:国新办    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2019-09-30 10:11   点击: 次  

庆祝中华人民共和国成立70周年活动新闻中心负责人袭艳春:

Xi Yanchun, person in charge of the Press Center for the Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China: 

女士们、先生们,各位记者朋友们,大家下午好!欢迎出席新闻中心第二场新闻发布会。新中国成立以来,民生不断改善,人民群众的获得感、幸福感、安全感不断提高,今天我们非常高兴地邀请到教育部部长陈宝生先生,民政部部长黄树贤先生,人力资源和社会保障部部长张纪南先生,住房和城乡建设部部长王蒙徽先生,国家卫生健康委员会主任马晓伟先生。请他们一起为大家介绍满足人民新期待,在发展中保障和改善民生。首先先请部长们逐一作一介绍。先请陈宝生先生作介绍。

Ladies and gentlemen, journalist friends, good afternoon. Welcome to the second press conference held in the press center. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, much headway has been made in improving the people's well-being, and the Chinese people have enjoyed more benefits and a stronger sense of happiness and security. 

Today, we are delighted to invite Mr. Chen Baosheng, minister of education, Mr. Huang Shuxian, minister of civil affairs, Mr. Zhang Jinan, minister of human resources and social security, Mr. Wang Menghui, minister of housing and urban-rural development, and Mr. Ma Xiaowei, head of the National Health Commission, to attend this conference. They will introduce China's efforts to meet people's new expectations, and how it will ensure and improve people's well-being amid its development. 

They will make their introductions one by one. First, I'll give the floor to Mr. Chen Baosheng.

教育部部长陈宝生:

Chen Baosheng, minister of education:

女士们、先生们:

首先我代表教育部和全体教育工作者,对长期以来关心、支持教育事业发展的记者朋友们表示衷心的感谢和敬意!70年来,经过几代人的不懈努力和艰苦拼搏,中国的教育发生了翻天覆地的变化。回顾70年来我们走过的路,可以说教育走过的历程波澜壮阔,教育事业发展取得的成就和我们每一个家庭是那样的紧密相连,也与我们每一个人的成长是那样的息息相关。这些成就可以从以下方面来看。

Ladies and gentlemen, first of all, on behalf of the Ministry of Education and all people involved in the education sector, I'd like to show my gratitude and respect to you for your long-term support and concern for our work. In the past 70 years, China's education sector has witnessed enormous changes.

第一个方面,从数量看规模。经过70年的努力,我们已经建起了当今世界规模最大的教育体系。我给大家讲三个数。一个数,现在我们有各级各类学校51.9万所。第二个数,各级各类教育在校生2.76亿。第三个数,各级各类专任教师1670多万。我在接待外宾的时候,谈到中国教育规模,我常常讲这三个数。这三个数常常使这些外宾们耸肩、张嘴、瞪眼睛。这三个数说明我们发展取得的成绩。

First, we can see the scale of our work from the sheer quantity of our country's educational needs. After over 70 years of hard work, China has established the world's largest education system. I'll explain this point with three figures. First, presently, China has around 519,000 schools of all levels and categories. Second, approximately 276 million people are studying in various educational institutions. Third, there are 16.7 million professional teachers in the country. 

第二,从质量看水平。经过70年的努力,中国现在教育总体水平已经跃居世界中上行列。我以高等教育为例,也给大家讲四个数,四个60%。一个是,我们国家高层次人才60%以上集聚在高等院校。第二个是,我们国家基础研究和国家重大科研任务的60%以上是由高校承担。第三个是,我们国家的国家重点实验室60%以上建在高校。第四个是,国家科技三大奖60%以上是由高校获得的。这是重要的综合国力。这是从质量看水平。

Second, the growth in quality reflects our growth in competence. After 70 years of hard work, the quality of our overall education system in China now ranks in the global upper-middle range. Take higher education for example. I'd like to share four figures with you. All of them are 60%. Currently, 60% of the country's high-level personnel, 60% of the country's basic research projects and major research tasks, and 60% of the country's key laboratories are based in institutions of higher education. Also, 60% of the country's three most important science-tech awards have been won by these institutions. This is a showcase of China's overall national strength.

第三,从结构看功能。经过70年的努力,我们现在已经建立起了功能完善、学科匹配、结构适宜的教育体系。结构决定功能,功能支撑贡献。70年来,特别是改革开放以来,教育为国家培养了两亿七千万接受过高等教育和职业教育的各类人才。我们国家新增劳动力中有48.2%的人接受过高等教育,平均受教育年限达到了13.6年。这是很重要的人力资本积累的过程。

Third, improvements in structure reflect the enhancement of functions. So far, China has established a complete education system with a balanced distribution of subjects and a proper structure. In the past 70 years, over 270 million people received higher education or vocational training in China. Of all new laborers, 48.2% have received higher education, with the average number of years of schooling being 13.6.

第四,从开放看影响。经过70年的努力,特别是改革开放以来,我们国家的教育对外开放不断扩大,现在已经成为国际教育交流合作的主力军之一,是主要大国。无论从基础教育、职业教育、高等教育来看,我们对外开放的水平都在不断扩大。基础教育的质量水平和特色,是世界公认的。我们的教材走出了国门,在PISA比赛中每一次我们都取得了很好的成绩。现在我们国家是世界最大的留学生生源国,世界第二的留学目的国,亚洲第一的留学目的国。我们的国际影响力在不断地提升,已经成为本科工程教育学历资格互认的《华盛顿协议》的成员国,我们的工程教育现在走遍全球都承认。

Fourth, the level of opening up reflects the growth of our influence. In the past 70 years, especially after the reform and opening up in 1978, China's education system has kept opening itself to the world. It has become one of the major forces in international communication and cooperation. The quality and special characteristics of China's preliminary education have been widely recognized in the world. China's textbooks have been introduced in many other countries. Chinese students have achieved good results in the tests of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Presently, China is the largest source of overseas students in the world. It is also the top destination country for overseas study in Asia. China's education system has become increasingly influential in the world. The country has also become a member state of the Washington Accord, which outlines mutual recognition, between the participating bodies of accredited engineering degree programs.

第五,从制度看保障。我们始终坚持党对教育工作的领导。建立了大中小学相衔接的思政工作体系和人才培养体系。建立了支撑教育优先发展战略的投入保障机制。我们从2012年开始,实现了财政性教育经费支出占GDP比重达4%的目标,从那开始,连续七年保持在这一水平上。2018年,全国教育投入总量4.6万亿,和建国初比,年均增长13.4%,增长幅度是很快的,教育支出已经成为公共财政的第一大支出。这些制度保障体系有力地促进了教育事业的快速发展。

总体来说,70年的发展,确实波澜壮阔,发生了翻天覆地的变化。教育工作者交出了一份无愧于历史、无愧于时代的答卷。我先介绍这些。下面愿意回答各位记者的提问。

Fifth, the establishment of various mechanisms reflects the support to the system. The leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) has always been upheld in the education system. In primary schools, middle schools and colleges, there are coherent systems to promote ideological works and cultivate talent. In 2012, government spending on education accounted for 4% of the national GDP, and this proportion has been basically unchanged for seven years. In 2018, the country's total investment in education was 4.6 trillion yuan, growing 13.4% annually on average from 1949. This figure is very high. The investment in education has become the largest share of government spending.  

袭艳春:

Xi Yanchun:

感谢陈宝生先生的介绍。下面有请黄树贤先生作介绍。

Thanks for Mr. Chen Baosheng's introduction. Now I will give the floor to Mr. Huang Shuxian.

民政部部长黄树贤:

Huang Shuxian:

女士们、先生们、新闻界的各位朋友们:

大家下午好!我很高兴向大家介绍新中国成立以来中国民政事业的发展情况。

Ladies and gentlemen, friends from the media, good afternoon. I am glad to brief you about the achievements we have made in civil affairs since the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

民政工作关系民生、连着民心。70年来,民政部门围绕不同时期党和国家中心工作,着力保障和改善民生,发挥在社会建设中的兜底性、基础性作用,有力地服务了改革发展稳定大局。

Over the past 70 years, the civil affairs authorities, in line with the central work of the Party and the State across different periods, have been committed to securing and improving the people's livelihood.

新中国成立以后,各级民政部门狠抓农村灾荒救济;对城市的残老孤幼、贫民给予生活救济,对游民乞丐进行收容改造;优抚烈士和军人家属,做好复员转业军人安置;指导基层政权建设。做好宣传婚姻法、人口调查、民工动员、行政区划、社团登记、殡葬管理等工作,民政工作在医治战争创伤、稳定社会秩序、稳固新生政权、推进社会主义改造和建设方面发挥了重要作用。

After the founding of the PRC, civil affairs organs at various levels made unrelenting efforts to provide disaster relief to rural areas, offered living subsidies to the disabled, the elderly, and orphans in cities, and provided shelters and education for vagrants and beggars. Benefits were granted to family members of revolutionary martyrs and military personnel. Demobilized soldiers were properly settled. Government at the primary level was consolidated. We have exerted great efforts in the publicity of the marriage law, demographic census, mobilization of migrant workers, management of administrative divisions, registration of social organizations, and funeral services management. In other words, civil affairs organs played an important role in healing the trauma of a war-torn country, maintaining social order, consolidating the new government, and promoting socialist reform and development.

