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双语对照:国新办举行《中国的核安全》白皮书新闻发布会


来源:国新办    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2019-09-06 09:53   点击: 次  

袭艳春:

Xi Yanchun:

女士们、先生们,上午好。欢迎大家出席国务院新闻办新闻发布会。今天,国务院新闻办公室发表《中国的核安全》白皮书,同时举行新闻发布会,向大家介绍和解读白皮书的主要内容。

Ladies and gentlemen, good morning. Welcome to this conference. Today, the State Council Information Office released a white paper titled "Nuclear Safety in China" and held this conference to introduce and explain the paper's main content.  

出席今天发布会的有:生态环境部副部长、国家核安全局局长刘华先生,国家核安全局副局长、生态环境部核设施安全监管司司长郭承站先生。我是国务院新闻办公室的新闻发言人袭艳春,首先,我向大家简要介绍一下白皮书的主要内容。

Present at the conference are: Mr. Liu Hua, vice minister of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, and director of the National Nuclear Safety Administration; and Mr. Guo Chengzhan, vice director of the National Nuclear Safety Administration, and head of the Department of Nuclear Facility Safety Supervision of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment. I'm Xi Yanchun, the SCIO spokesperson. Now, I'll briefly introduce the white paper's main content.

《中国的核安全》是中国政府发表的第一部核安全白皮书,白皮书全面介绍了中国核安全事业的发展历程,阐述中国核安全的基本原则和政策主张,分享中国核安全监管的理念和实践,阐明中国推进全球核安全治理进程的决心和行动。白皮书全文约1.1万字,由前言、正文和结束语组成。

"Nuclear Safety in China" is the first white paper on this topic released by the Chinese government. It introduces the progress of China's nuclear undertakings, states China's basic principles and policies on nuclear safety, shares China's understanding and practices on nuclear safety supervision, and shows China's determination and actions on promoting global nuclear safety governance. Containing approximately 11,000 words, the white paper includes the preface, the main content and the conclusion.

白皮书指出,中国始终把保障核安全作为重要的国家责任,始终以安全为前提发展核事业,不断推动核安全与时俱进、创新发展,保持了良好的安全记录,走出了一条中国特色核安全之路。

As stated in the white paper, China has always regarded nuclear safety an important national responsibility, and has always developed its nuclear industry subject to safety considerations. China's nuclear industry has always developed in line with the latest safety standards and maintained a good safety record, pursing an innovation-driven path of nuclear safety with Chinese characteristics.

白皮书强调,党的十八大以来,中国的核安全事业进入安全高效发展的新时期。习近平主席提出理性、协调、并进的核安全观,强调发展和安全并重,倡导打造全球核安全命运共同体,为新时期中国核安全发展指明了方向,为推进核能开发利用国际合作、实现全球持久核安全提供了中国方案。

The white paper emphasizes that since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), China's nuclear industry has entered a new period of safe and efficient development. President Xi Jinping has proposed a rational, coordinated and balanced nuclear safety strategy, placing equal emphasis on development and safety, and advocating the building of a community of a shared future for global nuclear safety. He has further pointed out the direction for China's nuclear safety for a new era, and provided the Chinese approach to international cooperation in the development and utilization of nuclear energy.

白皮书强调,中国作为构建公平、合作、共赢的国际核安全体系的重要倡导者、推动者和参与者,在做好自身核安全的同时,认真履行核安全国际义务,大力推动核安全双多边合作,积极促进核能和平利用,造福全人类,为全球核安全治理贡献了中国智慧、中国力量。

The white paper also stresses that China is an important advocate, promoter and participant in building a fair, collaborative and mutually beneficial international nuclear safety system. China has done a good job in ensuring its own nuclear safety. China has fulfilled its international obligations, and promoted bilateral and multilateral cooperation on nuclear safety. We have actively promoted the peaceful use of nuclear energy for the benefit of all humanity and contributed China's wisdom and strength to global nuclear safety governance. 

《中国的核安全》白皮书以中、英、法、俄、德、西、阿、日等8个语种发表,由人民出版社、外文出版社分别出版,在全国新华书店发行。

The white paper has been published in Chinese, English, French, Russian, German, Spanish, Arabic and Japanese by the People's Publishing House and Foreign Language Press. It will be distributed across the country by Xinhua Bookstore.

我就先介绍这些情况,下面有请刘华先生作介绍。

That's all for the general introduction. Next, I will give the floor to Mr. Liu Hua, vice minister of ecology and environment. 

刘华:

Liu Hua:

女士们、先生们、朋友们:

Ladies and Gentlemen, Friends:

大家上午好!非常感谢大家长期以来对中国核安全事业的关心和支持。很高兴能在这里与媒体朋友们见面,介绍和解读《中国的核安全》白皮书。

Good morning. Thank you for your long-standing concern and support on issues regarding China's nuclear safety. It is my pleasure to meet with media to introduce and explain the White Paper on Nuclear Safety in China.

