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双语对照:刘大使在英国防务记者协会午餐座谈会上的主旨演讲


来源:驻英使馆    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2019-09-06 10:31   点击: 次  

刘大使在英国防务记者协会午餐座谈会上的主旨演讲《勇于担当,合力破解“和平赤字”》

Keynote Speech by H.E. Ambassador Liu Xiaoming at the Meeting with the Defence Correspondents' Association: Shoulder Common Responsibilities and Bridge the "Peace Deficit"

(2019年9月5日,伦敦圣詹姆斯大维餐厅)

Davy's at St James, London, 5 September 2019

各位记者朋友,

大家下午好!

Friends from the Press:

Good afternoon!

很高兴出席防务记者协会举行的午餐座谈会,就中国的外交与国防政策以及一些大家关心的问题交流看法。

It is a real delight to join you and talk about China’s foreign and defence policies and other issues of interests.

当前,世界正处于百年未有之大变局。和平与发展仍是时代主题,但国际安全形势面临的不稳定性、不确定性更加突出,世界并不太平。霸权主义、单边主义、民粹主义日益抬头,地区冲突和局部战争此起彼伏,极端主义和恐怖主义还在蔓延,国际安全体系和秩序日益受到侵蚀。正如习近平主席指出的,国际社会正面临“和平赤字”的巨大挑战。那么,如何才能破解“和平赤字”?今天,我想就“中国怎么办”和“世界怎么办”谈几点看法。

The world is undergoing profound changes unseen in a century. Peace and development remain the theme of our times. But as instabilities and uncertainties are on the rise, the world is far from a tranquil place. With surging hegemonism, unilateralism and populism, incessant regional conflicts and wars, and spreading extremism and terrorism, the international security system and order are under threat.

As President Xi Jinping said, the international community is faced with the severe challenge of “peace deficit”. How to bridge the “peace deficit”? Today, I would like to share with you my views on what China and the world can do.

首先,“中国怎么办”?中国的答案是一条道路、一个观念、一项使命:

First, what can China do to bridge the “peace deficit”? The answer lies in China’s path, concept and mission.

第一,坚持走和平发展道路。中国“以和为贵”的文化传统、社会主义的国家性质和独立自主的外交政策,决定了中国始终不渝地走和平发展道路。这是中国根据时代发展潮流和国家根本利益作出的战略抉择,毫不动摇。中国无论发展到什么程度,也永远不称霸、永不扩张、永不谋求势力范围。中国将继续走和平发展道路,在和平共处五项原则基础上深化同各国的友好合作,同时希望各国一起走和平发展道路,共同促进世界的长久和平稳定。

First, China takes the path of peaceful development.

China is a socialist country with a peace-loving tradition and an independent foreign policy. The path of peaceful development is a natural choice for China. China has made this strategic choice in accordance with the trend of the times and China’s fundamental national interests. We are committed to this path. It is true that China is developing and becoming stronger, but we will never seek hegemony, expansion or sphere of influence.

China will deepen friendly relations with all countries under the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. At the same time, China hopes that other countries would also follow the path of peaceful development and work with China to build enduring peace and sustainable stability in the world.

中国坚定奉行防御性国防政策。新中国成立70年来,中国没有主动挑起过任何一场战争和冲突。改革开放以来,中国主动裁减军队员额400万。中国保持有限的核力量,完全是为了防御和威慑。中国是核大国中唯一承诺不首先使用核武器的国家。在联合国安理会五常中,中国国防费占国内生产总值比重、人均国防费都是最低的,2019年规模仅相当于美国1/4。近10年来,中国国防费占GDP比重平均为1.32%,远低于2.4%的世界平均水平,中国人均国防费仅为美国的1/18、英国的1/9。

China’s defence policy is defensive in nature. In the past 70 years since the founding of New China, China has never started a single war or conflict. It has even cut down military personnel by 4 million over the past 40 years.

China maintains limited nuclear power only for the purpose of self-defence and deterrence. China is the only nuclear power in the world to have promised no first use of nuclear weapons.

Of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, China has the lowest level of military expenditure both as percentage of GDP and in per capita terms. In 2019, it is only one fourth of that of the US. In recent decade, China’s military expenditure had been around the level of 1.32% of GDP, far below the 2.4% world average. In per capita terms, China’s military spending was only one eighteenth of the US and one ninth of the UK.