改革开放特别是党的十八大以来,民政事业取得了历史性发展和成就。一是社会救济从临时性措施发展到制度化保障,建立了以最低生活保障为基础的社会救助体系,实现了与扶贫开发的有效衔接,每年保障6000万左右困难群众基本生活,织密兜牢了基本民生网底。二是养老服务从面向困难老年人逐步拓展到全体老年人,形成了以居家为基础、社区为依托、机构为补充、医养结合的中国特色养老服务体系。各类养老机构和设施17.33万个,床位735.3万张。城乡统筹的特困人员供养制度已经全面建立。三是儿童福利从孤儿向所有事实无人抚养儿童、留守儿童、困境儿童延伸,每年服务保障1400多万儿童。残疾人两项补贴惠及1006万困难残疾人和1193万重度残疾人。四是生活无着流浪乞讨人员救助从强制性收容遣送转变为自愿受助、无偿救助,平均每年救助近200万人次。五是基层群众自治制度被确立为中国基本政治制度之一并不断完善和发展,城乡社区综合服务设施覆盖率分别达到78.8%和45.7%。专业社会工作人才总量已经突破百万,注册志愿者人数已经超过1.2亿人。六是社会组织有序发展,各类社会组织达到83.5万个。慈善事业从自发分散向法治化、组织化、规范化转变,2018年全国社会捐赠总额超过900亿元。七是行政区划结构体系不断优化,界线勘界和两轮全国地名普查圆满完成。八是婚姻登记管理不断规范,近年来平均每年办理婚姻登记1400万对左右。九是殡葬改革持续深化,全国火化率达到50.5%,惠民殡葬制度普遍建立。十是党对民政工作的领导不断加强,2018年党和国家机构改革中央批准民政部新设了养老服务司、儿童福利司、慈善事业促进和社会工作司,民政部门的职能得到了强化。民政系统全面从严治党向纵深发展,风清气正的政治生态不断形成并加以巩固。

Since the reform and opening-up policy was adopted in 1978, especially after the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in 2012, China has seen historic developments and achievements in civil affairs.

First, social remedies have been institutionalized rather than be dependent on temporary measures. A social relief system based on subsistence allowances has been established, ensuring basic living standards of about 60 million people in difficulties each year.

Second, the scope of elderly care services has gradually expanded from the underprivileged to all elderly people. An elderly care system with Chinese characteristics that is based on families, supported by communities, supplemented by organizations and integrates elderly care and medical services has been formed. There are now 173,300 elderly care organizations and facilities of various kinds with 7.353 million beds for the elderly. A support system for people living in extreme poverty in both urban and rural areas has been fully established.

Third, China's child welfare system has expanded to cover not just orphans but all the de facto orphans, left-behind children and children facing difficulties. More than 14 million children receive social assistance services each year. In addition, 10.06 million disabled people living in poverty and 11.93 million severely disabled people have benefited from two subsidy policies.

Fourth, we have abolished the compulsory sheltering and transfer of vagrants and beggars and resorted to voluntary acceptance and free assistance. Nearly two million people on average receive assistance every year.

Fifth, the system of community-level self-governance has been established as one of China's basic political systems, and has been continually improved. 78.8% of urban communities and 45.7% of rural communities have developed facilities for comprehensive services. The number of professional social workers has exceeded one million, and there are over 120 million registered volunteers. 

Sixth, social organizations have seen orderly development. The number of social organizations of various kinds has reached 835,000. Charity work, which used to be voluntary and scattered, has become law-based, better organized and regulated. In 2018, social donations from across China reached 90 billion yuan.

Seventh, the structure of administrative division has been optimized. We have completed a boundary survey and two rounds of national surveys of geographical names.

Eighth, we have continually improved the administration of marriage registration. In recent years, nearly 14 million marriage registration applications were handled on average annually.

Ninth, reform of funerals and cremation administration has been deepened, with the country's cremation rate reaching 50.5%.

Tenth, the CPC's leadership over the civil affairs has been strengthened. In 2018, the Ministry of Civil Affairs was approved to establish three new departments, namely, a department of elderly care services, a department of child welfare , and a department of charity promotion and social work , which has boosted the functions of civil affairs authorities.

下一步,我们将在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指引下,深入学习贯彻今年3月习近平总书记对民政工作的重要指示精神和中央的决策部署,恪守“民政为民、民政爱民”的工作理念,更好履行基本民生保障、基层社会治理、基本社会服务等职责,为全面建成小康社会、全面建设社会主义现代化国家作出更大贡献!我就介绍到这里。谢谢大家。

In the future, under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, we will fully implement General Secretary Xi Jinping's instructions on civil affairs work and the decisions of the CPC Central Committee to better fulfill our duties.

袭艳春:

Xi Yanchun:

感谢黄树贤先生的介绍。下面有请张纪南先生作介绍。

Thanks for Mr. Huang Shuxian's introduction. Now I will give the floor to Mr. Zhang Jinan.

人力资源和社会保障部部长张纪南:

Zhang Jinan:

各位记者朋友,女士们、先生们,首先感谢记者朋友们长期以来对人力资源社会保障工作的关心与支持。

Ladies and gentlemen, friends from the media, I would like to express my gratitude to all of you for your long-time concern and support for our work.

就业是最大的民生,社会保障是民生安全网。党和政府历来高度重视就业和社会保障工作。特别是党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央,把促进就业摆在经济社会发展的优先位置,把社会保障体系建设作为实现共同富裕的重要途径,作出了一系列重大决策部署,取得了举世瞩目的成就。

Employment is pivotal to people's well-being and social security provides a safety net for people. The CPC and the government have always attached great importance to employment and social security. In particular, since the 18th National Congress of the CPC, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has prioritized employment in economic and social development, and considered the building of the social security system an important means to achieve common prosperity. A series of important policy decisions have been made, bringing about remarkable achievements.

在就业方面,中国就业形势保持长期稳定,实现了比较充分的就业。一是就业规模不断扩大。就业人数从1949年的1.8亿人增加到2018年的7.8亿人,扩大了3.3倍,同期的人口数扩大1.6倍。其中城镇就业扩大了27.3倍。近年来,中国城镇新增就业已连续6年超过1300万人,每年新增数接近1949年城镇全部就业人数,那时候的城镇就业人数也就1500万左右。

China's employment has long remained stable, as such we have achieved fuller employment.

First, the scale of employment has been continually expanding. The number of employees increased from 180 million in 1949 to 780 million in 2018, an increase of 3.3 times. Between 1949 and 2018, China's population saw an increase of 160%. For six consecutive years, China has added over 13 million urban jobs annually. The number of newly created urban jobs every year is close to the total number of urban jobs in 1949, which stood at 15 million.

二是就业结构持续优化。城乡就业的格局实现了历史性转变。城镇就业人员的占比从1949年的8.5%,提高到2018年的56%。第三产业就业的占比从1952年的9.1%,提高到2018年的46.3%。就业渠道多元化、就业形式多样化不断发展。

Second, the employment structure has been improving. The employment structure in urban and rural areas has seen historic transformation. In 1949, urban jobs only accounted for 8.5% of all jobs in China, while the proportion of urban employment hit 56% in 2018. Employees in tertiary industries accounted for 9.1% of the total employed workforce in 1952, in 2018, the proportion rose to 46.3%.

三是就业质量稳步提升。劳动者职业技能水平大幅提高,技能人才队伍发展壮大。职工收入不断增长,劳动者权益得到有效维护。同时,中国特色积极就业政策不断丰富完善,公共就业服务体系基本建立,人力资源市场不断培育完善。

Third, the quality of employment has been improving. The vocational skills of employees have significantly increased and the number of professionals with specialized technical skills has grown. The incomes of employees have been rising and their rights and interests have been better protected.

在社会保障方面,中国基本建成覆盖城乡居民的社会保障体系,社会保障网不断织密扎牢。一是纳入保障范围的人员越来越多。1951年参加劳动保险职工人数269万人,现在基本养老保险已覆盖超过9.5亿人。失业、工伤保险的参保人数均在2亿人以上,覆盖绝大多数职业群体。二是保障能力持续增强。基金规模不断扩大,养老、失业、工伤三项保险基金累计结余6.8万亿元。三是保障水平不断提升。基本养老金持续增加,失业、工伤待遇稳步提高。服务更加方便快捷,社会保障卡的持卡人数现在已近13亿人。我们国家用短短几十年的时间,基本建立起了世界上最大的社会保障安全网。2016年,国际社会保障协会授予中国政府“社会保障杰出成就奖”,这也可以从一个侧面反映中国社会保障体系取得的成效。

With regard to social security, China has basically established a social security system that covers both urban and rural residents. 