中国自发展核事业以来,始终把保障核安全作为重要的国家责任,坚持以安全为前提发展核能和技术,按照最严格标准实施监督管理,不断推动核安全与时俱进、创新发展,保持了良好的安全记录。党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央把核安全纳入国家总体安全体系,提出理性、协调、并进的核安全观,为新时期中国核事业安全发展指明了方向。在核安全观引领下,中国逐步建立起法规规范、行政监管、行业自律、技术保障、人才支撑、文化引领、社会参与、国际合作等为主体的核安全治理体系。

Since the beginning of China's nuclear industry, China has always treated nuclear safety as an important obligation of the state. China has always developed the nuclear industry subject to safety considerations, implemented regulations in accordance to the strictest standards. Its nuclear industry has always developed in line with the latest safety standards and maintained a good safety record. Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, has incorporated nuclear safety in China's national security system. In addition, he has put forward a rational, coordinated and balanced nuclear safety strategy, pointing out the direction for China's nuclear safety for a new era. Under the guidance of this strategy, China has gradually built a nuclear safety governance system with legal norms, administrative regulation, industry self-discipline, technical support, personnel support, cultural guidance, public participation, and international cooperation as its pillars.

《中国的核安全》白皮书是中国政府发表的首部综合性核安全白皮书,介绍了中国核安全事业发展历程、核安全基本原则和政策、监管理念和实践经验,阐明了中国加强核安全国际合作、推进核安全命运共同体的决心和行动。主要内容包括:

"Nuclear Safety in China" is the first white paper released by the Chinese government to comprehensively address the issue of nuclear safety. The white paper introduces China's approach to nuclear safety, elaborates on its basic principles and policies, and shares the concepts and practices of regulation. It also clarifies China's determination and the actions it has taken to strengthen international cooperation on this issue and build a community of a shared future for nuclear safety.  

袭艳春:

Xi Yanchun:

感谢刘华先生的介绍,下面进入答问环节,提问前请通报所在的新闻机构。

Thank you, Mr. Liu Hua. Now, the floor is open for questions. Please identify the news organization you represent before asking questions.

中央广播电视总台央视记者:

CCTV:

白皮书中提到,我国实施核安全战略规划,请问我国当前有什么样的核安全战略,进展如何?谢谢。

As mentioned in the white paper, China implements a national nuclear safety strategy. What does this entail at present, and how is the work going? Thank you.

刘华:

Liu Hua:

谢谢。中国始终坚持安全第一的核安全战略,实现发展和安全两个目标的相互促进,在国民经济和社会发展五年规划的总体框架下,每五年制定和实施核安全规划,目前正在实施的是《核安全与放射性污染防治“十三五”规划和2025年远景目标》。这个《规划》分析了我国核安全的形势和任务,阐明了核安全的指导思想和基本原则,明确了核安全的目标、重点任务、重点工程项目,应该说是统领“十三五”各项核安全工作的一个总纲。

Thank you. China adheres to the nuclear safety strategy that puts safety first and combines the two goals of development and security. Within the overall framework of the five-year plan for national economic and social development, a nuclear safety plan is formulated and implemented for the matching period. The plan currently implemented is the 13th Five-year Plan for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention and Control and Vision for 2025, which analyzes the situation and tasks, clarifies guidelines and principles, and defines target indicators, key tasks and projects for nuclear safety. It is a general plan for coordinating all efforts to ensure nuclear safety from 2016 to 2020.

去年,我们开展了核安全“十三五”规划的中期评估,应该说预计的各项目标基本满足进度要求,重点任务和重点工程如期完成,《规划》的实施总体进展良好。

Last year, we carried out a mid-term evaluation of the 13th Five-Year Plan for nuclear safety. This determined that the set targets had basically been achieved , and the key tasks and projects had been completed on schedule. Generally, the plan has been progressing well.

一是核电厂的安全保持了世界先进水平。实施福岛事故以后的安全改进行动,开展核电厂安全管理提升年专项行动,近五年核电国际运行者协会WANO统计的数据显示,我国核电厂运行机组80%的指标优于世界中值水平,其中70%的指标达到了世界先进值。应该说总体的运行指标是处于世界前列的。

First, our nuclear power plants have maintained a high level of nuclear safety in line with world trends. In the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan, we worked out a plan for improving safety management, and a special action plan for the particular year in dealing with nuclear power plant safety management. The statistics of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) in the past five years show that operating units in China have performed above the world median for more than 80% of the indicators, and have reached the world advanced level for more than 70%. Generally speaking, China ranks in the forefront of the world in this respect.

二是研究堆和核燃料循环设施安全水平持续提升。加强了我国研究堆核燃料设施的安全改造,实施定期的安全审查。

Second, the safety level of research reactors and nuclear fuel cycle facilities has continued to be enhanced.

三是核设施退役和放射性废物治理取得成效。13项早期核设施完成了退役,放射性废物的处理处置工作也在有序推进。

Third, progress has been made in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the management of radioactive waste.

四是核技术利用装置管理更加完善。我国将放射源百分之百纳入安全管理,建立了高风险源的在线监控系统,放射源的事故发生率持续降低。

Fourth, the management of nuclear technology utilization devices has been improved. In China, all radioactive sources are included in safety management, and an online monitoring system for high-risk sources has been established. The accident rate involving radioactive sources has continued to fall.

五是铀矿冶设施退役取得进展。完成了29个2010年以前关停的铀矿冶设施的退役,127个历史遗留的铀矿冶地址勘探设施的退役治理。

Fifth, efforts to decommission uranium mining and metallurgical facilities has made significant headway.