第二,积极践行新安全观。面对国际安全领域出现的新形势、新挑战,中国主张超越冷战思维,摒弃以对抗求安全,坚持共同、综合、合作、可持续的新安全观,倡导以合作谋和平,以合作促安全。中国与有关国家共同发起成立了上海合作组织,推动形成互信、互利、平等、协商、尊重多样文明、谋求共同发展的“上海精神”。中国积极支持亚洲相互协作与信任措施会议机制建设,为构建亚洲地区安全合作架构发挥了重要作用。中国还积极推动全球安全治理,深化双边和多边安全合作,打造平等互信、合作共赢的新型安全伙伴关系。

Second, China follows the New Security Concept.

In face of the new situation and new challenges in the field of international security, China believes that the confrontational approach inherited from the Cold-War era is not a solution; In this new era, countries should follow a new concept of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security; Cooperation is the way to peace and security.

In this spirit,

China initiated the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation with the other countries in the region. The member states of SCO advocate the Shanghai spirit, which features mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality, consultation, respect for diverse civilisations and pursuit of common development.

China took an active part in the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia, and played an import role in setting up this framework for security cooperation in Asia.

China has also actively promoted global security governance. It is deepening bilateral and multilateral cooperation on security, aiming at building a new type of security partnership featuring equality, mutual trust and win-win cooperation.

第三,始终承担维护世界和平的使命。作为联合国安理会常任理事国,中国始终是维护世界和平的坚定力量。今天,中国已成为联合国所有会员国中第二大出资国,也是五个安理会常任理事国中派遣维和人员最多的国家。截至2018年底,中国累计参加24项联合国维和行动,派出维和军事人员3.9万余人次,有13名中国军人牺牲在维和一线。中国派遣海军舰艇编队赴亚丁湾、索马里海域进行常态化护航,已累计为包括英国船只在内的6600余艘中外船舶提供安全保护。中国参与了当今几乎所有国际和地区热点问题解决进程,在朝核、伊朗核、缅甸、阿富汗等问题上展现大国担当。中国还主动参与抗击西非埃博拉疫情等国际灾难救援和人道主义援助,积极开展国际和地区反恐合作,始终做世界和平的建设者。

Third, China has taken up the mission of safeguarding world peace.

As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, China has been a staunch force safeguarding world peace.

China is the second largest contributor to the UN peacekeeping budget and the largest contributor of peacekeeping personnel among the P5.

By the end of 2018, China has sent more than 39,000 military personnel to 24 UN peacekeeping missions, and 13 brave Chinese soldiers gave their life for this lofty cause.

In the Gulf of Aden and off the Coast of Somalia, Chinese navy carries out regular escort missions, having ensured the safe passage of more than 6,600 ships, including those from the UK.

From the Korean Peninsula nuclear issue to the Iran nuclear issue, from Myanmar to Afghanistan, China has taken part in the settlement of almost all international and regional hotspot issues.

China has provided humanitarian relief and aid to places such as West Africa during the Ebola epidemic. It has also engaged in international and regional counter-terrorism cooperation.

In a word, China is always a contributor to world peace.

现在谈谈“世界怎么办”?进入21世纪,全球安全问题的联动性、跨国性、多样性更加突出。世界和平不能只靠一家,需要国际社会同舟共济、共同努力。我们希望世界各国能够做到“三个坚持”和“三个反对”。

Now let me turn to the second part of my speech: what can the world do to bridge the “peace deficit”?

In the 21st century, security issues are becoming increasingly inter-connected, cross-border and diverse. To ensure world peace, the international community must pull together in the same direction and come to each other’s aid in times of difficulty. It is our hope that all countries in the world remain committed to the following three principles and oppose three wrong ideas.

一是坚持合作共赢,反对零和博弈。我们生活在各国相互依存不断加深的全球化时代,人类已经形成相互依存、休戚与共的命运共同体。没有哪个国家能独善其身或包打天下,团结协作是唯一出路。零和博弈、赢者通吃那套旧思维已经行不通,一味追求利益最大化和本国利益至上,只会导致更多冲突和对抗。只有坚持合作共赢、普惠均衡的新理念,才能让更多国家和民众享受经济全球化的好处,铲除滋生混乱和动荡的土壤。如果把世界多年形成的产业链协同和网络化联系当作威胁他国的武器,大搞关税战、贸易战,甚至金融战、科技战,最终只会伤人又害已。

First, countries should remain committed to win-win cooperation and oppose zero-sum game.

We are living in an age of globalization. Countries are interdependent and form a community with a shared future for mankind. No country is immune from problems or is able to address all the challenges alone. Working together is the only way forward.