First, the number of people covered by the system is growing. In 1951, the number of workers with labor insurance was 2.69 million, and now the basic old-age insurance covers more than 950 million people. There are more than 200 million people with unemployment and work-related injuries insurance, covering most of the job categories.

Second, the social security capacity has been continuously enhanced. The social security fund is expanding, with the cumulative balance of the three insurance funds for pension, unemployment and work-related injuries totaling 6.8 trillion yuan. 

Third, the quality of social security has been continuously improved. Basic old-age pensions have continued to increase, and compensation for unemployment and work-related injuries have increased steadily. In just a few decades, our country has basically established the largest social security safety net in the world. In 2016, the International Social Security Association (ISSA) awarded the Chinese government the Award for Outstanding Achievements in Social Security.

下一步,我们将以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,锐意进取、开拓创新,推动实现更高质量和更充分就业,全面建成更加公平、更可持续的社会保障体系,让改革发展成果更多更公平地惠及全体人民。谢谢大家。

In the future, under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, we will stick to the people-centered development philosophy, and strive to achieve fuller employment and create higher quality jobs. We will establish a fairer and more sustainable social security system, so that the fruits of reform and development can be shared by all people in a fairer way. Thanks.

袭艳春:

Xi Yanchun:

感谢张纪南先生。下面有请王蒙徽先生作介绍。

Thank you, Mr. Zhang Jinan. I will give the floor to Mr. Wang Menghui.

住房和城乡建设部部长王蒙徽:

Wang Menghui:

女士们、先生们,大家下午好。新中国成立70年来,特别是党的十八大以来,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,住房和城乡建设事业取得了举世瞩目的成就。为中国经济社会发展和改善民生作出了突出的贡献。具体主要体现在以下四个方面:

Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. Over the past 70 years since the PRC's founding, and in particular since the 18th CPC National Congress, we have made remarkable achievements in housing and urban and rural construction under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core. The achievements mainly cover the following four aspects:

一是人民群众的住房条件显著改善。新中国成立70年来,党和国家始终高度重视解决人民群众的住房问题。经过长期的努力,我们基本上解决了近14亿人口的大国城乡居民的住房问题。城镇人均住房建筑面积由1949年的8.3平方米提高到2018年的39平方米,农村人均住房建筑面积提高到47.3平方米。住房制度改革不断深化,保障性安居工程加快推进,累计建设各类保障性住房和棚改安置住房8000多万套,帮助2亿多群众解决了住房困难,建成了世界上最大的住房保障体系。

First, we significantly improved the people's housing conditions. Since the PRC's founding 70 years ago, the CPC and the country always attached great importance to people's housing. Through continuous efforts, we basically addressed the housing needs of urban and rural residents in this large country with a population of nearly 1.4 billion. The per capita floor space of urban residents increased from 8.3 square meters in 1949 to 39 square meters in 2018, and that of rural residents increased to 47.3 square meters. We built over 80 million units of government-subsidized housing of various types and housing for people displaced by rebuilding initiatives, helped over 200 million people out of their housing difficulties, and built up the world's largest housing guarantee system.

二是城市建设日新月异。城镇化进程波澜壮阔,创造了世界城市发展史上的奇迹。城市数量由1949年的132个增加到2018年的672个,城镇化率由10.6%提高到59.6%。改革开放以来,城市基础设施建设步伐加快,道路长度增加了15倍,建成区的绿地面积增加了19倍,污水和生活垃圾处理能力分别提高263倍、395倍,燃气、自来水普及率分别达到96.7%和98.4%,城市承载能力不断增强,人居环境更加生态宜居。

Second, we pushed forward with urban construction with each passing day. China's process of urbanization created a miracle in the history of the world's urban development. The number of cities in China increased from 132 in 1949 to 672 in 2018, and the country's urbanization rate increased from 10.6% to 59.6%. Since the reform and opening up, up to 96.7% and 98.4% of people in urban areas can now get access to fuel gas and tap water respectively.

三是农村面貌焕然一新。建国以来,社会主义新农村建设深入推进,乡村的面貌发生了巨大的变化。特别是党的十八大以来,围绕打赢脱贫攻坚战,大力推进农村危房改造,支持1794万农户改造了危房,700多万户建档立卡贫困户实现了住房安全有保障。加快推进美丽宜居乡村建设,加强村庄规划建设管理,村容村貌明显提升,推进农村垃圾、污水治理,农村人居环境持续改善。加强传统村落保护,6819个村落列入中国传统村落保护名录,形成了世界上规模最大的农耕文明遗产保护群。

Third, we renewed the countryside with a new look. Great changes took place in the countryside since the PRC's founding. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in particular, we supported 17.94 million rural households in renovating their dilapidated houses, and guaranteed the housing security of over seven million registered poor households. We improved the living environment in rural areas by treating rural garbage and sewage. We also mounted our efforts in the protection of traditional villages. With 6,819 villages included in the protection list of traditional Chinese villages, this was the world's largest cluster of agricultural heritage to be protected.

四是建筑业发展水平不断提高。建筑业总产值比建国初期增加了4000多倍,从业人员占全国就业人口的比重超过7%,建筑业在国民经济中的支柱产业地位显著增强。为推动城乡建设发展提供了有力的支撑。改善了城乡生产生活条件,工程建设技术水平不断提高,港珠澳大桥、北京新机场等一大批重大工程建设达到了国际先进水平。建筑业“走出去”的步伐加快,在“一带一路”建设中发挥了重要作用。

Fourth, we constantly reached new heights in the construction industry. We made continuous technological progress in engineering construction, and built up a large number of world-class major projects, such as the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge and Beijing Daxing International Airport. China's construction industry is rapidly growing more globallyand plays an important role in the construction of the Belt and Road.

回顾成绩,我们倍感自豪;展望未来,我们充满信心。站在新的历史起点上,我们将坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指引,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,坚持新发展理念,进一步保障和改善民生,不断推动住房和城乡建设事业高质量发展,为全面建成小康社会,实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦作出新的更大贡献。谢谢大家。

At this new historic starting point, we will continue following the guidance of the Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and promoting the high-quality development of housing and urban and rural construction while staying committed to a people-oriented philosophy. Thank you.

袭艳春:

Xi Yanchun:

感谢王蒙徽先生。下面有请马晓伟先生作介绍。

Thank you, Mr. Wang. Now let's welcome Mr. Ma who will give us an introduction.

国家卫生健康委员会主任马晓伟:

Ma Xiaowei:

感谢国内外记者朋友们长期以来对中国医疗卫生事业所给予的关心和支持。

I would like to thank the international media friends for your continuous concern and support for China's medical and health undertakings.

人民健康是民族昌盛和国家富强的一个重要的标志。新中国成立70年来,党和政府高度重视医疗卫生事业,始终坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,构建我们国家的基本医疗卫生制度。特别是党的十八大以来,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央的领导下,把人民健康放到优先发展战略的位置上,推进健康中国建设,使中国的医疗卫生事业的发展开始了历史的新征程。

Healthy people are an important symbol of a prosperous nation and a strong country. Since the PRC's founding 70 years ago, the CPC and the government have always paid great attention to medical and health care, and developed the country's basic medical and health care system with a people-oriented philosophy in mind. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in particular, under the leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, we treat people's health as a strategic priority. We have stepped up efforts to build a healthy China, and embarked on a new journey to develop China's medical and health services.

