扫码触屏 精彩随性

m.kaosee.cn

注册登录
首页 口译 笔译 MTI 面授 网上商城 天之聪翻译
您当前位置: > 笔译 > 双语阅读 >

双语对照:《平等、参与、共享:新中国残疾人权益保障70年》白皮书


来源:国新办    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2019-07-26 07:33   点击: 次  

平等、参与、共享:新中国残疾人权益保障70年

Equality, Participation and Sharing: 70 Years of Protecting the Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in the PRC

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

2019年7月

July 2019

目录

Contents

前言

Preamble

一、残疾人事业发展历程

I. Development of the Cause of Persons with Disabilities

二、残疾人权益保障机制

II. Mechanisms for the Protection of Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities

三、健康与康复

III. Health and Rehabilitation

四、特殊教育与融合教育

IV. Special Education and Inclusive Education

五、就业与创业

V. Employment and Entrepreneurship

六、基本生活与社会保障

VI. Basic Life and Social Security

七、无障碍环境建设与个人行动能力

VII. Creating an Accessible Environment and Enabling Mobility

八、人身自由与非歧视

VIII. Personal Freedom and Non-Discrimination

九、营造良好社会环境

IX. Creating a Good Social Environment

十、对外交流与国际合作

X. International Exchanges and Cooperation

结束语

Conclusion

前言

Preamble

残疾人是人类大家庭的平等成员。尊重和保障残疾人的人权和人格尊严,使他们能以平等的地位和均等的机会充分参与社会生活,共享物质文明和精神文明成果,是国家义不容辞的责任,也是中国特色社会主义制度的必然要求。

Persons with disabilities are equal members of the human family. It is a bounden duty of the state and an essential requirement of socialism with Chinese characteristics to respect and protect their human rights and dignity, and to offer them equal opportunities to participate in social life and enjoy the fruits of the country’s material and cultural progress on an equal footing.

中国有8500万残疾人。新中国成立70年来,在建设中国特色社会主义伟大事业进程中,中国共产党和中国政府本着对人民负责的精神,坚持以人民为中心,关心特殊困难群体,尊重残疾人意愿,保障残疾人权利,注重残疾人的社会参与,推动残疾人真正成为权利主体,成为经济社会发展的参与者、贡献者和享有者。

China now has a population of 85 million persons with disabilities. Over the 70 years since the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, and especially in the process of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Chinese government have always put the people first and provided care for the group with special difficulties. China respects the wishes of those with disabilities, protects their rights, attaches importance to their participation in social life, grants them real civil rights, and makes them participants in, contributors to, and beneficiaries of our social and economic development.

在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指引下,中国将残疾人事业发展作为全面建成小康社会的重要目标,坚持政府主导与社会参与、市场推动相结合,坚持增进残疾人福祉和促进残疾人自强自立相结合,将残疾人事业纳入国家经济社会发展总体规划和国家人权行动计划,残疾人权益保障的体制机制不断完善,残疾人社会保障制度和服务体系不断健全,残疾人获得感、幸福感、安全感持续提升,残疾人事业取得举世瞩目的历史性成就。

Guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, China has included the cause of persons with disabilities in the agenda for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. It maintains that in promoting the interests of persons with disabilities the government should play the leading role, while soliciting the participation of the whole of society and giving full play to the functions of the market, and that the government should keep improving the wellbeing of those with disabilities and also encourage their self-improvement and self-reliance. By incorporating the programs of persons with disabilities in the national social and economic plan and human rights action plan, China has improved the institutions for protecting their rights and interests. It has also improved their social security and upgraded public services for them, so that they are feeling happier, safer, and more satisfied. China’s achievements in championing this cause have won recognition throughout the world.

一、残疾人事业发展历程

I. Development of the Cause of Persons with Disabilities

中华人民共和国成立70年来,中国从国情和实际出发,努力促进和保护残疾人权利和尊严,保障残疾人平等参与经济、政治、社会和文化生活,走出了一条具有中国特色的残疾人事业发展道路。

In the 70 years since it was founded, the PRC has taken into full consideration its realities and actual conditions, and developed its own strategy for protecting the rights and interests of persons with disabilities. It has worked tirelessly to promote the rights of persons with disabilities, protect their dignity, and ensure they participate equally in the nation’s politics, economy, and social and cultural life.

残疾人获得平等地位。新中国成立以后,残疾人在政治上获得了和其他人一样的地位,享受应有的公民权利和义务。中国政府公布实施《革命残废军人优待抚恤暂行条例》等法规,对伤残军人等伤残人员的休养、治疗、生活、学习、工作给予特殊保障;建立福利机构和精神病院,收养或安置无依无靠的重度残疾人、残疾孤儿、残疾老人、精神残疾人和残疾军人;兴办了盲童学校、聋哑学校等特殊教育学校,确立了特殊教育在国民教育体系中的地位。在农村,对符合条件的失去劳动能力的残疾人由集体经济组织给予“五保”待遇(即保吃、保穿、保住、保医、保葬或保教);在城市,兴办福利工厂、福利生产单位安排残疾人就业。探索社会化管理方式,1953年成立中国盲人福利会,1956年成立中国聋哑人福利会,1960年在此基础上成立中国盲人聋哑人协会。大部分省、自治区、直辖市也建立起地方协会和基层组织,残疾人开始参与自身事务的管理。全国城乡劳动就业的残疾人增多,文化体育活动有所开展,残疾人生活初步改善。

Equal status for persons with disabilities. After the founding of the PRC, persons with disabilities got equal status with others politically, with the same lawful rights and obligations as all other citizens. The state promulgated the Provisional Regulations on Pensions and Preferential Treatments for Service Veterans with Disabilities, giving special guarantees to disabled service veterans in terms of rehabilitation, medical treatment, and their life, education, and employment. Welfare and mental institutions were established to take in persons with severe disabilities and without family, orphans with disabilities, elderly persons with disabilities, persons with mental disabilities, and disabled servicemen. With the introduction of special education schools for children with visual and hearing impairments and speech disorders, the government included special education for persons with disabilities in the national educational system. In rural areas, eligible disabled persons without the ability to work began to be guaranteed food, clothing, housing, medical care, burial services or education by collective economic organizations. In cities, persons with disabilities were provided with jobs at welfare factories and other similar units. China explored the socialized management of the affairs of persons with disabilities, establishing the China Blind Persons’ Welfare Society in 1953, the China Deaf-mutes Welfare Society in 1956, and the China Association of the Blind and Deaf in 1960. Most provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government set up local associations and community-level organizations for persons with disabilities, who began to manage their own affairs. In both urban and rural areas, more persons with disabilities got jobs; they became more involved in cultural and sports activities, and their life began to improve.