In this day and age, the old mindset of “zero-sum game” or “winner takes all” does not work. Seeking to maximise one’s own interests or putting one’s own country first at the expense of others will lead to more conflicts and confrontations. Countries should engage in inclusive, balanced and win-win cooperation. This is the new concept that countries should follow. It is the only way to make sure that the benefit of economic globalisation is shared. It is also the only way to eradicate the breeding ground for chaos and turbulences.

The global industrial chain and network is the result of years of work by many countries. Turning it into a weapon and provoking a tariff war, a trade war, or even a financial war and a hi-tech war will not only do harm to others. This will also backfire.

二是坚持平等协商,反对恃强凌弱。二战结束后的70多年来,世界总体维持和平,以联合国为核心、以国际法为基础的国际体系和以世贸组织为核心、以规则为基础的多边贸易体制功不可没。现行国际秩序虽不完美,但也不能全盘推翻,更不能“合则用、不合则弃”,国际上的事应由各国商量着办。对于经贸关系中出现的分歧和问题,各方都应本着相互尊重的精神,通过平等对话协商处理,而不是动辄诉诸保护主义、单边主义。

Second, countries should remain committed to equal-footed consultation and oppose acts of bullying.

The world has maintained overall peace for more than 70 years since the end of the Second World War. This could not have been possible without the international-law-based system with the UN as its core, and the rule-based multilateral trade system with the WTO as its core.

The current international order may not be perfect. But one cannot scrap it, start all over again or cherry-pick what one wants.

International issues should be addressed through consultation that involves all the parties concerned. This principle applies to economic and trade relations. Whenever differences and problems arise, the parties should carry out equal-footed dialogue and consultation in the spirit of mutual respect. They should not resort to protectionism or unilateralism at will.

三是坚持交流互鉴,反对唯我独尊。我从事外交工作已40多年,出使非洲、美洲、亚洲和欧洲多个国家,不同国家的文化文明给我留下深刻印象。近来,西方有些人重拾“文明冲突”论调,用狭隘排他的眼光看待其他文明,充斥着陈旧和腐朽的味道。人类文明只有姹紫嫣红之别,绝无高低优劣之分。中国提出的“一带一路”倡议继承和发扬了和平合作、开放包容、互学互鉴、互利共赢的丝路精神,为世界各国交流合作搭建了重要平台。我们希望各国尊重世界文明多样性,推动不同文明交流互鉴、和谐共生,实现各美其美、美美与共。

Third, countries should remain committed to exchanges and mutual learning, and oppose such actions as lording it over others.

I have been a diplomat for more than 40 years. I have worked in Africa, North America, Asia and Europe. All these years, I have been deeply impressed by the rich variety of cultures and civilisations of different countries.

Recently, out of narrow-mindedness and exclusive-club mentality, some in the West tried to resurrect the theory of “conflict of civilisations”. This is a completely outdated concept.

Human civilisations are diverse. No civilisation is superior to another.

The Belt and Road Initiative that China proposed carries on the Silk Road spirit of peace, cooperation, openness, inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutual benefit. It is an important platform for exchanges and cooperation between all countries in the world.

China hopes that the countries of the world would respect the diversity of different civilisations, promote exchanges, mutual learning and harmonious co-existence, and appreciate each other for their unique beauty.

和平犹如空气和阳光,受益而不觉,失之则难存。站在和平还是战争、发展还是停滞、对话还是对抗、包容还是隔阂的十字路口,每个国家都应毫不犹豫地选择前者。中国和英国在维护世界和平稳定、维护多边主义和自由贸易方面拥有共同利益,在应对伊朗核、气候变化等地区和全球性问题上有良好的合作基础。展望未来,中国愿同包括英国在内的世界各国一道,勇于担当,同舟共济,合力破解“和平赤字”,为维护世界和平、促进共同发展做出更大贡献。

Peace is like air and sunshine. Its presence is easily taken for granted but its absence is life-threatening. Whenever countries come to a crossroads and have to choose, they should choose peace not war, choose development not stagnation, choose dialogue not confrontation, choose to embrace not to exclude.

It is in the common interests of both China and the UK to safeguard world peace and stability. It is in our common interests to uphold multilateralism and free trade. Our two countries have a sound basis for cooperation on regional and global issues, such as the Iran nuclear issue and climate change.

Going forward, China stands ready to work with the UK and other countries in the world to shoulder due responsibilities, to bridge the “peace deficit”, and to make greater contribution to world peace and common development.

谢谢大家。

Thank you!

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