70年来,中国居民健康水平持续改善,人均预期寿命从35岁提高到77岁,婴儿死亡率由200‰下降到6.1‰,孕产妇死亡率由1500/10万下降到18.3/10万,主要健康指标优于中高收入国家的平均水平,用比较少的投入解决了全世界六分之一人口的看病就医问题,中国的医疗卫生事业走出了一条具有中国特色的道路。经过70年不懈的努力,我们国家的医疗卫生事业发生了翻天覆地的变化。主要是有几个方面:

Chinese people's health have continued to improve- over the past 70 years. The life expectancy increased from 35 years old to 77 years old, the infant mortality rate dropped from 200‰ to 6.1 ‰, and the maternal mortality rate dropped from 1500 in every 100,000 to 18.3 in every 100,000. The main health indicators of the Chinese people all performed better than the average scores of people from middle- and high-income countries. China has addressed the medical and health care of one sixth of the world's population with relatively less investment, and figured out a path with Chinese characteristics for its medical and health undertakings. The achievements mainly cover the following aspects:

一是医疗卫生网络不断健全,服务的可及性显著提高。我们国家建立了覆盖城市(省、市、县)、农村(县、乡、村)的医疗预防保健三级网,使全体人民人人享有基本医疗保健成为可能。社会办医速度也正在加快发展,2018年,民营医院床位占全国总床位超过26%。全国的医疗卫生机构的总数超过99万个,床位达到840万张。卫生健康系统人员总数达到了1231万人,每千人口医生数达到了2.59人,每千人口的护士数达到了2.94人,超过了中等收入国家的平均水平。

First, the medical and health network, which offers people greater access to medical and health services have continuously improved. China established a three-tier network of medical treatment, precaution and health care. It covers urban areas (provinces, municipalities and counties) and rural areas (counties, townships and villages) and makes it possible for all to enjoy basic medical and health care. Private hospitals in the country also developed rapidly. In 2018, beds in private hospitals accounted for over 26% of the total beds in China and there were up to 8.4 million beds in over 990,000 medical and health organizations, there were 12.31 million people working in the healthcare system, and 2.59 doctors and 2.94 nurses to every 1,000 people, exceeding the average level of middle-income countries.

二是卫生投入不断提高,群众看病就医的负担逐渐减轻。2018年,中国卫生总费用占GDP比重达到6.6%。城乡居民基本医保财政补助和人均基本公共卫生服务经费补助标准不断提高,基本医疗保障体系从无到有建立起来。本着低水平、广覆盖、可持续的原则,覆盖人口达到了13亿多,参保率稳定在95%。我们用比较短的时间,建立了世界上最大基本医疗保障网。个人卫生支出占卫生总费用的比重下降到28.6%,进入了一个本世纪最低的水平。

Second, our attention and investment in health care have increased constantly, which has gradually reduced people's economic burden with medical fees. In 2018, China's total health expenditure accounted for 6.6% of its GDP. There was a constant rise in government subsidies for basic medical insurance for urban and rural residents and subsidies per capita for basic public health services. The basic medical insurance system already covers over 1.3 billion people, with the insured rate has stabilized at 95%. In a relatively short time, we built up the world's largest basic medical insurance network. We also cut the proportion of personal health expenditure in total health expenditure to 28.6%, the lowest level since 2000.

第三,坚持预防为主,主要疾病得到遏制。我们国家开展爱国卫生运动,使城乡卫生环境得到明显改善。我们国家实行计划免疫制度,使疫苗可预防的传染病降低到了一个非常低的水平,我们国家注意控制重大疾病,使艾滋病、结核病、血吸虫病、乙肝这些重大疾病得到了控制,职业病和地方病的防治工作也取得了可喜的成效。我们国家具有一支完整的卫生突发公共事件的应急队伍和体系,成功地处置了非典、H7N9等重大突发疫情。

Third, we curbed the transmission of major diseases by prioritizing precaution. China implemented a planned immunization system, which brought down the number of people with vaccine-preventable infectious diseases to a very low level. We curbed the transmission of major diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis, schistosomiasis and Hepatitis B, and achieved gratifying results in the precaution and treatment of occupational and endemic diseases. We also successfully handled SARS, H7N9 and other major outbreaks while relying on the country's own team and system of addressing public health emergencies.

第四,医疗服务能力持续提升。人民群众的获得感不断增强。我们国家在一些医学的关键技术领域里有一些新的突破,产生了一批国际领先成果,新技术、新设备和新方法得到了推广和应用。在扩大医疗服务供给,改进医疗服务质量,加大医德医风建设方面取得了新的进展。2018年,全国门急诊总量超过83亿人次,出院量超过2.5亿人次,全力开展了健康扶贫,保障妇女、儿童、老年人、残疾人、贫困人口等重点人群的健康,不断提高卫生健康服务的公平性。

Fourth, the capacity to offer medical services improved continuously. In 2018, there were over 8.3 billion visits to outpatient and emergency departments, and over 250 million people were discharged from hospitals. We spared no efforts in alleviating poverty by addressing health issues and safeguarding the health of women, children, the elderly, the disabled and the poor, and promoted more equitable health services.

第五,发挥中医药特色优势,推进传承创新。加强中医人才培养,评选表彰国医大师,推进中医的适宜技术,推动中医药在海外发展。

Fifth, we made use of the strengths of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and promoted its traditional aspects and innovation. We strengthened the training of TCM experts, selected and awarded TCM masters, and promoted appropriate TCM techniques and the development of TCM overseas.

第六,拓展卫生国际交流,参与全球健康治理。我们国家累计向71个国家派遣医疗队队员2.6万人次,诊疗患者2.8亿人次,中国加强同国际组织的合作,支持西非抗击埃博拉出血热疫情,与国际组织、有关国家和地区签订并实施了160多个健康领域的合作协议。

Sixth, we expanded our exchanges with the rest of the world on health-related causes and participated in global health governance. China sent 26,000 medical team members to 71 countries, and treated 280 million patients in total. The country also intensified its cooperation with international organizations to fight against Ebola in west Africa, and signed over 160 cooperation agreements on health with international organizations and relevant countries and regions.

下一步,我们将持续推进健康中国的战略,推动医疗卫生服务高质量地发展,更好地为人民健康服务。谢谢大家。

Our next step is to continue promoting a healthy China and the high-quality development of medical and health undertakings to serve the people. Thank you.

袭艳春:

Xi Yanchun:

感谢马晓伟先生。民生领域涉及面非常广,而且70年来发生的翻天覆地的变化有太多可圈可点。接下来,看看记者朋友们有没有什么感兴趣的问题,提问前请通报一下所在的新闻机构。请提问。

Thank you, Mr. Ma Xiaowei. Next, let's give the floor to our media friends. Please identify the news organization you represent before asking your questions. Now, the floor is open for questions.

中央广播电视总台央视记者:

CCTV:

我想问马主任,刚才您介绍了咱们卫生健康工作这70年的进展。我们的确感受到这些年来就医环境有了很大的改善。下一步,将采取哪些措施进一步解决“看病难”“看病贵”的问题?谢谢。

My question is for Mr. Ma. Earlier, you introduced the progress in health-related work in China during the past seven decades. And we know well from our own experience that the medical services have improved a lot in recent years. What measures will you take next to better resolve the problem of access to and affordability of medical services? Thank you.

马晓伟:

Ma Xiaowei:

解决“看病难”“看病贵”问题是我们卫生工作长期要解决的一个重大的问题。总的来讲,我们国家的医疗卫生事业存在的突出矛盾是人民群众日益增长、不同层次的医疗需求和我们国家医疗资源总量不足、结构分配不合理、优质资源匮乏,特别是我们国家医疗资源的分配,存在着区域、城乡、医院和学科之间发展不平衡不充分之间的矛盾。进一步深化医改,解决群众看病难的问题,就主要是要从资源配置的角度、从事业发展的角度来解决问题。我们在解决这方面的问题,有四个方面的考虑:

Resolving the problem of access to and affordability of medical services is a prolonged major issue in our health work. To deepen the reform of the medical and health care systems, and make medical services more accessible, we should optimize the distribution of medical resources and try to solve the problem from a developmental perspective. Here, we have four major considerations.

第一,稳步地推进国家医学中心的建设。提高各个省的医疗卫生水平,把学科建设抓起来,使各个省都能够解决自己省内的疑难重症的治疗问题,而不是使这些患者都到北上广来看病。最近中央深改委审议通过了区域医疗中心建设试点工作方案,我们也和四个省签订了省部共建区域医疗中心的协议,这样使得病人的分流能够从北上广分流到各个省、各个区,这是首先解决第一步,减少患者跨区域就诊,推进区域分开。

First, we will steadily progress in our efforts to develop national medical centers. We will improve the level of medical and health services of all provinces, nurture local doctors skilled in the relevant medical disciplines so that patients with difficult and complicated diseases can be treated and cured within their provinces, rather than rushing to hospitals in metropolises like Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. Recently, the CPC Central Committee for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms has adopted a plan on the pilot construction of regional medical centers. Also, we have signed agreements with four provinces on jointly building regional medical centers.

第二步就是我们继续实施县级医院能力提升工程。从2004年我们会同财政部推出了万名医生支援农村的工程,推动三级甲等医院对口支援县医院。我们国家农村的医疗卫生事业的发展,县医院的水平非常重要。如果县医院能够把本地区的疑难重症解决好,这些农民得了疑难重症就不一定就去大城市。所以要想解决几亿农民“看病难”和“看病贵”的问题,就是要把农民大部分的疾病解决在县域内。只有县里成为综合学科业务施展的平台,也只有县里的水平提高,才能使农民“小病不出村、大病不进城”。所以我们持续推进城市的三级甲等医院对口支援县,现在已经有500所县医院达到了三级医院的水平。下一步,我们到2020年还要推动500个县医院和500个县中医院达到三级医院的水平。

Second, we will continue to enhance the medical capabilities of county-level hospitals. Together with the Ministry of Finance, we have launched the project "ten thousand doctors giving support in rural medical care" since 2004, consistently encouraging urban Grade-A tertiary hospitals to extend support to rural county-level hospitals. At present, 500 county hospitals have reached the level of tertiary hospitals. Next, we plan to help another 500 county hospitals and 500 county TCM hospitals reach the level of tertiary hospitals by 2020.