残疾人事业在改革开放中兴起。改革开放以来,中国共产党和中国政府实施了一系列发展残疾人事业、改善残疾人状况的重大举措。1984年成立中国残疾人福利基金会,1987年开展第一次全国残疾人抽样调查,1988年成立中国残疾人联合会(简称“中国残联”),1991年颁布实施《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》并第一次制定实施中国残疾人事业五年计划纲要。进入21世纪,国家加快推进全面小康社会建设,残疾人事业全面提升。2008年出台《中共中央 国务院关于促进残疾人事业发展的意见》,同年修订《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》。残疾人事业由改革开放初期以救济为主的社会福利工作,逐步发展成为包括康复、教育、就业、扶贫、社会保障、维权、文化、体育、无障碍环境建设、残疾预防等领域的综合性社会事业。残疾人参与社会生活的环境大为改善,残疾人的经济、政治、文化和社会权利得到尊重和保障;残疾人的面貌发生根本性变化,由被动的受助者变为积极参与的主体,成为经济社会发展的一支重要力量,在改革和发展中涌现出一大批像张海迪那样的体现民族精神和时代风貌的优秀残疾人。

Championing the programs of persons with disabilities since reform and opening-up. Since reform and opening up was initiated in 1978, the CPC and the Chinese government have introduced a series of major measures to champion the programs of persons with disabilities and improve their lives. These include: founding of the China Foundation for Disabled Persons in 1984, the first national sample survey on disability in 1987, founding of the China Disabled Persons’ Federation (CDPF) in 1988, and promulgation of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities and the first five-year program for China’s cause of these people in 1991. Entering the 21st century, as the country moved faster toward a moderately prosperous society, the cause of persons with disabilities also advanced in all respects. In 2008, the “Directives of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Promoting the Cause of Persons with Disabilities” was issued, and the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities was revised. Promoting the interests of persons with disabilities, from being part of social welfare in the form of relief in the late 1970s and early 1980s, has evolved into an encompassing network covering rehabilitation, education, employment, poverty alleviation, social security, rights protection, culture, sports, accessible environment, and disability prevention. The environment has improved for persons with disabilities to join in social life, and their political, economic, cultural and social rights are respected and guaranteed. There has been a fundamental change in the life and work of persons with disabilities, who have evolved from recipients of relief in the past to a main body involved in relevant activities, and an important force for social and economic progress. In the course of reform and development, many persons with disabilities, for example Zhang Haidi, have become role models who embody the spirit of the Chinese nation and of the times.

残疾人事业迈上新台阶。中共十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央对残疾人格外关心、格外关注。2014年、2019年习近平两次会见全国自强模范暨助残先进集体和个人表彰大会受表彰代表,为我国残疾人事业发展指明方向,2014年向中国残疾人福利基金会成立30周年发去贺信提出“残疾人是一个特殊困难的群体,需要格外关心、格外关注”,2017年向2013-2022年亚太残疾人十年中期审查高级别政府间会议致贺信提出“中国将进一步发展残疾人事业,促进残疾人全面发展和共同富裕”,2016年在河北省唐山市考察时提出“2020年全面建成小康社会,残疾人一个也不能少”的任务目标。自中共十八大以来,残疾人工作成为“五位一体”总体布局和“四个全面”战略布局的重要内容。在国家层面建立起覆盖数千万残疾人口,包含生活补贴、护理补贴、儿童康复补贴等内容的残疾人专项福利制度;在全国范围内将数百万农村贫困残疾人脱贫作为打赢脱贫攻坚战的重点,精准施策、特别扶助;在实施“健康中国”战略中高度重视和关注每个残疾人的健康问题,加快实现“人人享有健康服务”目标;将残疾人基本公共服务纳入国家基本公共服务体系,持续推进残疾人基本公共服务托底补短工作,不断提高残疾人基本公共服务供给水平;各行各业、社会各个方面都在努力消除障碍,越来越多的残疾人接受更好教育、实现就业创业、平等参与社会。残疾人“平等、参与、共享”的目标得到更好实现,关心帮助残疾人的社会氛围更加浓厚,残疾人事业发展进入了快车道,残疾人获得感、幸福感、安全感持续提升,残疾人事业整体发展水平迈上一个新台阶。

New progress in the cause of persons with disabilities. Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC in 2012, the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping as its core has given more care and attention to persons with disabilities. In 2014 and 2019, Xi met with representatives from model units for helping persons with disabilities, and with individual role models of self-reliance and hard work, pointing the direction for China’s work for persons with disabilities. In 2014, in his letter to congratulate the China Foundation for Disabled Persons on its 30th anniversary, Xi said that persons with disabilities were a special group in need of extra care and attention. In 2017, in his congratulatory letter to the High-level Intergovernmental Meeting on the Midpoint Review of the Asian and Pacific Decade of Persons with Disabilities, 2013-2022, Xi said that China would continue to champion the cause of persons with disabilities, so that they could develop in an all-round way and achieve common prosperity. In 2016, during an inspection trip to Tangshan, Hebei Province, he said that in the course of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020, not a single person with disabilities should be left behind. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, work related to persons with disabilities has become an important part of the Five-point Strategy (promoting economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress) and the Four-pronged Strategy (to complete a moderately prosperous society in all respects, to further reform, to advance the rule of law, and to strengthen Party discipline). The state has established a special welfare system for tens of millions of persons with disabilities, including living subsidies, nursing subsidies, and subsidies for children’s rehabilitation. Persons with disabilities from poor households in rural areas, numbering in the millions, have become a focus in the final fight against poverty, and we should accurately apply policies and give them special assistance.

In the Healthy China initiative, we should pay particular attention to each individual with disabilities and make sure everyone has access to health services. Public services for persons with disabilities have been included in the national system of basic public services, and efforts will continue to provide basic public services to them, improve weaker links, and enhance service quality. As all trades and walks of life strive to eliminate barriers, more and more persons with disabilities are receiving better education, which enable them to find jobs, start businesses, and participate in social life more equally. As the whole nation works to achieve the goals of “equality, participation and sharing” for persons with disabilities, Chinese society is more readily available to care for and help them. The cause of persons with disabilities is picking up speed, and these people are enjoying a greater sense of gain, happiness, and security.

二、残疾人权益保障机制

II. Mechanisms for the Protection of Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities

中国坚持将残疾人事业纳入国家发展战略,加强残疾人权益法治保障,健全残疾人工作体制,残疾人权益保障机制不断完善。

China will continue to include the programs of persons with disabilities into the national development strategy, and strengthen the legal protection of their rights and interests, and improve the support system for them and the mechanisms for ensuring their rights and interests.