六是核安全设备监管进一步加强。推进了核电设备自主化和安全水平、质量水平的提升。对违规操作、弄虚作假的企业严厉打击、严肃查处。

Sixth, the supervision of nuclear safety equipment has been further strengthened.

七是核安保水平进一步提升。7家核电厂开展了安保系统的升级改造,10个省(市)的城市放射性废物库进行了安保升级。

Seventh, overall nuclear security has been further upgraded.

八是核与辐射事故应急体系不断完善。组建了10个国家核应急专业救援队,建立了3个集团公司应急支援队。

Eighth, the nuclear and radiation emergency response system has been improved.

九是核安全科研取得成效。建成了3个核安全研发创新平台,开展了13个领域39项核安全技术研究。

Ninth, R&D in nuclear safety technology has achieved effective results.

十是核安全监管能力持续提升。国家核与辐射安全监管技术研发基地建成投入使用,辐射环境监测网基本建成。

Tenth, the nuclear safety regulatory capacity has been further expanded. 

香港中评社记者:

China Review News Agency (Hong Kong):

请问我国如何在核安全和核能开发之间取得平衡?谢谢。

How can we strike a balance between nuclear safety and nuclear energy development? Thank you.

刘华:

Liu Hua:

谢谢你的提问。应该说,中国始终把核安全作为国家安全的重要责任,在确保安全的前提下发展核能和核技术。我觉得在核能发展和安全管理过程中,我们做了这么几方面的工作:

Thank you for your question. China has always regarded nuclear safety as a critical part of national security and we have developed nuclear energy and nuclear technology on the premise of ensuring their safety. In the process of nuclear energy development and safety management, we have undertaken the following work:

第一,始终要明确安全责任。《中华人民共和国核安全法》从2018年1月开始实施,核安全法明确规定,营运单位承担核安全的全面安全责任。国务院核安全监管部门负责核安全监管,国务院核工业主管部门、能源主管部门在各自职责内负责有关的核安全管理。国家建立了核安全工作协调机制,统筹、协调有关部门推进核安全工作。生态环境部(国家核安全局)是履行国家核安全监管的职能部门,由局机关、六个监督站和两个技术支援中心构成,共约1100人。同时,我们还有各省对放射源管理、辐射环境监测、事故的应急监测实施支持和管理的省级环保部门,核安全还设立了国家核安全专家委员会,作为技术咨询机构。

First, we clarified the division of responsibilities. The Nuclear Safety Law of the People's Republic of China was implemented in January 2018, clearly stipulating this delineation in official responsibilities. Organizations operating nuclear facilities are required to accept overall responsibility for safety. The national nuclear safety regulatory body implements regulation; the nuclear industry and energy authorities are responsible for the management of nuclear safety in accordance with their relevant duties. A mechanism for nuclear safety has been established to coordinate the work of corresponding departments. The Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration) is responsible for overall regulation.

第二,依法依规做好核安全。一是国家监管部门制定核安全的法规标准,我们国家的法规标准是与国际标准完全同步的,因为我们是参考国际原子能机构的安全标准转换为中国的安全标准,所以我国的核安全标准是国际水平。二是强化企业的安全责任,落实企业的核安全主体责任。这体现在核企业特别是核电厂在选址、建造、调试、运行,还包括核电厂的设计方面,全面落实安全第一、质量第一的原则。三是严格监管。中国实施了像国际一样的核安全审评,进行严格的技术审查。在核设施现场我们有中国的核安全监管人员,在核设施现场进行每周七天每天24小时的旁站式安全监督,确保核设施的各项活动是置于国家的监督管理之下的。四是推进核安全文化建设。核安全文化建设确实让企业的领导者、管理者和企业的一线的工作人员都把核安全作为最重要的内容、最重要的因素去考虑。在生产过程中,在进度、资金和安全出现冲突的过程中,我们要求要以安全作为最重要的考虑,推进核安全文化建设,从而促进核企业不断追求安全方面好的业绩和卓越的表现。同时,我们也设立了底线,就是对于违规操作、弄虚作假“零容忍”,发现一起查处一起。

Second, exercising nuclear safety governance in accordance with the law. Firstly, the nuclear safety standard established by national regulatory authorities matches the international level because the standard has been set referring to that of the International Atomic Energy Agency and synchronizing with relevant international standards. Secondly, we urge the enterprises to shoulder their full responsibility in ensuring nuclear safety. This can be seen in the process of siting, designing, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. We constantly urge the enterprises to adhere to the principle of putting safety and quality first. Thirdly, strict supervision is exercised. China has implemented a nuclear safety review similar to international practice, and conducts regular rigorous technical reviews.