第三个做法,我们就是要把区域的医疗机构资源进行整合。现在我们的情况,大病、小病都去大医院,城市农村患者都去大医院。大医院门庭若市,小医院门可罗雀。中国看病难,主要是找大医院专家难。基层医院的水平提不高,人们肯定要去大医院,看病必然是难。所以要加强基层的建设,我们就在城市里建设医联体,大医院带动小医院,在农村建设医共体,县医院连接乡镇卫生院,使得县乡一体、乡镇一体,把基层的水平能够有所提高,医疗资源能够纵向的流动,这样“看病难”就能够大病在医院、小病在社区,康复还能回社区,加快构建整合型医疗服务体系。不同级别的医院,要实现自己的功能定位。

Third, we will consolidate regional medical resources. Nowadays, people are used to rushing into big hospitals to treat both minor and serious illnesses. We will improve medical services at the grass-roots level, develop healthcare consortiums in urban areas, with big hospitals guiding smaller hospitals. We will also develop medical communities in rural areas, linking township hospitals to county hospitals. By upgrading the overall level of grass-roots medical services, we hope to find a good solution where serious illnesses are treated at hospitals, while treatments for minor illnesses and rehabilitation are available within the communities. 

第四个方面,就是推动医保支付方式的改革。病人的分流和支付方式有很大关系。去大医院看病和小医院看病,支付的费用不同,经济杠杆所发挥的作用也不同。现在我们正在推进支付方式的改革,使得急性病在急性病医院看,有急性病的价格,慢性病、康复期的病人在其他医院看,在不同医院看有不同的价格。比如在基层看病,报销要高一些;到上一级医院看病,报销就要少一些;出省看病,报销的更要少一些,差异性的支付方式引导病人分流。同时最近三级甲等医院开始推出日间服务,很多过去需要住院的病人在日间就可以完成手术。这种手术往往是开展微创技术比较多,痛苦小,成本低,费用低,效果好。我们正在推进。

Fourth, we will advance the reform of health insurance payouts, which are very closely linked to the categorization and division of patients. The medical fees charged by a big hospital are different from that of a small hospital. A reform that will institute differentiated or tiered charges is now carried out to create different categories for reposition of patients.

我们通过四个方面的现有资源的利用、盘活,来进一步推进分级诊疗,推动病人分流。这是从存量上讲的。如果从增量上来讲,我们在这次医改有一个很重要的,就是开展住院医生规范化的培训。我们国家的医学生是念五年,然后出去到社会上去。我们增加三年在大医院规范化的临床培训,出来之后,农村的医生,大医院和小医院的医生,水平是接近的。这样我们在区域内、在城乡、在医院,医生的水平是接近的,病人的流动现象就能够控制住。提供均值化的医疗服务就是要提供均值化的医生。住院医生规范化培训,要从根本上在医学教育和培养方面解决医生水平不平衡的问题。

By putting current medical resources to good use, we will promote the tiered diagnosis and treatment model to further categorize and divide patients into different groups. A major task in our medical reform is to carry out the standardized training of resident physicians. In China, medical students must finish a five-year undergraduate program before graduation. We then help graduates undergo clinical training at large hospitals for another three years. After training, the expertise level of village doctors, and doctors from big or small hospitals is relatively similar. 

在“看病贵”的问题上,我们主要考虑三个方面:一个是要发展我们国家的医疗保障体系。我们国家现在的医保,刚才讲了,低水平、广覆盖、可持续,发展得很快,覆盖得很快,但是保障能力有限,特别是对于抗大病风险、经济灾难性的疾病风险,还是有限的。我们国家医保现在以市一级为单位的统筹,这个池子太小,统筹级别太低,到省一级的统筹,池子深,这样能够更好地解决看病贵的问题,就是筹资水平还需要提高。同时推进商业保险的发展。我们国家商业保险和补充保险发展不充分,基本医疗保险是不可能解决我们所有疑难重症的经济负担的。这方面我们国家还需要进一步地发展,提高保障的能力。

As for the affordability of medical services, our focus is on the following three areas. First, we will develop our medical care system. China's current healthcare insurance system is based on a low-level model with widespread coverage but is now undergoing rapid and sustainable changes and development. However, the system is still somewhat weak in the areas of critical illnesses and offsetting high medical expenses in the event of emergencies or critical illness. In the meantime, we are also developing commercial insurance schemes.  

第二个是完善药品政策。这两天大家也看到了,“4+7”的招标采购扩大,也还在推进。国务院和相关部门采取了有力的措施,来推动这次改革。甚至也可以说是近几年改革的重要的突破口。第一个措施就是进口专利药降价,抗癌药通过国家谈判,17种药品降价,进入医保。第二是“4+7”集中招标、带量采购。降低了交易成本,特别是中间环节的成本。解决药价虚高问题,牵扯到医药产业,牵扯到医疗服务产业。这个问题如果解决得好,对中国医药产业的战略重组和良性竞争,会起到一个非常重要的推动作用,对我们加强医院管理、规范医疗行为、改进医德医风,也会起到非常重要的作用。同时,我们要使各级各类公立医院积极使用中标药品,组织好药品的生产和配送,一定不要再出现“中标死”这种情况。现在从药品配送和使用的情况看,进展很好,老百姓能够享受到药品降价所取得的红利。

Second, we will upgrade policies related to medical supplies. We have cut the prices of some imported patent drugs. After negotiations, the prices of 17 cancer drugs were slashed and these drugs were included in the national medical insurance catalog. Also, we conducted a volume-based drug procurement scheme, which reduced transaction costs, especially costs incurred in the intermediary links of the production of drugs. 

第三个是加强医院的管理。首先是加强医生的医德医风教育,二是加强行业监督。国办最近印发了三级公立医院绩效考核工作的意见。我们抓好实施推动中国大医院从规模扩张型走向质量效益型,从粗放式经营走向集约化经营,从投资医院发展建设转向扩大分配,提高医院整体效能。解决“看病难”的问题,主要是一个资源的盘活和提升的问题。解决“看病贵”的问题,主要是解决补偿和管理的问题。这个问题我就回答到这儿。谢谢。

Third, we will enhance the management of hospitals. We must strengthen the professional ethics and work practices of doctors and increase supervision in the healthcare industry.  

中国日报记者:

China Daily:

技能人才是推动经济社会发展的重要因素。在刚刚结束的世界技能大会上,中国的选手取得了很好的成绩。请问,下一步将如何进一步推动中国技能人才的发展?谢谢。

Having talent with professional skills is important in promoting economic and social development. The WorldSkills Competition has just concluded and Chinese contestants have excelled in this event. What will China do to further promote the development of skilled talents? Thank you.

张纪南:

Zhang Jinan:

谢谢你对技能人才工作的关心。世界技能大赛也被称作“世界技能奥林匹克”。中国从2011年第一次参赛获得1块银牌,今年获得了16金、14银、5铜,取得了金牌、奖牌和团体总分“3个第一”的历史最好成绩。这从一个侧面反映了中国技能人才队伍建设的规模和水平不断扩大和提高,也反映了中国产业发展的规模和水平不断扩大和提高。

Thank you for your concerns about the development of talents with professional skills. The WorldSkills Competition is also being called "WorldSkills Olympics.” Back in 2011 when China first participated in this event, we left with just one silver medal. This year, Chinese contestants won 16 gold medals, 14 silver medals, and five bronze medals, ranking top in the gold medal list, the medal table, and the list of groups' total score. This is China's highest-ever ranking since 2011.

近日,习近平总书记专门作出重要指示,充分肯定中国技能选手取得的优异成绩,并对下一步加强技能人才队伍建设提出了更高的要求,这是我们的根本遵循。

Not long ago, General Secretary Xi Jinping gave important instructions, fully recognizing the achievements of Chinese contestants in this event, and setting a higher standard for the further development of Chinese talents with professional skills. This provides a fundamental basis for our work in this field.