残疾人事业纳入国家发展战略。自1991年开始,残疾人事业被纳入国民经济和社会发展总体规划,“十一五”至“十三五”国民经济和社会发展规划中分别设立“保障残疾人权益”“加快残疾人事业发展”“提升残疾人服务保障水平”专节。国务院先后颁布7个残疾人事业五年发展规划,对残疾人权益保障工作作出总体部署;发布《国务院关于加快推进残疾人小康进程的意见》《“十三五”加快残疾人小康进程规划纲要》《“十三五”推进基本公共服务均等化规划》《国家残疾预防行动计划(2016-2020年)》和两期《特殊教育提升计划》等一批专项规划,进一步细化残疾人事业发展的工作任务和责任清单;自2009年开始施行的三期国家人权行动计划均规定了残疾人权益保障的任务要求和完成指标。

Integrating the programs of persons with disabilities into the national development strategy. Since 1991, programs of persons with disabilities have been included into the overall plan for national economic and social development. From the 11th to the 13th Five-year plans, there have been special sections titled “protecting the rights and interests of persons with disabilities”, “accelerating the programs of persons with disabilities”, and “improving services to and protection of persons with disabilities” in these plans. The State Council has released seven five-year development plans for persons with disabilities, making overall arrangements for the protection of their rights and interests. To further define the tasks and responsibility list for the protection of persons with disabilities, China has issued “Instructions of the State Council on Accelerating the Process Toward Prosperity for Persons with Disabilities”, “Outline for Accelerating the Process Toward Prosperity for Persons with Disabilities in the 13th Five-year Plan Period”, “Plan for Promoting Equal Access to Basic Public Services in the 13th Five-year Plan Period”, “The National Disability Prevention Program (2016-2020)”, and two documents of “Special Education Promotion Plan”, for 2014-2016 and 2017-2020 respectively. Launched in 2009, the three documents of the “National Human Rights Action Plan” for 2009-2010, 2011-2015, and 2016-2020 specified the tasks and goals of this mission.

残疾人权益保障法治化。中国已形成以《中华人民共和国宪法》为核心,以《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》为主干,以《残疾预防和残疾人康复条例》《残疾人教育条例》《残疾人就业条例》《无障碍环境建设条例》等为重要支撑的残疾人权益保障法律法规体系。截至2018年4月,直接涉及残疾人权益保障的法律有80多部,行政法规有50多部。《中华人民共和国宪法》明确规定包括残疾人在内的所有公民都依法享有选举权和被选举权,《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》规定残疾人在经济、政治、文化、社会和家庭生活等方面享有同其他公民平等的权利,《中华人民共和国选举法》对残疾人行使选举权作出特殊规定,要求为残疾人参加选举提供便利。2018年,共有5000多名残疾人、残疾人亲友和残疾人工作者担任县级以上人大代表和政协委员。国家采取多种措施保障残疾人参与公共事务的平等权利。全国人大常委会多次开展《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》实施情况的执法检查,持续推动残疾人合法权益保障工作不断改进,全国政协通过开展多种形式的协商议政活动持续推进残疾人的权益保护,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院与中国残联建立协调工作机制,公安部依法严厉打击侵犯残疾人合法权益的违法犯罪行为。全国普遍开通12385残疾人服务热线,建成残疾人信访工作网上服务平台,拓宽残疾人利益诉求渠道。

Law-based protection of rights and interests of persons with disabilities. A legal system is now in place in China with the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China as basis, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities as its mainstay. It is taken to a further level of detail in the Regulations on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities, Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities, Regulations on the Employment of Persons with Disabilities, and Regulations on the Building of an Accessible Environment. By April 2018, more than 80 laws and 50 administrative regulations had been passed concerning the protection of the rights and interests of persons with disabilities.

The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China explicitly specifies that all citizens, including persons with disabilities, have the right to vote and to stand for election in accordance with the law. The Law on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities provides that persons with disabilities shall enjoy the same economic, political, cultural, social and family rights as other citizens. The Electoral Law of the National People’s Congress and Local People’s Congresses contains special provisions concerning the election rights of persons with disabilities, requiring that assistance be provided to facilitate their participation in elections. In 2018, over 5,000 persons with disabilities, relatives of this group, and personnel working for them were deputies to the people’s congresses and members of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) above the county level.

The state has taken measures to ensure the equal rights of persons with disabilities to participate in public affairs. The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC) has carried out inspections on the implementation of the Law on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities to improve the protection of their lawful rights and interests. The CPPCC National Committee has held various consultative conferences for the same goal. The Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, and the CDPF have built a joint working mechanism to this end. The Ministry of Public Security has acted with resolution against illegal criminal acts infringing upon the legal rights and interests of persons with disabilities. The 12385 service hotline for persons with disabilities has been launched nationwide, and an online petition platform is also available to expand the channels for these people to express their concerns.

残疾人公共法律服务体系优先建设。最高人民法院等九部门联合印发《关于加强残疾人法律救助工作的意见》,成立了残疾人法律救助工作协调领导小组,指导地方设立残疾人法律救助工作站。最高人民法院要求各级人民法院为残疾人开辟绿色通道,提供优先服务;同时要求为残疾人提供司法便民服务,为残疾人参加庭审活动提供无障碍设施。司法部发布《关于“十三五”加强残疾人公共法律服务的意见》,拓展了残疾人公共法律服务领域,扩大了残疾人法律援助范围,加强了残疾人刑事法律援助。截至2018年,全国设立残疾人法律援助工作站2600余个,建成法律援助便民服务窗口2600余个,各级残疾人联合会(简称“残联”)建立残疾人法律救助工作站1814个。2014年至2018年,共为31.2万残疾人提供法律援助,法律援助机构组织为残疾人提供法律咨询共计124.2万人次。

Prioritizing a public legal service system for persons with disabilities. The Supreme People’s Court and eight other departments have jointly issued the “Directives on Strengthening Legal Aid for Persons with Disabilities”, and set up a leading group to guide local departments in building legal aid centers. The Supreme People’s Court requires that people’s courts at all levels open up green channels for persons with disabilities, give them priority, provide them with convenient legal services, and create barrier-free facilities in courts. The Ministry of Justice released the “Directives on Improving Public Legal Services for Persons with Disabilities in the 13th Five-year Plan Period” to expand the scope of these services, including legal aid, and to strengthen criminal legal aid for these people.

By 2018, more than 2,600 legal aid centers and more than 2,600 service windows for persons with disabilities had been set up across the nation. And 1,814 legal aid stations had been built by disabled persons’ federations at all levels. From 2014 to 2018, a total of 312,000 persons with disabilities benefited from legal aid services, and 1,242,000 received legal advice from legal aid organizations.