第二,监管成效还是显著的。刚才我说过,截止到今年的6月底,中国大陆共有47台运行核电机组,19座在役民用研究堆和临界装置,18座核燃料循环设施、2座中低放废物处置厂。应该说这些设施的运行都保持了一个良好的安全记录,特别是核电厂的指标,我们从来没有发生过国际核与放射事件分级表(INES)二级及以上的事件或事故,一级事件应该说每年是非常低的,零级的偏差是没有安全意义的,仅用于经验反馈的事件,零级的偏差每年呈下降的趋势,我们国家核安全水平应该说保持了世界前列。14.2万枚的在用放射源,18.1万台(套)射线装置安全水平也是非常高的,事故率每年每万枚低于1起。11台在建核电机组的建造质量是受控的,是在我们的监督管理之下,应该说对发现的建造质量问题都一一得到了妥善的解决。

Third, marked achievements have been made. By June 2019, the Chinese mainland had 47 nuclear power units, 19 operating civil research reactors and critical assemblies, 18 nuclear fuel cycle facilities and two low- and intermediate-level radioactive solid waste disposal sites. We have maintained a good nuclear safety record in regard to every one, ranking among the highest of all countries in ensuring nuclear safety.

2000年、2004年、2010年和2016年,我们有四次接受了国际原子能机构对中国核安全管理体系的同行评议。我把2016年的结果给大家介绍一下,国际原子能机构在2016年对中国开展核与辐射安全监管体系的综合评估,它的结论是:中国监管有效性在不断增强,监管的法治化、规范化、国际化不断提升,中国的监管机构是一个有效的、可靠的监管机构。这是国际组织对我们的评估。所以,我从这三个方面介绍我们在发展和监管方面始终坚持安全第一,同时我们也意识到核能总是伴随着风险,所以我们始终是兢兢业业、如履薄冰,时刻保持高度的警惕,克服各种出现的自满情绪,保持底线思维,对发现的各种苗头性事件严肃进行查处和经验反馈。谢谢。

In 2000, 2004, 2010 and 2016, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducted four comprehensive reviews of China's nuclear safety regulation system. I would like to brief you the conclusions of IAEA's comprehensive assessment of China's regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in 2016: the effectiveness of regulation is enhanced gradually, and the regulatory framework is increasingly law-based, standardized, internationalized. The overall conclusion was that it is effective and credible.

路透社记者:

Reuters:

第一个问题,请问目前中国和法国的核电集团进行合作的项目进展如何?我们知道,在此之前连云港的有关项目因为一些原因被放弃了,那么中国政府如何能够让中国的民众对于核安全放心。第二个方面,年初,我知道中国又新近批准了新的核反应堆项目,请您更新一下这方面的信息。谢谢。

I'd like to ask what is the current status of the proposed nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in China with France's Areva, with the previous proposed site in Lianyungang abandoned, a work in China due to reassure the public that such a facilities are safe. And also a quick second question. We have some new nuclear reactor approvals early this year. Just wondering what can we expect them of.

刘华:

Liu Hua:

谢谢您的问题。一个是关于中法乏燃料后处理合作项目,应该说这个项目在中法两国领导人的高度重视和推动下,目前正在积极推进,有关商务谈判基本接近尾声。在这方面除了商务谈判以外,同时推进的还有两国在安全标准方面的统一,在核安全监管方面加强两国的合作,所以应该说这个项目本身,目前在正常进行过程当中。我相信在不久的将来,两国会在乏燃料后处理方面的合作项目上取得更大进展。

Thank you for your questions. The first one refers to a project jointly operated by China and France to handle the disposal of spent fuel. The program, which was highlighted and promoted by the two state leaders, is making headway as business negotiations are about to conclude. In addition, we are working together to unify safety criteria and press ahead with cooperation on security supervision. Recently, the project has progressed in line with the planned schedule. In my view, there will be even greater achievements in the treatment of spent fuel with the joint efforts between the two countries.

中国实行的是乏燃料闭式循环,反应堆使用过的燃料卸出来以后我们称之为乏燃料,这个乏燃料本身还可以继续把里面的铀通过核化工厂提炼出来,进行进一步的资源再利用。所以乏燃料的后处理工厂就是一个核化工厂,而且这个核化工厂是一个低温、常温、常压的工厂,通过化学工艺把乏燃料里面的铀和钚提取出来以后,制造新的燃料元件,用于核电的运行。在中国的核燃料闭式循环里,乏燃料后处理是一个重要的环节,所以中国实行乏燃料后处理,必然会建立后处理厂。在这方面,有我们自主建设的,也有通过中法合作建设的商用后处理厂,这些工作都在积极推进过程中。在这个过程中,涉及到的公众沟通问题,实际上就是乏燃料后处理厂在选址过程中,可能需要更多的与当地政府、当地老百姓积极进行沟通,宣传后处理厂的安全选址、安全设计、安全建造、安全运行,使得后处理厂在运行过程中不会向周边环境排放放射性物质,不会对周边公众造成影响。所以,中国的后处理厂也是中国的一类核设施,对这类设施我们国家有严格的安全标准。谢谢。

The disposal of spent fuel, critical to China's closed nuclear fuel cycle, should be handled in reprocessing plants, which will be solely built by us or jointly built by us and France for commercial uses. Related works are in full swing. In this process, we need to communicate with local people and governments concerning various issues, particularly the choice of sites. We need to tell them that the plants, including the site, design, construction and operation, will be safe, and that the plants will not release radioactive waste to their surroundings and endanger local lives. Reprocessing plant is regarded as a nuclear facility in China. There are stringent national safety standards. Thank you.