技能人才发展是利国、利企、利民的大事、实事、好事。对国家来讲,这是中国制造、中国创造的重要支撑。对企业来讲,这是提高企业竞争能力、提高经济效益的重要基础。对劳动者来讲,“一技在手、终身受益”,是实现高质量就业的重要保障。这次中国获奖的选手里面,有4名来自建档立卡的贫困家庭。这说明,一人技能成才,全家就能脱贫。下一步推进技能人才工作,我们总的思路是:聚焦一个目标、坚持“三个导向”、突出“四个加大”。

From a national perspective, developing talents with professional skills is important to support the endeavor to create "made in China” and "created in China” products and services. In addition, for businesses, talents with professional skills are the key foundation to improve its competitiveness. For employees, professional skills are also an important pre-requisite to find high-quality employment. The next step to develop talents with professional skills can be summarized into these three aspects:

聚焦一个目标,就是要聚焦习近平总书记提出的“加快培养大批高素质劳动者和技术技能人才”的目标。也就是说,速度要加快,数量要扩大,素质要提高。坚持“三个导向”,就是要坚持能力导向,以提升劳动者的技能水平、能力素质为核心;坚持市场导向,就是要贴紧社会、产业、企业、个人的发展需求;坚持问题导向,就是要针对技能人才发展存在的短板弱项,聚焦问题、捯根问题、解决问题。突出“四个加大”,一是加大职业技能培训的力度。实施国家职业技能提升行动,开展大规模的职业技能培训,用3年时间,使用1000亿的失业保险资金结余,补贴培训5000万人次。我们称之为“315工程”。这个工程有一系列含金量比较高的补贴和扶持政策,是个利企惠民的工程。对企业来讲,有商机;对劳动者个人来讲,有“升机”,就是有提升发展的机会。希望大家关心关注,不要错过时机。

First, we will focus on one goal put forward by General Secretary Xi Jinping, which is to "speed up the training of a large number of high-quality workers as well as technical and skilled talents.”

Second, we will adhere to the principle of a "three factor-oriented” approach. First is an "ability-oriented” approach that focuses on improving employees' skills, abilities, and capacity. Second is a "market-oriented” concept that training should be closely linked to the needs of society, industries, enterprises, and the need for personal development. Finally, a "problem-oriented” approach will also be adopted to address problems that exist in the training of skilled talents.

Third, we will highlight the "four aspects of enhancement.” 

First is to improve vocational training. We will step up our efforts to carry out large-scale vocational training, and have made a three-year plan to use the balance of 100 billion yuan in unemployment insurance as subsidies to train 50 million personnel. This plan is called "Project 315.” 

Second, we will make further institutional reform on the development of talents with professional skills. The reform will focus on establishing a mechanism for talent training, employment, evaluation, and incentive. This is the key to promote the development of talent.

Third, we will work to organize more competitions involving professional skills. As efforts are now being made to plan for the all-round national skills competition, we will also be committed to organizing the 46th WorldSkills Competition in Shanghai. 

The last aspect is to strengthen our publicity on talent development. Over the past few years, the CPC and the Chinese government have placed great importance on the development of talent, and the general situation has improved. However, the idea of "emphasizing degrees and theories while neglecting abilities and practices” still exist to a certain extent. This needs to be addressed in our publicity work.

凤凰卫视记者:

Phoenix TV:

家家都有老人,人人也都会老,养老问题关系到我们每一个人。想请问黄部长,70年来,咱们在老有所养方面取得了哪些成就?另外,下一步还会采取哪些措施?谢谢。

Care for the elderly is related to everyone of us. My question is for Mr. Huang. What achievement has China made in the past 70 years in regard to its care for the elderly? In addition, what measures will be taken in future to address this? Thank you.

黄树贤:

Huang Shuxian:

我来回答这位记者同志提出的问题。这位记者讲得好,“家家有老人,人人都会老”,我还要加一句,“大家都关心”。老人关心,中年人也关心,中年人关心不仅因为自己会变老,更重要的他承担着非常繁重的养老孝老的责任。另外,孩子们也关心,奶奶、爷爷有个很好的老年生活,孩子们也开心,也高兴。所以,大家都关心。

党中央、国务院对养老问题高度重视,加强领导,推动养老事业的发展。新中国成立以来,特别是党的十八大以来,中国的养老服务事业实现了历史性变革和跨越式发展,主要表现在以下几个方面:

The CPC Central Committee and the State Council have placed great importance on the issue of elderly care, and a stronger leadership has been formed to promote the development of this great endeavor. Since the founding of the PRC in 1949, especially since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, China's undertaking of elderly care and services has made historic progress. This can be demonstrated in the following aspects:

一是中国特色养老服务体系逐步形成。我们建立了以居家为基础、社区为依托、机构为补充、医养相结合的多层次养老服务体系,特别是近年来,针对老年人居家养老需求比较强烈的情况,不断地扩大居家和社区养老服务的改革试点,针对老年人多样化养老服务需求,放开养老服务市场,扩大市场和社会力量参与,优化了养老服务供给。截至2019年6月底,全国各类养老机构2.99万个,社区养老服务机构和设施14.34万个,养老服务床位合计735.3万张。其中,超过50%的养老机构和近40%的养老床位由社会力量举办,实现了从政府为主向政府、社会共同发展养老服务的重要转变。

First, a system of elderly care services with Chinese characteristics has been established. We have built a multi-layered service system of elderly care. It is based on households, relying on communities, supported by institutions, and completed by combining medical and care services. By the end of June 2019, the number of elderly care institutions in China reached 29,900; the number of community-based elderly care institutions and facilities reached 143,400; and the number of beds for elderly care services totaled 7.353 million. More than 50% of elderly care institutions and about 40% of beds for elderly care services are run privately.

二是中国特色养老服务制度基本建立。国家颁布实施了老年人权益保障法,连续多年将养老服务纳入国民经济和社会发展规划纲要,列入了国家基本公共服务清单。中央层面先后出台加快发展养老服务、全面放开养老服务市场、推进医养结合等多项政策性文件,今年国务院还专门出台了解决养老服务发展堵点痛点问题、扩大养老服务供给、促进养老服务消费等政策性措施,着力破除制约养老服务发展的体制机制方面的障碍。我们还将符合条件的1500万和400万困难老年人分别纳入了最低保障的范围和政府供养范围。高龄津贴制度和经济困难老年人的服务补贴、失能老年人的护理补贴制度基本实现了省级全覆盖,已经惠及了近3600万老年人。农村留守老年人关爱服务体系加快建立,就医、公共交通、教育、文化娱乐等领域的照顾服务措施也广泛实施。

Second, the institution of elderly care services with Chinese characteristics has been basically established. 15 million seniors who are in financial difficulty now fall into the group that enjoys a minimum level of subsistence allowances while 4 million elderly people are part of the group that is being supported by the government. Major categories of elderly allowance have been disbursed at the provincial level, including old age allowance, subsidies for seniors in financial difficulty, and the allowance for those unable to cope with everyday life. Nearly 36 million elderly people have benefited from this.

三是养老服务的质量和水平不断提升。我们深入贯彻习近平总书记关于提高养老院服务质量的重要指示精神,连续四年开展提高养老院服务质量的专项行动,持续加大养老服务设施建设投入的力度,全面整治各种养老服务风险隐患,努力让老年人在养老机构生活得安心、静心、舒心。先后颁布了《养老机构服务质量基本规范》《养老机构等级划分与评定》等多项国家标准和行业标准,用制度和标准保障养老服务质量。我们还大力发展面向失能老年人的康复辅具产业,加强养老服务人才培养。

Third, the quality and standard of elderly care services have improved. We fully implemented General Secretary Xi Jinping's important instructions on improving the quality of service in nursing homes, and have been carrying out special operations in this field for four consecutive years. We are continuing to increase the investment in facilities for elderly care, comprehensively eliminating the risks, and trying to make the elderly comfortable in nursing institutions.

养老服务关系到每个人、每个家庭,而且是一项长期的艰巨任务,下一步,我们将会同有关部门进一步完善政策措施,主要是要进一步放开养老服务市场,鼓励发展养老事业,健全养老服务体系。这个体系就是“居家为基础、社区为依托、机构为补充、医养相结合”。“居家为基础”就是居家是养老的重点。“社区为依托”是指社区是老人活动的重要场所,也是居家养老服务的重要支撑。“机构为补充”,因为到机构里面去的,一方面是有些特困老人、困难老人,另一方面是有些失能、半失能老人,还有一些愿意到养老机构养老的老人。所以一定要把机构建设好、管理好。“医养相结合”,主要是老年人相对来说,生病的多一点,有的病重一些,医养结合十分重要。我们和卫健委配合得非常好,正在大力地推进医养相结合的一些措施。

我们还将通过健全养老服务体系,扩大养老服务供给。目前养老服务的供给还不能完全顺应老年人的养老服务需求,所以,我们还要为老年人提供更加多样化的养老服务。我们还要进一步提高养老服务质量,确保养老服务安全、可靠。我们相信,通过各方面共同的努力,一定能够让广大的老年人拥有快乐、健康、幸福的晚年。我就回答到这里。谢谢。

Next, we will further open China's elderly care market, encouraging the development of elderly care and improving the system of elderly care services.