残疾人工作体制逐步健全。在推进残疾人事业的工作实践中,形成了党委领导、政府负责、社会参与、残疾人组织充分发挥作用的中国残疾人工作体制。2008年3月发布《中共中央 国务院关于促进残疾人事业发展的意见》,明确了残疾人事业发展的总体要求。成立由34个部委和机构负责人组成的国务院残疾人工作委员会(简称“国务院残工委”),协调国务院有关残疾人事业方针、政策、法规、规划的制定与实施,解决残疾人工作中的重大问题。国务院残工委各成员单位按照部门分工履行残疾人事业有关职责,推动有关残疾人政策的制定与落实。全国县级以上人民政府均成立了残疾人工作委员会。中国残联及地方各级残联充分发挥代表、服务、管理职能,成为党和政府联系残疾人的桥梁和纽带。工会、共青团、妇联等人民团体和老龄协会等社会组织发挥各自优势,维护残疾职工、残疾青年、残疾妇女、残疾儿童和残疾老人的合法权益。红十字会、慈善会、残疾人福利基金会等慈善组织为残疾人事业筹集善款,开展爱心捐助活动。企事业单位承担社会责任,为残疾人事业发展贡献力量。

Improving the support system for persons with disabilities. To provide better protection to persons with disabilities, we have formed a support system in which the CPC Party committees take the lead, the government takes responsibilities, the public gives support, and disabled persons’ organizations play an important role. In March 2008, the “Directives of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Promoting the Cause of Persons with Disabilities” was released, which stipulates the general requirements for this work. The State Council Working Committee on Disability was set up by leaders from 34 ministries, departments and organizations to coordinate the formulation and implementation of guidelines, policies, regulations and programs made by the State Council in relation to persons with disabilities, and to address major problems in this regard. The member units of this committee are assigned duties to meet this goal.

The people’s governments above the county level have set up their own committees to develop programs of persons with disabilities. As the bridge and the bond between the Party, the government, and persons with disabilities, the CDPF and its local branches employ to the full their capacity to represent, manage and serve the interests of this group. The Labor Union, the Communist Youth League, the Women’s Federation, and the Association for the Elderly apply their strength to safeguard the lawful rights and interests of workers, youth, women, children and the elderly with disabilities. The Red Cross Society, Charity Society, and China Foundation for Disabled Persons help to raise money and collect donations for those with disabilities. Enterprises and public institutions shoulder their responsibilities to play their part in helping these people.

残疾人组织得到充分发展。中国残联是国家法律确认、国务院批准的由残疾人及其亲友和残疾人工作者组成的人民团体,它代表残疾人共同利益,维护残疾人合法权益;团结帮助残疾人,为残疾人服务;履行法律赋予的职责,承担政府委托的任务,管理和发展残疾人事业。中国残联的最高权力机构是全国代表大会,每五年举行一次。截至2018年,全国(除新疆生产建设兵团、黑龙江垦区外)共成立残联组织4.2万个。中国残联领导盲人协会、聋人协会、肢残人协会、智力残疾人及亲友协会、精神残疾人及亲友协会等专门协会。截至2018年,全国共建立省、地(市)、县三级五类残疾人专门协会1.6万个。

Full development of disabled persons’ federations. The CDPF is a legitimate organization approved by the State Council. It is composed of persons with disabilities, their relatives, and personnel working for them. It represents and safeguards the legitimate rights and interests of persons with disabilities, and aims to unite, help and serve them. It performs duties assigned by law, undertakes tasks entrusted by the government, and manages and develops programs of persons with disabilities. The highest authority of the CDPF is the National Congress, which is held every five years. By 2018, a total of 42,000 disabled persons’ federations had been set up across the nation (with the exception of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps and Heilongjiang Reclamation Area). The CDPF takes leadership over the China Association of Persons with Visual Disabilities, the China Association of Persons with Hearing Disabilities, the China Association of Persons with Physical Disabilities, the China Association of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Relatives, and the China Association of Persons with Psychiatric Disabilities and Their Relatives. By 2018, a total of 16,000 branches of these associations at provincial, prefectural (municipal) and county levels were in place.

残疾人数据收集和统计机制不断完善。加强残疾人事业统计调查,规范和完善残疾人权益保障的统计指标,实现残疾人权益保障精细化管理、精准化服务。逐步建立国家和省(区、市)残疾人状况监测体系,制定统计监测指标体系,建立各地区各部门综合统计报表和定期报送审评制度。1987年和2006年开展了两次全国残疾人抽样调查,掌握了残疾人及其人权保障的基本状况。自2015年开始,每年开展全国残疾人基本服务状况和需求调查,统计全国残疾人的基本服务状况、需求信息以及社区残疾人基本公共服务状况信息,建立残疾人基础数据库,实现与政府有关部门数据共享。2018年收集全国3308万持有中华人民共和国残疾人证的残疾人基本服务状况和需求的动态信息,以及近69万个村(社区)的残疾人服务设施状况信息。

Improving data collection and census mechanisms for persons with disabilities. In order to optimize management and fine-tune services, China has strengthened processes for gathering data on persons with disabilities, and for regulating and improving the statistical indicators for the protection of their rights and interests. It has established systems for monitoring disability at the national and provincial levels, for gathering data and monitoring indicators, and for collecting comprehensive statistical forms from all departments and all regions and having them submitted regularly to higher-level authorities for review. Two national surveys on disability in 1987 and 2006 gave us a clearer picture of this group and of the protection of their human rights. Since 2015, surveys have been carried out on their basic services and demands, and on public services available to them at the community level. Databases have been built, and data shared among relevant departments of the government. In 2018, dynamic information on the services accessible to and demands of 33.08 million persons with disability certificates, and information on service facilities for persons with disabilities in 690,000 villages (communities) was gathered.

残疾人事业财政支持大幅增长。“十一五”期间全国残联系统用于残疾人事业发展的财政资金为573.59亿元,“十二五”期间财政资金投入1451.24亿元,比“十一五”期间增长153%。2016年,全国残联系统用于“十三五”期间残疾人事业发展的财政资金共计416.69亿元,比“十二五”同期(2011年)增加241.54亿元,增长138%。2013年至2017年各级财政专门用于残疾人事业的资金投入超过1800亿元,比上一个五年增长123%。2018年已竣工残疾人服务设施达到4069个。

A marked increase in financial support to programs of persons with disabilities.

Disabled persons’ federations across the nation spent RMB57.36 billion on programs for helping these people during the 11th Five-year Plan period (2006-2010).

The figure grew to RMB145.12 billion during the 12th Five-year Plan period (2011-2015), an increase of 153 percent.

The investment was RMB41.67 billion in 2016, the first year of the 13th Five-year Plan period (2016-2020), an increase of RMB24.15 billion, or 138 percent, compared with the first year (2011) during the 12th Five-year Plan period.

From 2013 to 2017, the fiscal allocations from all levels of the government for persons with disabilities added up to over RMB180 billion, up by 123 percent over the prior five years.