第二个问题,关于新的项目,前不久中国能源局已经发布了国务院在今年年初核准的几个新核电项目,目前这些核电项目正在积极的前期准备过程中。在未来几个月,像福建的漳州核电项目、广东的惠州太平岭核电项目就会在通过安全审查以后陆续进入到正式的开工建设过程中,现在都在进行厂址的前期准备。谢谢。

The second question is about the new projects. Not long ago, the National Energy Administration publicized several new nuclear power projects approved by the State Council earlier this year. All of them are smoothly progressing in the preparatory phase. In the following months, projects like the Zhangzhou nuclear power project in Fujian province and the Taipingling nuclear power project in Huizhou, Guangdong province will start construction after passing the latest security review. Now, they are all in the preparation phase. Thank you.

中央广播电视总台央广记者:

CNR:

请问一个公众参与的问题,目前公众有哪些渠道可以获知核安全的信息?另外,公众应该如何参与到核安全的决策之中?谢谢。

I would like to ask a question regarding public participation. At present, what channels does the public have to access nuclear safety information? In addition, how should the public participate in decision-making involving nuclear safety? Thank you.

刘华:

Liu Hua:

谢谢。关于公众参与,应该说核能在它发展过程中一直伴随着公众参与问题,也是“邻避”问题。破解“邻壁效应”在国际上也是一个难题,需要理性、客观、辩证的处理。一方面,反映了公众法律意识和环境意识的提高,另一方面也是对我们工作提出更高的要求,不论是核企业,还是政府有关部门,都应该加大核设施前期的工作力度。在选址阶段、在建设建造前就应该强化科普宣传,开展信息公开和公众参与,确保公众的知情权、参与权和监督权。同时,在核设施运行过程中,也要及时公开核设施的安全状况,核安全法规定,在核设施运行过程中,政府和企业都要公开核设施的运行安全状况,所以我们现在也在政府的官方网站上对发生的事故事件进行了及时的公开,这在国家生态环境部、国家核安全局网站上都可以看到,同时相关企业也应该依法公开运行安全状况。

Thank you. Regarding the participation of the public, we can say that during its development process, nuclear energy has always been plagued by the issue of public participation, which is also known as the problem of not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY). Resolving the NIMBY effect is also a difficult problem in the world and needs to be dealt with in a rational, objective and dialectical way.

协调核电发展、解决“邻避”问题,我觉得要做好以下几个方面工作:一是提高认识。相关政府和企业一定要把“邻避问题”作为一个重要的问题来处理。在项目前期做好规划,把工作做在前面,协调好各方面的利益关系。二是落实各项法规制度。《核安全法》在第五章专门制定了信息公开和公众沟通的要求。对公众参与作了制度性的安排,所以一定要依法做好公众的公开和沟通。三是加强科普宣传。要充分发挥媒体、企业、社会组织的作用,加强核安全的宣传,包括对大中小学生的核安全知识的普及和教育,对核设施周边利益相关的老百姓的宣传和普及。四是完善利益补偿机制,通过税收、财政以及用地补贴等各项政策,完善核设施周边居民的利益补偿机制,既要让大家了解核设施的安全状况,也要让大家通过核能的发展对周边地区的经济发展、教育事业、老百姓的福利给予关注,形成一个良性的互动。我觉得做好这些方面的工作,就可以把公众沟通工作做的更好。谢谢。

On the one hand, public participation reflects the improvement of the public's legal and environmental awareness. On the other hand, it also places higher requirements on our work. Both nuclear enterprises and relevant government departments should strengthen the pre-construction work of nuclear facilities . In the site selection stage and before construction starts, efforts should be made to educate the public more on scientific issues associated with nuclear facilities, release more information to the public and enhance their ability to participate. This should be done to ensure the public's right to know, to participate and to supervise. In addition, the safety status of nuclear facilities in operation should also be disclosed in a timely manner. The Nuclear Safety Law stipulates that the government and enterprises must disclose the safety status of nuclear facilities during the operation process, so we have also made public incidents and accidents in a timely manner through the official government websites. The information can be seen on the official websites of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment and the National Nuclear Safety Administration. At the same time, relevant enterprises should also disclose the operation safety status of their facilities in accordance with the law.

中国日报记者:

China Daily:

在中美贸易摩擦过程中,美国发布了对华核限令,并将中广核集团及其部分企业列入实体名单中。请问这些对我国核能发展和核安全会有哪些影响?我们有什么应对的措施?谢谢。

The U.S. imposed nuclear restrictions on China amid U.S.-China trade tensions, and added the China General Nuclear Power Group and several of its affiliates to an entity list. What impact will the U.S. move have on China's nuclear energy development and nuclear safety? And what countermeasures can we take? Thank you.

刘华:

Liu Hua: 

谢谢您的问题。我们注意到美国商务部8月中旬将中广核集团有限公司和下属的三家公司列入到出口管制的实体清单。美方此举泛化了国家安全概念,滥用出口管制措施,不仅对中国企业造成伤害,也对包括美国在内的相关国家企业造成了影响。对此,中方坚决反对美方通过单边主义和保护主义政策伤害中国以及世界各国的利益,希望美方停止有关错误做法,坚持通过平等协商解决问题。同时,我也想就中美核能与核安全合作再讲四点:

Thank you for your question. We have noted that the U.S. Department of Commerce added China General Nuclear Power Group and its three affiliates to the department's Entity List in mid-August. By doing so, the U.S. has abused the concept of national security and export control measures. It not only hurts Chinese companies, but also affects businesses in the U.S. and beyond. China firmly opposes the act of the U.S. to undermine the interests of China and other countries through unilateral and protectionist policies. We hope the U.S. will stop its wrongdoing and stick to an equal-footed consultation to find a solution. I also want to state the following four points on China-U.S. nuclear energy and nuclear safety cooperation. 