We will also expand the supply of elderly care services by establishing a comprehensive system accordingly. In addition, we will provide more diversified services for the elderly. We will further improve the quality of elderly care services so as to make sure it is reliable and safe.

南方都市报记者:

Nanfang Metropolis Daily:

这个问题我想提问陈宝生部长。我们都知道,教育问题备受外界的关注,从70年的发展历程来看,您觉得哪些方面最能体现咱们中国教育的特点和特色?谢谢。

I have a question for Mr. Chen. Education receives much attention from the outside world. In the past 70 years, what have been the most distinctive characteristics and features of China's education system? 

陈宝生:

Chen Baosheng:

你提的这个问题很有意义。我觉得凡是从特色特点角度考虑问题的,都是希望抓住规律。70年来,中国教育发展取得了举世瞩目的成绩,变化是历史性的。用最简洁的语言来概括中国教育的特点和特色,我想有两条,一是“快”,二是“公”。

Over the past 70 years, Chinese education has made great achievements and experienced a historic change. To summarize the characteristics and features in the simplest of words, they are "quick” and "equal.”

“快”是就速度讲的,这里的关键词是“跨越”,基本方法是“拼搏”。新中国刚成立的时候,小学净入学率只有20%,4亿5千多万人口中大学生只有11.7万。我们用了20多年时间,走完了发达国家上百年的义务教育普及之路。我们用了十几年时间,实现了高等教育从精英化到大众化的跨越。经过70年发展,学前三年毛入园率已经达到81.7%;小学学龄儿童净入学率已经达到99.95%;初中阶段毛入学率达到100.9%;高中阶段毛入学率达到88.8%;高等教育毛入学率达到48.1%,今年我们高职扩招百万,再加上自然增长,高等教育将历史性地跨入普及化阶段。

When the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, the net enrollment rate of primary schools was only 20% and the number of college students was only 117,000 from a total population of 450 million. We completed the implementation of compulsory education in 20 years, while the process cost developed countries 100 years. Through 70 years of development, the gross enrollment rate of three-year preschool education reached 81.7%; the net enrollment rate of primary schools for children reaching school age reached 99.95%; the gross enrollment rate of junior middle schools was 100.9%; the gross enrollment rate of senior middle schools reached 88.8%; and the gross enrollment rate of higher education was 48.1%. 

第二个特点是“公”。追求公平,是社会的一个重要目标,也是我们发展教育的一个重要价值追求。“公”是就价值而言的,这里的关键词是“均衡”,基本方法是“倾斜”。影响均衡的主要因素是城乡差距、区域差距、校际差距、群体差距等。

The second feature is that it is equal. Pursuing equity is an important target of society and also the development of education.

党的十八大以来,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,我们在实现教育公平方面加大了力度。一是向农村倾斜。城乡学校建设、教师编制、生均公共经费基准定额,还有基本装备配备标准,四个方面实现了统一,城乡是一致的。全国99.8%的城乡学校办学条件达到了底线要求。这是很大的改善。到农村去,现在经常说的一句话,就是最漂亮的设施是学校。二是向困难群体倾斜。我们已经建立起了从学前到研究生的家庭经济困难学生资助政策体系。这十多年来,全国累计资助学生近10亿人次,资助金额1.45万亿。还有向特殊群体倾斜,听力、智力、视力三类残疾儿童少年的入学问题,我们这几年加大力度解决得比较好。30万人口以上的县基本都有一所特殊教育学校。这三类残疾儿童少年义务教育入学率已经达到90%以上。这是社会文明程度的重要标志。三是向少数民族倾斜。这些年我们办了很多内地新疆班、内地西藏班,高校少数民族预科班民族班、少数民族高层次骨干人才计划等各级各类内地民族班,累计招生93.57万人,促进了民族地区教育的发展。四是向贫困地区倾斜。我们还实施了面向农村和贫困地区考生的专项招生计划,已经招了47万8千多人,让这些地区的学生能够上优质高校。这个计划很受老百姓欢迎。

中国教育将沿着这样的路子继续发展下去,加快教育现代化,建设教育强国,办好人民满意的教育。这就是我们总的目标。我们现在已经是教育大国了,正在努力建设教育强国。我们要坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,让教育改革发展的成果惠及到每一个成员、每一个学生,让他们通过学习能够改变自己的命运,创造他们的梦想。谢谢!

Since the 18th CPC National Congress, under the firm leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core, we have placed more emphasis on realizing education equity. First, giving a preferential treatment to rural areas. We realized synergies between urban and rural areas in school construction, staffing, standard quota of public expenditure per student, and standard of basic equipment and outfits. 99.8% of urban and rural schools managed to achieve the basic requirements needed to function as a school. Now when you go to the countryside, they always mention that their most beautiful place is the school. Second, promoting equity was weighted toward disadvantaged groups. We have established a financial support system for students from poor families ranging from preschool education all the way to postgraduate education. Over the past decade, we have supported nearly one billion students with funds totaling 1.45 billion yuan. We have also enhanced education for children with disabilities and made progress especially in groups with hearing, mental and visual impairment. Almost all countries with a population of over 300,000 have special education schools and the compulsory education enrollment rate of children with the above-mentioned three kinds of disabilities has reached over 90%. This is an important index of social civilization. Third, promoting equity was weighted toward minorities. Over the past years, we have offered classes for ethnic-minority students. The student number totaled 935,700 and it promoted education development in areas with large ethnic minority populations. Fourth, promoting equity was weighted toward poor areas. We implemented a special enrollment plan targeting students undergoing exams in rural and poverty-stricken areas and the number of enrolled students totaled 478,000. Following this current path, we will unceasingly accelerate our modernization of our education system, build strength in education and make our people satisfied. This is our general target. Thank you.

澳门澳亚卫视记者:

MASTV:

王部长,70年来,在住房保障工作方面取得的成就和进展是怎样的?下一步还有哪些考虑和计划?谢谢。

Mr. Wang, what have we achieved in guaranteeing housing security over the past 70 years and what's the future plan? Thank you.

王蒙徽:

Wang Menghui:

谢谢你对:我们住房保障工作的关注和关心。新中国成立70年来,中国住房保障制度不断完善,保障能力也显著提高,我们现在已经建成了世界上最大的住房保障体系。大家知道,从新中国成立到改革开放初期,我们实行的是福利分房制度。实际上我们的住房供应是不能满足需要的,住房短缺问题也非常突出。改革开放初期,中国城镇人均住房建筑面积才6.7平方米。

Over the past 70 years, we have set up the world's largest housing security system. As we know, China implemented a welfare housing system from 1949 to the initial period of reform and opening-up. The per capita floor space of urban residents was only 6.7 square meters in the initial period of reform and opening-up.

改革开放以来,我们积极地探索推进城镇住房制度改革。1994年,国务院作出了深化城镇住房制度改革的决定。在这个基础上,我们同时加快了保障性住房建设,来解决城镇中低收入家庭的住房困难问题。到了2007年,全国建设廉租房和经济适用住房等保障性住房,一共是1000多万套。2008年开始,中国开始大规模实施城镇保障性安居工程,到2018年,全国累计开工建设各类保障性住房和棚改安置住房约7000万套,还有2200多万困难群众领取了公租房租赁补贴。也就是说,我们帮助了约2亿群众解决了住房困难问题。特别是党的十八大以来,全国开工建设的各类保障性住房和棚改安置住房4000多万套,惠及了1亿多住房困难群众。到现在,城镇低保和低收入家庭基本实现了应保尽保,新市民的住房困难问题也得到了缓解,城镇中低收入家庭的住房条件明显改善,人民群众的获得感、幸福感和安全感也不断增强。

Since the reform and opening-up, we proactively explored urban housing reform, and in 1994, the State Council decided to deepen the reform. We accelerated the construction of government-subsidized housing projects to resolve the housing difficulties faced by low- and middle-income urban families. By 2007, the number of security housing units including low-rent housing, affordable housing and so on, totaled over 10 million. Since 2008, the government has introduced major construction projects to provide affordable housing to urban residents. By 2018, government subsidies had been used to build and renovate 70 million housing units in urban areas, 22 million poor people had received public rental subsidies, and 200 million poor people had received help to improve their housing conditions. Especially since the 18th CPC National Congress, government subsidies have been used to build and renovate 40 million housing units in urban areas, and 100 million poor people have received help to improve their housing conditions. Until now, social security has covered almost all those receiving subsistence allowances as well as low-income families, and housing difficulties for new citizens in urban areas have been relieved. The housing conditions for low- and middle-income urban families have also been greatly improved.