In 2018, 4,069 service facilities were in place.

三、健康与康复

III. Health and Rehabilitation

中国高度重视残疾人健康权利保障,全面开展残疾预防,大力推进康复服务,努力实现残疾人“人人享有康复服务”的目标。

China attaches great importance to ensuring the right to health for persons with disabilities. It makes comprehensive efforts in preventing disability, and works hard to improve rehabilitation services, in pursuit of the goal that “everyone in need has access to rehabilitation services.”

残疾人健康保障政策务实全面。《“健康中国2030”规划纲要》《“十三五”卫生与健康规划》《“十三五”深化医药卫生体制改革规划》等对维护残疾人健康、加强基层医疗康复能力建设等提出明确要求。《残疾预防和残疾人康复条例》颁布实施。建立重度残疾人护理补贴制度,向残疾人提供残疾特需医疗卫生服务,将残疾人作为家庭医生签约服务的优先对象,鼓励各地将基本康复服务纳入个性化签约范围。运动疗法等29项医疗康复项目纳入基本医疗保险支付范围。自20世纪90年代以来,中国政府和社会各界出资,对白内障患者开展手术治疗,累计使1000余万人复明。特别关注农村贫困残疾人医疗卫生服务状况,制定发布《关于实施健康扶贫工程的指导意见》《健康扶贫工程“三个一批”行动计划》《着力解决因残致贫家庭突出困难的实施方案》和《医疗保障扶贫三年行动实施方案(2018-2020年)》,将农村贫困残疾人纳入基本医保、大病保险、医疗救助范围,充分发挥三项制度综合保障作用,切实提高建档立卡贫困残疾人医疗保障受益水平,加强县级残疾人康复服务中心建设,提升基层康复服务能力,建立医疗机构与残疾人专业康复机构协调配合的工作机制。

Policies for ensuring health services for people with disabilities are pragmatic and comprehensive. The “Outline of Healthy China 2030”, the “Plan for Health in the 13th Five-year Plan Period”, and the “Plan for Deepening Medical and Healthcare Reform in the 13th Five-year Plan Period” have raised explicit requirements for ensuring healthcare for persons with disabilities, and improving the ability of community-level institutions to deliver medical and rehabilitation services. The Regulations on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities have been enacted and implemented. A subsidy system for nursing persons with severe disabilities has been established. Persons with disabilities are provided with special medical services, and they are also priority targets in family doctors’ contracting services. Local governments are encouraged to incorporate basic rehabilitation services into personalized contracts with family doctors. Exercise therapy and 28 other medical rehabilitation items are covered by basic medical insurance. Since the 1990s, the Chinese government and various sectors of the society have funded surgeries for cataract patients, and more than 10 million people have recovered eyesight through this campaign.

Special attention has been paid to medical and healthcare services for impoverished people with disabilities in rural areas. The government has issued the “Guiding Opinions on Programs of Poverty Alleviation Through Healthcare”, “Action Plan for Three Groups of People in Programs of Poverty Alleviation Through Healthcare”, “Implementation Plan for Addressing the Difficulties of Poor Households Caused by Disabilities”, and the “Three-year Action Plan for Poverty Alleviation Through Medical Security (2018-2020)”. In rural areas, poor people with disabilities are now covered by basic medical insurance, serious disease insurance, and medical assistance, all of which play an effective role in securing comprehensive healthcare for them. Medical insurance benefits for registered poor people with disabilities have been improved. More efforts have been made to build county-level rehabilitation service centers for persons with disabilities, with the goal of improving the capabilities of community-level institutions in providing rehabilitation services. A working mechanism has been established to coordinate medical institutions and professional rehabilitation institutions for persons with disabilities.

残疾预防工作取得积极成效。制定发布《国家残疾预防行动计划(2016-2020年)》,采取有效措施减少和控制残疾发生。在全国开展残疾预防综合试验区试点工作,探索完善残疾筛查、评定、报告及干预一体化工作机制。实施国家免疫规划,加强婚前孕前健康检查、孕产妇产前筛查诊断以及新生儿和儿童残疾筛查。制定《0-6岁儿童残疾筛查工作规范(试行)》,实现5类儿童残疾的早筛早诊早治。加强传染病、地方病、慢性病等疾病防治,实施食盐加碘、增补叶酸等重点预防工程,基本消除了脊髓灰质炎、碘缺乏病等致残因素。加强安全举措,减少意外伤害致残因素。科技部积极推进残疾预防技术攻关,通过“生殖健康及重大出生缺陷防控研究”和“重大慢性非传染性疾病防控研究”重点专项,部署开展出生缺陷防控和主要致残性重大慢性疾病防控技术研究,有效减少因病致残的发生。2017年国务院正式批准将每年8月25日设立为“残疾预防日”,在“残疾预防日”、爱耳日、防治碘缺乏病日、爱眼日、预防出生缺陷日、精神卫生日等节点开展宣传活动,提高公众残疾预防意识。截至2016年,全国共为8091万名农村围孕期妇女提供免费补服叶酸服务,为97.8万对夫妇免费提供地中海贫血筛查服务,为469万名新生儿提供免费先天性疾病筛查。

Positive results have been achieved in preventing disability. The “National Disability Prevention Action Plan (2016-2020)” has been promulgated, by which effective measures are being taken to reduce and control the occurrence of disabilities. Pilot work on comprehensive disability prevention has been carried out around China to improve the integrated mechanism for disability screening, assessment, report and intervention. The national immunization program has been implemented, and pre-marriage and pre-pregnancy health checks, maternal prenatal screening and tests, and screening for newborns and children with disabilities have been strengthened. The Specifications for Disability Screening for Children Aged 0-6 Years (Trial) has been formulated to realize early screening and treatment of children with five types of disability. More efforts have been made in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, endemic diseases, and chronic diseases, with a focus on key prevention projects such as salt iodization and folic acid supplementation. These have basically eliminated poliomyelitis and iodine deficiency disorders, and other causes for disabilities. Safety measures have been strengthened to reduce accidental injuries that cause disabilities.

The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) actively pursues breakthroughs in disability prevention technologies. Through two key programs – “reproductive health and prevention and control of major birth defects” and “prevention and control of major non-communicable chronic diseases” – the MOST has planned and conducted prevention and control of birth defects and technical research on the prevention and control of major chronic diseases that will lead to disabilities, effectively reducing the occurrence of disabilities caused by illnesses. In 2017, the State Council officially designated August 25 as the Disability Prevention Day. Promotional activities to raise public awareness of disability prevention have been carried out on Disability Prevention Day, Ear Care Day (March 3), Global Iodine Deficiency Disorders Prevention Day (October 21), National Eye Care Day (June 6), World Birth Defects Day (March 3), and World Mental Health Day (October 10).