第一,中美核能合作是互利互惠的。中美两国都是核大国,都建立了完整的核工业体系,当然美国的核能与核安全水平是世界领先的,中美两国通过实质性的核能合作,引进四台AP1000核电机组,在中国成功的建造、调试、运行,中美双方的企业都得到了实惠,而且是自觉自愿的。

First, the China-U.S. nuclear energy cooperation is mutually beneficial. Both China and the U.S. are leading countries in the application of nuclear energy and technologies with a complete nuclear industry system. Of course, the U.S. leads the world in nuclear energy and nuclear safety. China has introduced four AP1000 reactor units from the U.S. through substantial bilateral cooperation in nuclear energy. These units have been successfully built, debugged and put into operation in China. This cooperation has benefited companies from both countries and been carried out on a voluntary basis.

第二,中美两国在核安全方面的合作。在过去的35年中,中美两国在核安全方面的合作是愉快的、友好的,富有成效的,取得了积极的成果。两国通过互利合作,促进了两国核安全水平的提升,因为核安全没有国界,所以即使在中美贸易摩擦这样的背景下,我相信中美两国政府在核安全方面的合作也是不会受到影响的。

Second, the China-U.S. cooperation on nuclear safety over the past 35 years has been agreeable, friendly and effective, and has produced positive results. The two countries have enhanced their nuclear safety levels through mutually beneficial cooperation. As nuclear safety has no borders, I believe the cooperation between the Chinese and U.S. governments in nuclear safety will not be affected despite the trade frictions.  

第三,除了中美核能合作以外,中国和法国、俄罗斯开展了卓有成效的核能合作,一些重大项目,包括核电厂、乏燃料后处理厂,都取得了实质性的进步。所以说,中国的核能合作是全方位的,并不是只与美国一个国家开展合作。

Third, China has also carried out fruitful nuclear energy cooperation with France and Russia, achieving substantial outcomes in some key projects, including nuclear power plants and spent fuel reprocessing facilities. So we say the U.S. is not the only country China carries out nuclear energy cooperation with. 

第四,美方通过核限令对中国企业进行限制以后,我相信中方企业一方面会加强研究开发,不断提升自主创新能力。另一方面,世界核能合作的市场是广阔的,除了中美合作以外,还有中国与其他国家的友好合作。所以,核限令可能最终伤害的还是美国自己的企业。谢谢。

Fourth, on the one hand, I believe Chinese companies, in the face of the U.S. nuclear restrictions, will further strengthen research and development, and continue to enhance their capacity in independent innovation. On the other hand, it should be pointed out that the global market for cooperation in nuclear energy is huge. China can cooperate with the U.S. as well as with other countries. Therefore, the U.S. restrictions may ultimately hurt its own businesses. Thank you. 

凤凰卫视记者:

Phoenix TV

第一个问题,跟着上面的问题,美国将中国的企业列入到禁止实体名单以后,对中国造成哪些影响,具体的影响怎么样?第二个问题,看到福岛核事故以后,很多国家都是去核发展的趋势比较明显,虽然过去几年也经过一些波折,但是去核,大部分国家的决心还是不断的,目前给出的报告当中指出中国现在在建的11个核电机组数量上已经达到了世界第一的水平,中国为什么会这么坚持要发展核能,势在必行发展的原因是什么?还有一个问题,欧美多个报告中都指出,中国核电站内部的核废料处理能力在2020年已经到极限,加大一些外储站的建设之后也只能到2035年,中国的这些乏燃料的处理现在的能力到底是一个什么样的水平?谢谢。

My first question is: If the US adds Chinese companies to its entity list, what impact will it have on China? 

Here is my second question. In the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan, we have seen a growing trend towards denuclearization among many countries. Although there were some twists and turns in the past years, most countries have shown continued determination in their denuclearization efforts. As the white paper points out, China has 11 nuclear power units under construction, ranking first in the world. Why does China persist in developing nuclear energy? What is the reason behind China's unstoppable efforts in this regard? One more question. As multiple documents issued by the US and some European countries have indicated, the nuclear waste disposal capabilities of China's nuclear power stations will be stretched to the limit by 2020. Even if China expands its storage facilities, its nuclear waste disposal capabilities will peak in 2035. Can you shed some light on China's current capabilities to dispose of spent nuclear fuels? Thank you. 

袭艳春:

Xi Yanchun:

好几个问题,有些问题可能和之前的问题有些冲突,请刘部长来回答。

Quite a few questions. Some of them may have been answered just now. Mr. Liu will take the floor.  

刘华:

Liu Hua:

谢谢。刚才你问了三个问题。第一个问题,关于美国的对华的核限令,涉及到核企业的问题,刚才我已经回答了。

Thanks. You have asked three questions. Your first question is about America's nuclear 

restrictions on China and their impact on Chinese nuclear companies, which I have already answered. 