下一步,我们将加快完善住房保障体系和住房市场体系,加快解决城镇中低收入居民,特别是新市民住房问题,促进实现全体人民住有所居。主要想做以下四方面工作:

Next, we will focus on the following tasks:

一是进一步做好公租房保障工作。我们将健全公租房申请、轮候、准入、退出等工作机制,逐步推广政府购买公租房运营管理服务,不断提高公租房管理服务水平。

First, continue to promote the development of public rental housing. We will gradually promote the mode of "government pay for the management services of public rental housing” so as to improve the level of management services.

二是大力发展和培育住房租赁市场。我们将总结推广12个城市住房租赁试点的经验,落实各项支持政策,增加租赁住房有效供应,着力解决新市民等群体的住房问题。

Second, nurture and develop the rental housing market. We will expand the rental housing supply and try to resolve housing issues for new citizens in urban areas.

三是因地制宜发展共有产权住房。我们将总结北京、上海共有产权住房试点的经验,鼓励人口流入量大、房价较高的大中城市,结合本地实际发展共有产权住房。

Third, develop joint ownership housing by the government and home buyers. We will encourage large and medium-sized cities with large populations and high housing prices to develop the system based on their local conditions.

四是稳步推进城镇棚户区改造。我们将坚持尽力而为、量力而行,重点改造老城区内脏乱差的棚户区和国有工矿区、林区、垦区的棚户区。加大配套基础设施建设,严格工程质量安全监管,加快工程进度和分配入住,让群众能够早日住上新居。谢谢。

Fourth, promote the renovation of run-down areas. We will focus on shanty town renovation in dirty, disorderly and old urban areas, state-owned industrial and mining areas, forests, and reclamation areas. 

袭艳春:

Xi Yanchun:

发布会已经进行了快90分钟。还有最后一个提问机会。今天来了很多外国记者,看看外国记者有没有提问的。

The press conference has been going on for nearly 90 minutes. Last question please. Many foreign journalists have come today. Let's see if any foreign journalist wants to ask questions.

新加坡联合早报记者:

Lianhe Zaobao:

关于就业的问题。我们知道,现在受国际局势影响,中国经济面临下行压力。李克强总理不久前在接受俄罗斯媒体采访时提到,中国经济能够保持6%以上的中高速增长是十分不容易的。所以,想请问张部长,经济下行目前对就业造成了什么样的影响?谢谢。

My question is about employment. We know that the Chinese economy is facing downward pressure due to the international situation. In an interview with the Russian media not long ago, Premier Li Keqiang mentioned that it is not easy for the Chinese economy to maintain a medium-to-high-speed growth of more than 6%. Therefore, I would like to ask Mr. Zhang, what impact does the economic downturn currently have on employment? Thank you.

张纪南:

Zhang Jinan:

谢谢你对就业问题的关心。就业是个国际性的问题。当然,中国有近14亿人口和9亿的劳动力,就业更引人注目。就业与经济发展密切相关。但是,就业的发展状况既取决于经济发展的速度,也取决于经济发展的结构。中国的经济体量大、市场大,尤其是近年来第三产业发展迅猛,容纳的就业量在不断扩大,创业创新活跃,新就业形态蓬勃发展,这些都对保持就业稳定具有良好的基础性作用。关键我们还有体制优势、制度优势,在党的领导下能够集中力量办大事。针对今年的形势,中央把“稳就业”放在了“六稳”的首位,各地区、各部门形成合力,企业和劳动者自强不息,中国的就业形势保持了总体稳定。

Employment is an international problem. Of course, China has nearly 1.4 billion people and 900 million laborers, so the employment issue stands out more. Employment is closely related to economic development. However, the development of employment depends on either the speed of economic development or the structure of economic development. China has a large amount of jobs, but China's economy is large and the market is large. In particular, the tertiary industry has developed rapidly in recent years. The number of jobs is expanding, start-ups and innovations are active and growing, and new forms of employment are booming. These all have good fundamental effects on maintaining the stability of employment. It is important to know that we also have institutional and systematic advantages -- that is under the leadership of the CPC, we are able to mobilize resources for major undertakings. In response to this year's situation, the central government placed "stable employment" at the top of the "six stables." The employment situation in China has remained generally stable, which is not easy.

主要表现:一是就业的主要指标运行在合理区间。1-8月份城镇新增就业984万人,完成全年目标的89%。8月份的全国城镇调查失业率是5.2%,低于5.5%的预期控制目标。二是市场的供求基本平衡,第二季度人力资源市场的求人倍率是1.22,市场供求继续保持总体平衡。三是高校毕业生、农民工等这些重点群体的就业相对也是稳定的。我们今年大学毕业生834万,创新高,目前他们的就业情况和往年的水平基本持平。

These are the main indications: First, the main indicators of employment are operating in a reasonable range. From January to August, the number of new jobs in urban areas was 9.84 million, and 89% of the annual target has been achieved. The national urban survey in August shows that the unemployment rate was 5.2%, lower than the expected control target of 5.5%. Second, the supply and demand of the market is basically balanced. In the second quarter, the ratio of job openings to job seekers in the overall talent pool was 1.22, and the market supply and demand continued to maintain an overall balance. Third, the employment of key groups such as college graduates and migrant workers has remained relatively stable. The number of our college graduates this year is 8.34 million, a record high, but their employment situation is basically the same as in previous years.

当前和今后一个时期,新的影响因素在不断地增加,对就业也有不少的挑战。但是,我们有信心做好就业工作。主要考虑是,把握“一个突出”,做到“五个着力”。

Presently and for the foreseeable future, new factors that influence employment are constantly increasing, and there are also many challenges to employment. However, we still have confidence to do a good job in the area of employment. Our main approach is to hold on to "one highlight" and implement "five efforts."

“一个突出”,还是要突出就业优先导向,把就业作为经济发展的优先目标,把稳定和扩大就业作为区间调控的下限,强化各方面重视就业、支持就业的导向,形成经济发展和扩大就业的良性循环。

The "one highlight" is still to place a high priority on employment, regard employment as a priority goal of economic development, and regard stability and the expansion of employment as our baseline goals.

“五个着力”,一是着力推进为企业减负,稳企稳岗稳就业。在‘降、返、补’三个字上下功夫。“降”,就是落实降低社保费率政策,预计全年社保费减负超过3000亿元;“返”,就是对不裁员、少裁员的参保企业,加大援企稳岗的力度;“补”,就是对于吸纳就业困难人员的企业给予社保补贴、贷款贴息、税收减免。

For "five efforts": the first is to reduce the burdens faced by enterprises. Stabilizing an enterprise and its available jobs, is to stabilize employment. We implemented the policy of lowering social security rates and this year, it is estimated that the reduction in social security rates will amount to more than 300 billion yuan for the whole year. Also for enterprises that have zero or few layoffs, we will increase our efforts to aid them and stabilize their job positions. We will also provide a series of policies such as social security subsidies, subsidized loans, and tax cuts for enterprises that offer jobs to those who find it difficult to get employment.

二是着力促进创业带动就业。创业对促进就业是有倍增效应的。我们将加大创业担保贷款的政策落实,提供税收减免等相应的措施,鼓励创业。

The second is to promote entrepreneurship which will drive employment. We will strengthen the implementation of the policy of giving secure loans to business start-ups, and provide related measures such as offering tax cuts to encourage entrepreneurship.

三是着力抓好职业技能培训。这是解决就业结构性矛盾的有力举措,也就是要解决“有事没人干,有人没事干”的问题。刚才介绍的国家职业技能提升行动“315工程”,就是一项重要举措。

The third is to focus on vocational skills training. This is a powerful measure to solve the structural contradictions inherent in employment. The "Project 315" we just introduced is a national campaign to improve vocational skills, and it is an important measure.

四是着力提升就业服务的水平。从年初开展针对农民工的“春风行动”,到现在正在进行的针对大学生就业的秋季专项行动,累计已组织各类招聘会4万余场,提供免费服务超过5000万人次,下一步还将加大这方面的力度。

The fourth is to improve the level of employment services. A total of more than 40,000 job fairs have been organized, and more than 50 million free services have been provided. We will increase our efforts in this aspect in the next step.

五是着力兜牢民生的底线。就是继续对就业困难人员开展“一对一”帮扶,对零就业家庭动态清零,对生活困难的失业人员,及时发放失业保险金,保障他们的基本生活。总之,我们将全力以赴,把就业工作做实做好做到位。谢谢。

The fifth is to make efforts to ensure that basic requirements are met for people's basic livelihood. It is to continue to provide "one-to-one" aid for people with employment difficulties, to help families with no employment get jobs quickly, and to distribute unemployment insurance benefits in time to those who are unemployed, in order to ensure their basic living needs are met. Thank you.

袭艳春:

Xi Yanchun:

再次感谢五位发布人,也谢谢大家。今天的发布会到此结束。

Thanks again to the five speakers, and thank you to everyone here. This is the end of today's press conference.

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