As of 2016, the Chinese government had provided free folic acid to 81 million rural perinatal women, free thalassemia screening for 978,000 couples, and free congenital disease screening for 4.69 million newborns.

残疾人康复条件逐步完善。残疾人康复机构从无到有,专业队伍建设不断加强,工作体系、业务格局、运行机制逐步建立,服务能力日益提高。截至2018年,全国已竣工的省、市、县三级康复设施914个,总建筑面积344.9万平方米;全国残疾人专业康复服务机构9036个,在岗人员25万人,2750个县(市、区)开展社区康复服务。康复工作内容由三项抢救性康复项目发展成为覆盖多学科领域、满足各类别残疾人需要、预防与康复并重的服务体系。2018年,全国621所中等、高等职业技术学校和普通本专科院校开设康复专业,毕业生人数为29334人。为进一步加强康复专业人才培养,建设中国康复大学已纳入“十三五”规划和《“十三五”加快残疾人小康进程规划纲要》,筹建工作正式启动。大力开展社区康复服务,提升社区康复能力。截至2018年,开展社区康复服务的市辖区为1001个,县(市)为1749个,有社区康复协调员47.8万人。建立残疾儿童康复救助制度,为残疾儿童接受基本康复救助提供制度性保障。全国9个省(区、市)建立了残疾人辅助器具补贴制度,减轻了残疾人家庭经济负担。实施残疾人精准康复服务行动,为残疾儿童和持证残疾人提供康复医疗、康复训练、支持性服务、辅助器具适配等基本康复服务。科技部着力推进助残、惠残产品研发,通过“主动健康和老龄化科技应对”和“生物医用材料研发与组织器官修复替代”重点专项,部署开展康复辅助器具、人工组织器官修复材料等研发。完善工伤康复制度,提高伤残抚恤标准。2006年至2016年,2178.1万残疾人次得到不同程度康复。2018年,1074.7万名残疾儿童及持证残疾人得到基本康复服务,残疾人康复服务覆盖率达到79.8%。

Rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities have gradually improved. Starting from scratch, rehabilitation institutions for persons with disabilities have developed a team of professionals, established a work system, business structure and operational mechanism, and improved their service capabilities. By 2018, 914 rehabilitation facilities at provincial, municipal and county levels had been completed, with a total floor area of 3.4 million sq m. There were 9,036 rehabilitation institutions for persons with disabilities, which employed 250,000 people, and 2,750 counties (cities or districts) offered community rehabilitation services. Rehabilitation institutions, which used to provide services only for cataract patients, post-polio patients, and hearing-impaired children, have evolved into to a multi-disciplinary service system with equal emphasis on prevention and rehabilitation that meets the needs of a wide range of people with disabilities.

In 2018, 621 secondary and higher vocational technical schools and regular colleges and universities began to offer degree programs on rehabilitation services, with 29,334 graduates. To train more rehabilitation professionals, preparatory work has officially started for China Rehabilitation University, which is included in the 13th Five-year Plan for National Economic and Social Development and the “Outline for Accelerating the Process Toward Prosperity for Persons with Disabilities in the 13th Five-year Plan Period”.

Vigorous efforts are being made to offer community rehabilitation services and enhance the service capacity. By 2018, 1,001 municipal districts and 1,749 counties (cities) were offering community rehabilitation services, employing 478,000 community rehabilitation coordinators. A rehabilitation and assistance system for children with disabilities has been established, providing institutional guarantee for these children to receive basic rehabilitation assistance. A system subsidizing assistive devices for persons with disabilities has been established in nine provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government, reducing the financial burden on families with disabled members. A campaign has been launched to offer targeted rehabilitation services, such as rehabilitation therapy, rehabilitation training, support services, and assistive devices, to disabled children and those with certified disabilities. The MOST encourages the R&D of products that help and benefit persons with disabilities. It has carried out R&D programs on rehabilitation aids and repair materials for artificial tissues and organs, with a focus on two key projects – “active health and technological response to aging” and “R&D of biomedical materials and repair and replacement of tissues and organs”. The rehabilitation system for work-related injuries has been improved, and pensions for injuries and disabilities have been enhanced.

From 2006 to 2016, 21.8 million persons with disabilities made progress in rehabilitation. In 2018, 10.7 million disabled children and persons with certified disabilities received basic rehabilitation services, and the coverage of rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities reached 79.8 percent.

残疾儿童健康得到特别关注。遵循儿童利益最大化原则,高度关注残疾儿童健康。第二次全国残疾人抽样调查数据显示,0-14岁残疾儿童占残疾人总人数的4.69%,比1987年第一次全国残疾人抽样调查数据下降11.21个百分点。优先开展0-6岁残疾儿童抢救性治疗和康复,实施精准康复服务。2018年,15.7万名0-6岁残疾儿童得到基本康复服务。为更全面更可持续地保障残疾儿童的基本康复权利,国务院2018年6月发布《关于建立残疾儿童康复救助制度的意见》,正式建立残疾儿童康复救助制度。推进残疾儿童康复救助项目,对患有脑瘫、弱视、听障等重大疾病儿童进行救助。建立包括残疾孤儿在内的孤儿基本生活保障制度,实施“儿童福利机构建设蓝天计划”和“全国残疾孤儿手术康复明天计划”。截至2018年6月,“全国残疾孤儿手术康复明天计划”已为12.5万名手术适应症残疾孤儿、弃婴实施了手术矫治和康复训练。

Special attention has been paid to the health of children with disabilities. Following the principle of maximizing the interests of children, the Chinese government pays close attention to the health of children with disabilities. According to the results of the second national sample survey on disability published in 2006, children aged 0-14 years accounted for 4.69 percent of the total population with disabilities, 11.21 percentage points lower than data from the first survey published in 1987. Priority has been given to the rescue therapy and rehabilitation of children with disabilities aged 0-6, with targeted rehabilitation services. In 2018, 157,000 children with disabilities aged 0-6 years were provided with basic rehabilitation services.

To protect the basic rehabilitation rights of children with disabilities in a more comprehensive and sustainable way, the State Council issued the “Directives on Establishing a Rehabilitation and Assistance System for Children with Disabilities” in June 2018, marking the formal establishment of the system. Efforts have been made to promote rehabilitation and assistance services for children with major diseases such as cerebral palsy, amblyopia, and hearing impairments. A basic living allowance system has been established for orphans, including those with disabilities. China has carried out the Blue Sky Plan on Developing Child Welfare Institutions and the Tomorrow Plan on Surgical Rehabilitation for Orphans with Disabilities. In the framework of the latter, by June 2018, 125,000 disabled orphans and abandoned infants with surgical indications had received surgical correction and rehabilitation training.