第二个问题,中国为什么要继续发展核能?我想,中国是一个核大国,发展核能是中国政府既定的方针政策,尽管日本福岛事故以后,有些国家有去核的趋势,但是你看看当今世界的主要的核大国,特别是联合国5个常任理事国,这些国家基本都还是坚定的发展核能,继续的发展核能。所以,从国际原子能机构的研究报告里也表明,继续发展核能是国际上一些国家的重要的选项,对于中国来说,中国以煤炭为主的能源结构,决定了我们必须发展清洁、高效能源,这样才能进一步的保护环境,促进蓝天保卫战的更好地实施。从调整能源结构讲,中国要发展清洁能源。

Let's go to your second question: Why does China persist in developing nuclear energy? China is a major nuclear country and the development of nuclear energy is an established policy of the Chinese government. Although we have seen a tendency by some countries towards denuclearization after the Fukushima accident, the major nuclear countries in the world, especially the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council,have been sticking to their policies of developing nuclear energy. A research report from the International Atomic Energy Agency also indicates that, for some countries who want to develop nuclear energy, this is still an important option. China's current coal-dominated energy structure means that we must develop clean and highly efficient energy sources to improve the environment and to win the battle for blue skies. China also has to develop clean energy to adjust its energy mix. 

第二,中国从保障能源的安全方面,像中国这样的大国,必须在能源方面是多选项的,是一种多种能源的构成结构。所以,从能源的多样性的角度,中国也要除了火电、水电,新能源以外,核能是作为一个重要选项,但是中国的政策是在确保安全的基础上发展核能。这是第二个方面。

Secondly, from the perspective of energy security, a big country like China must have multiple energy sources and establish a diversified energy mix. 

第三,从全球气候变化的角度,控制二氧化碳排放,这还是回到环境问题,也需要一些二氧化碳零排放的能源构成,所以核能也是一个重要的选项。在这方面,中国政府积极吸取了日本福岛核事故的经验教训,进行了安全技术改进。同时,我们认为中国的核电厂址发生像类似日本福岛那样的地震+海啸极端自然灾害的可能性极小。同时,我们针对这样的事故,对我们厂址进行全面的重新评估,核电厂进行了安全改进,就它的供电、供水和应急保障、应急措施全面作出了安排,中国核设施的安全水平应该说得到了进一步的提升。中国是在保障安全的基础上发展核能,这也是一个核大国做出的战略选择。

Thirdly, from the point of global climate change, we have to curb carbon dioxide emissions. As part of our efforts to protect the environment, we need to include zero carbon energy into our energy mix. Therefore, nuclear energy remains an important option.  

第四,关于放射性废物。放射性废物安全应该说中国从核能发展以来就一直关注的问题,所以中国不论是在中低放废物还是在高放废物的处理处置方面都做了规划战略的安排,包括现在中低放废物处置厂已经建立了两座并且在安全的运行。

Fourthly, the safe disposal of radioactive waste has always been a matter of importance since China started to develop nuclear energy. As a result, China has made strategic arrangements in the disposal of low- and intermediate-level as well as the high-level radioactive waste. Two factories for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste have been built and are operating safely.

下一阶段,中国还会在发展核电的省份陆续建造五个左右的中低放处置厂,中国对高放废物处置现在正在进行地下处置厂试验室的立项和研究开发,这个立项也会很快进入到实质性的进展阶段。所以,高放废物处置会把放射性活度很高的那一部分放射性废物放到远离人类的生物圈范围内,安全的、长期的处置起来。这也是中国的既定的在发展核能过程中一个全产业链政策的一部分,所以做好放射性废物处置,保障我们子孙后代的安全,也是核企业和中国政府的责任。谢谢。

In the next phase, China will build about five more factories for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in the provinces that have been developing nuclear energy. Meanwhile, China has initiated the underground laboratory project for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and R&D work has been underway. The project will soon see some tangible progress. Radioactive waste with high-level radiation will be stored in safe locations far away from human civilization. 

袭艳春:

Xi Yanchun:

下面是最后一个提问。

Now, we come to the last question.

中央广播电视总台国广记者:

China Radio International (CRI):

我的问题是这样的,五年之前,习近平主席在海牙国际核安全峰会上曾经提出过,我们要树立理性、协调、并进的核安全观,并且要建设公平、合作、共赢的国际核安全体系。我想问,我们后续推进的举措是什么?现在最新进展怎么样?谢谢。

My questions are as follows. Five years ago, at the third Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague, President Xi Jinping suggested that we should follow a rational, coordinated and balanced approach to nuclear safety, and he called for the building of a global nuclear security architecture featuring fairness and win-win cooperation. So, what are our follow-up initiatives and what's the latest progress? Thank you.

刘华:

Liu Hua:

谢谢。习近平主席在海牙提出建设核安全命运共同体,提出了中国核安全观,应该说这几年我们的核安全各项工作成效还是非常显著的。

Thank you. In The Hague, President Xi Jinping put forward the vision for building a community of a shared future on nuclear safety, and proposed China's nuclear safety strategy. It should be said that we have made remarkable progress on our work on nuclear safety in recent years.