四、特殊教育与融合教育

IV. Special Education and Inclusive Education

中国保障残疾人享有平等受教育权,颁布并修订《残疾人教育条例》,将残疾人教育纳入《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要(2010-2020年)》《中国教育现代化2035》和《“十三五”推进基本公共服务均等化规划》,制定实施两期《特殊教育提升计划》,着力办好特殊教育,努力发展融合教育,提高残疾人受教育水平。

China provides equal rights to education for persons with disabilities. The state has promulgated and revised the Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities, included education for them in the “Outline of China’s Plan for Medium- and Long-term Education Reform and Development (2010-2020)”, “China’s Education Modernization 2035”, and “Plan for Promoting Equal Access to Basic Public Services in the 13th Five-year Plan Period”, and enacted two phases of the “Special Education Promotion Plan”. All of this is designed to improve special education, develop inclusive education, and ultimately improve overall education for persons with disabilities.

残疾人教育体系日趋完备。中国残疾人教育以教育部门为办学主体,民政、残联和社会力量辅助,涵盖学前教育、初等教育、中等教育和高等教育。以普通学校随班就读为主体,以特殊教育学校为骨干,以送教上门和远程教育为补充,统筹推进,普特结合。建立起从幼儿园到高等院校的残疾儿童和残疾学生资助体系,自2016年秋季学期起,免除普通高中家庭经济困难残疾学生学杂费,从而实现家庭经济困难残疾学生从小学到高中阶段的12年免费教育。

The system of education for persons with disabilities has become more complete. In China, education for persons with disabilities is primarily managed by educational departments, assisted by civil affairs organs, disabled persons’ federations, and social organizations. It covers preschool education, elementary education, secondary education, and higher education. Most children with disabilities attend school with children without disabilities or go to special education schools, and some receive education at home either with visiting teachers or through long-distance education programs. Both forms of education are available for coordinated implementation. A funding system has been put in place to cover children and students with disabilities from kindergarten to college. Since the fall semester in 2016, poor students with disabilities in regular senior high schools have been exempt from fees, so that they receive 12-year free education from elementary school to senior high school.

残疾儿童少年义务教育普及水平显著提高。各地按照“全覆盖、零拒绝”的要求,通过提高特殊教育学校招生能力、扩大普通学校残疾学生随班就读规模及送教上门等多种方式,最大限度地保障适龄残疾儿童少年接受义务教育的权利。特殊教育在校生数量逐年大幅度上升,视力、听力、智力等各种类别的残疾儿童少年受教育机会明显增加。2018年,在校生66.6万人,比2013年增加29.8万人,增长81%。

More children and teenagers with disabilities have received compulsory education. Based on the principle that all school-age children and teenagers with disabilities must go to school and none shall be denied schooling, the state has gone to great lengths to increase the capacity of special education schools and regular schools to accommodate more students with disabilities, as well as designating teachers to go to teach these students at their home. Through these efforts children and teenagers with disabilities enjoy the greatest possible right to compulsory education. The number of students at special education schools has grown significantly over the years, and children and teenagers with visual, hearing, intellectual and other types of impairments now have more chances of schooling than ever before. In 2018, 666,000 students with disabilities studied on campus, an increase of 298,000 persons, or 81 percent over 2013.

残疾人非义务教育稳步发展。不断扩充残疾儿童学前教育规模,除普通幼儿园积极招收残疾儿童外,还鼓励特殊教育学校增设学前班或附属幼儿园,将家庭经济困难的残疾儿童接受学前教育纳入幼儿资助范围。2016年,3万多名在园残疾幼儿获得专门资助。2012年至2018年,残疾人事业彩票公益金助学项目共投入约3.1亿元,为10.5万人次家庭经济困难的残疾儿童提供学前教育资助。举办残疾人高中部(班),扩大残疾人接受高中教育的机会。制定《关于加快发展残疾人职业教育的若干意见》,加快发展残疾人职业教育。2018年,全国共有残疾人中等职业学校(班)133个,在校生19475人。稳步发展残疾人高等教育,努力畅通残疾人接受高等教育的渠道,制定《残疾人参加普通高等学校招生全国统一考试管理规定》,为残疾人参加高考提供合理便利和必要支持。2012年至2018年,全国共有6.22万残疾考生进入普通高等院校学习。在普通高校招生录取工作中,教育部明确要求,对肢体残疾、生活能够自理、能完成所报专业学习且高考成绩达到要求的考生,高校不能因其残疾而不予录取,切实维护残疾考生权利。为增加残障考生上大学机会,教育部批准同意22所高校面向残障考生采取单独考试、单列计划、单独录取,鼓励高校开设特殊教育专业。截至2018年6月,全国已有61所普通本科高校开设特殊教育专业,在校生1万余人。2018年,全国高职院校开设特殊教育专业点37个。

Non-compulsory education for persons with disabilities has made steady progress. The state has continued to expand the scale of preschool education for children with disabilities, encouraging regular kindergartens to enroll more of them and special education schools to open preschool courses or kindergartens. Preschool costs for disabled children from poor families have been included in funding programs for children. In 2016, more than 30,000 disabled children attending kindergartens received subsidies. From 2012 to 2018, about RMB310 million from the public welfare lotteries for persons with disabilities were used to support preschool education for 105,000 disabled children from poor families.

Senior high schools have opened special departments or classes for students with disabilities, so that they have more opportunities to receive senior high school education. The state has issued the “Directives on Accelerating the Development of Vocational Education for Persons with Disabilities”. In 2018, China had 133 secondary vocational schools or classes with an enrollment of 19,475 students with disabilities.

To develop higher education and provide more channels for students with disabilities, the state has issued the Regulations on the Participation of Persons with Disabilities in the National Exams for Regular Institutions of Higher Education, providing convenient access to exams, along with necessary support for students with disabilities. From 2012 to 2018, a total of 62,200 students with disabilities were enrolled into regular institutions of higher education.

Regarding admissions, to ensure that the rights of examinees with disabilities are fully protected, the Ministry of Education has clear regulations that colleges and universities shall not refuse students with physical disabilities as long as they can care for themselves, can complete their studies in the disciplines they have applied for, and their exam marks have reached the admission requirements.

To provide more opportunities to students with disabilities, the Ministry of Education has ratified 22 higher education institutions to organize exams for them, and distinguished their admission plans from regular admissions. The state encourages institutions of higher education to open disciplines on special education. By June 2018, 61 colleges and universities with regular four-year undergraduate courses were running disciplines on special education, with some 10,000 students. In 2018, higher vocational colleges in China provided 37 programs on special education.