一方面,不断完善国家核安全体系。一是在顶层设计方面,刚才我已经说过核安全纳入国家安全体系,写入国家安全法,颁布核安全法,制定核安全中长期发展规划,高效运转各部门组成的核安全工作协调机制,这都是顶层设计方面。二是在法规标准方面,新的核安全法从2018年开始实施,根据国际最新标准,我们修改完善中国的核安全相关法规标准,建立了严格的、高标准的国家核安全标准体系。三是进一步落实企业安全责任,开展核电安全提升年活动,开展核安全管理年活动,提高企业核安全水平,加强底线思维,做好各项应急预案和应急计划。四是加强核安全能力建设,提高企业核安全研发水平,提高政府安全监管研发能力,对于一些重要的核安全研发项目,由国家组织联合科技攻关。五是培育核安全文化。

On the one hand, we are constantly improving the national nuclear safety system.

First, in terms of top-level planning, as I said just now, nuclear safety is part of China's overall national security framework and is written into the National Security Law. We have enacted the Nuclear Safety Law, made medium- and long-term development plans for nuclear safety, and kept the nuclear safety coordination mechanism, which is composed of various departments running effectively. All this is about top-level planning.

Second, in terms of the legal framework, the new Nuclear Safety Law has been implemented since 2018. In accordance with the latest international standards, we have revised and improved relevant Chinese laws, regulations and standards on nuclear safety, and established a legal framework of a strict and high standard on national nuclear safety.

Third, in terms of the system of responsibility, we have created clear lines of responsibility for enterprises. They in turn have launched various activities to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power and strengthened their management in this regard. Enterprises are also required to improve nuclear safety, think about worst-case scenarios, improve their emergency response and make various emergency plans.

Fourth, in terms of the building of nuclear safety capacity, we have enhanced both enterprises' research and development (R&D) in nuclear safety technology and the government's regulation and R&D in this regard. For some important nuclear safety research and development projects, the state organizes joint scientific and technological research.

Fifth, we are working to foster a culture of nuclear safety.

另一方面,中国在国际上积极推动国际核安全合作和建立核安全国际合作体系。一是我国积极加入并履行国际法律文书,中国在这些年陆续加入了国际原子能机构和联合国有关核安全方面所有的国际公约,包括《核安全公约》《及早通报核事故公约》《核事故或辐射紧急情况援助公约》《核材料实物保护公约》《乏燃料管理安全和放射性废物管理安全联合公约》等,中国履行和加入这些国际公约、履行国际公约所规定的义务。

On the other hand, China actively promotes international cooperation on nuclear safety and the establishment of an international system of cooperation on nuclear safety.

First, China has actively acceded to international legal instruments on nuclear safety and fulfilled its due obligations. Over the past years, China has successively acceded to all the international conventions on nuclear safety of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United Nations, including the Convention on Nuclear Safety, the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, and the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. China has fulfilled and acceded to these international conventions and fulfilled its obligations under these conventions.

二是中国支持国际原子能机构工作,支持在多边体制下充分发挥国际原子能机构的作用。中国为国际原子能机构提供了全方位的支持,包括持续向国际原子能机构核安全基金捐款。现在中国是联合国会费第二大贡献国,在国际原子能机构也是会费第二大贡献国,中国将继续为核安全基金捐款,用于支持亚洲地区核安全能力建设,促进世界各国核安全水平的同步提升。

Second, China gives strong support to the work of the IAEA and upholds the role of the IAEA under the multilateral system. China has provided all-round support to the IAEA, including continuous contributions to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. Currently, China is the second largest contributor to the United Nations membership dues and the second largest contributor to the IAEA membership dues. China will continue to contribute to the Nuclear Safety Fund to support nuclear safety capacity-building in Asia and promote the simultaneous improvement of nuclear safety in all other countries.

三是中国积极参与交流与合作。中国与美国、法国、俄罗斯、日本、韩国、加拿大等国家以及“一带一路”新兴核电国家都建立了密切联系,签订了50多份核安全合作协议,加强专家交流、技术合作、高层互访。中国参与了核电厂多国设计评价机制,推动建立了我们自主创新设计的华龙一号工作组,开展国际联合审查。中国依托国家核与辐射安全监管技术研发基地和中国核安保中心,为发展中国家开展核安全相关的培训交流活动提供平台,提升各国安全水平、安全能力,分享中国的安全经验。应该说,通过这些工作,我们推动了全球核安全水平全面持续提升。我就回答这么多。谢谢。

Third, China actively participates in international exchanges and cooperation. China maintains close contact with the United States, France, Russia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Canada as well as the emerging nuclear energy countries along the Belt and Road. China has signed more than 50 cooperation agreements on nuclear safety to increase communication between experts, technological cooperation, and high-level visits. China has also taken part in the Multinational Design Evaluation Program for nuclear power plants, promoted the establishment of a working group on the Hualong-1, and conducted joint international reviews. Through its National Research and Development Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulation and State Nuclear Security Technology Center, China provides the platforms for developing countries to carry out training and exchange activities related to nuclear safety, raises the safety standard and capacity of all countries, and shares its security experience with other nations. It should be said that through these efforts, we have promoted a comprehensive and continuous upgrading of global nuclear safety standards. That's my answer. Thank you.

袭艳春:

Xi Yanchun:

再次感谢两位发布人,也谢谢大家。今天的发布会到此结束。

Again, thanks to the two speakers, and thanks to you all. Today's briefing concludes here.

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