努力发展融合教育。2017年,融合教育首次写进《残疾人教育条例》。《中国教育现代化2035》和《第二期特殊教育提升计划(2017-2020年)》等文件均提出全面推进融合教育。各地不断完善随班就读支持保障体系,加强普通学校特殊教育资源教室建设,配备专兼职教师,在普通学校就读的残疾学生规模不断扩大。在普通学校就读的残疾学生数由2013年的19.1万人增加到2018年的33.2万人,增长73.8%。近10年来,残疾学生在普通学校就读的比例均超过50%。

Efforts have been made to develop inclusive education. In 2017, inclusive education was covered by the Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities. Other policy papers, such as “China’s Education Modernization 2035” and the “Phase-2 Special Education Promotion Plan (2017-2020)”, have also called for developing inclusive education. Across China efforts have been made to provide the support necessary for students with disabilities to go to regular schools, such as building more classrooms with resources for special education at regular schools and recruiting full-time and part-time teachers of special education. As a result, the number of students with disabilities at regular schools has seen a steady increase, from 191,000 in 2013 to 332,000 in 2018, an increase of 73.8 percent. Over the past decade, more than 50 percent of students with disabilities have been able to study at regular schools.

特殊教育公共支出持续增长。2008年至2015年,国家实施两期特殊教育学校建设项目,财政投入71.42亿元,新建、改扩建中西部地区1182所特殊教育学校,支持61所残疾人高等院校、中等职业学校和特殊师范院校改善办学条件。自2014年开始,中央特教专项补助经费提高到每年4.1亿元,支持范围由中西部地区扩大到除京津沪以外的所有省份。全国义务教育阶段在普通学校和特殊教育学校就读的残疾学生年生均公用经费标准提高到6000元。部分地区将普通学校随班就读教师、送教上门教师纳入享受特教津贴范围。在国家针对城乡义务教育学生免除学杂费、免费提供教科书、对家庭经济困难学生补助生活费的基础上,各省市还增加了对残疾学生的资助项目,并逐步提高资助标准。部分省市实施残疾学生从小学到高中免费教育。遴选确定华东师范大学等5所院校实施卓越特殊教育教师培养改革项目,在“国培计划”中专设特教学校校长和骨干教师培养项目。截至2018年,培训特教学校骨干教师10298名、校长726名。

Public spending on special education has continued to grow. In the period from 2008 to 2015, the state introduced two construction programs for special education schools, investing RMB7.14 billion to build, renovate, or expand 1,182 special education schools in China’s central and western regions, and to support improved facilities in 61 institutions of higher education, secondary vocational schools and special education normal schools. Since 2014, the central government has increased the subsidies for special education to RMB410 million per year to cover all areas outside of Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai.

Public spending on students with disabilities in compulsory education at regular and special education schools has increased to RMB6,000 per person per year. In some areas, teachers of disabled students at regular schools, and those teaching home-schooled students, receive subsidies for special education teachers. In addition to state policies already in place, such as exemption from tuition and fees, free textbooks, and living subsidies for poor students in compulsory education, students with disabilities have also received subsidies from local governments, and the standards of the subsidies are improving. In some provinces and municipalities directly under the central government, students with disabilities enjoy free education from elementary to senior high school.

East China Normal University and four other colleges and universities have been selected to carry out a special education program to train excellent special education teachers, and the State Training Program for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers has sub-programs for training presidents and teachers of special education schools. By 2018 the program had trained 726 presidents and 10,298 teachers.

五、就业与创业

V. Employment and Entrepreneurship

中国以建立劳动福利型残疾人事业为目标,通过完善法律法规、拓展就业渠道、完善服务体系,促进残疾人就业权利的实现。

To create workfare programs for persons with disabilities, China has improved its laws and regulations, expanded channels for employment, and refined the service system to guarantee their right to employment.

残疾人就业权利受到法律保护。《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》对残疾人就业作了明确规定,要求各级人民政府采取优惠政策和扶持保护措施,实现残疾人多渠道、多层次、多种形式就业。《中华人民共和国就业促进法》对保障残疾人的劳动权利作了规定。《残疾人就业条例》对残疾人就业方针、政府职责、用人单位责任、保障措施、就业服务及法律责任等作了详细规定。最高人民法院发布典型案例,依法切实保障残疾人劳动的权利,切实维护残疾人合法权益。地方人大和政府也发布了促进残疾人就业、鼓励残疾人创业的规范性文件,保障残疾人平等就业。

The right to employment of persons with disabilities is protected by law. The Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities stipulates that people’s governments at all levels shall formulate preferential policies as well as protective and supportive measures to help persons with disabilities to find employment through multiple channels, at various levels and in a variety of forms. The Employment Promotion Law of the People’s Republic of China contains provisions on the disabled persons’ right to work. The Regulations on the Employment of Persons with Disabilities specifies the details about employment guidelines, government duties, employers’ responsibilities, supportive measures, employment services, and legal liability for these people. The Supreme People’s Court publishes typical cases to help protect disabled persons’ right to work and their lawful rights and interests in accordance with the law. Local people’s congresses and governments also issue normative documents to promote employment, encourage entrepreneurship and guarantee equal job opportunities for persons with disabilities.

残疾人就业创业得到政策支持。政府有关部门相继发布《关于促进残疾人按比例就业的意见》《残疾人就业保障金征收使用管理办法》《关于发展残疾人辅助性就业的意见》《关于促进残疾人就业增值税优惠政策的通知》《关于促进残疾人就业政府采购政策的通知》《关于扶持残疾人自主就业创业的意见》《残疾人职业技能提升计划(2016-2020年)》等一系列扶持和保护残疾人就业的政策。将残疾人纳入积极的就业政策体系覆盖范围,在坚持以市场为导向的就业机制基础上,对残疾人就业创业采取优惠政策和扶持保护措施,包括税费减免、设施设备扶持、政府优先采购、信贷优惠以及资金支持、岗位补贴和社会保险补贴等。《中华人民共和国中医药法》规定,盲人按照国家有关规定取得盲人医疗按摩人员资格的,可以以个人开业的方式或者在医疗机构内提供医疗按摩服务。国家对盲人按摩的培训和就业、创业予以支持,累计培养盲人保健按摩人员超过11万人、盲人医疗按摩人员约1万人。

Policy support for the employment and self-employment of persons with disabilities. The government departments concerned have released a series of relevant policies and documents:

Opinions on Reserving a Certain Proportion of Employment Positions for Persons with Disabilities

Measures for the Administration of the Collection and Use of Employment Security Funds for Persons with Disabilities

Opinions on Promoting Supported Employment for Persons with Disabilities

Notice on Preferential Value-Added Tax Policies for Promoting Employment of Persons with Disabilities

Notice on Policies for Government Purchase of Products from Employers of Persons with Disabilities

Opinions on Supporting Employment and Entrepreneurship of Persons with Disabilities

Program on Employment Skill Improvement for Persons with Disabilities (2016-2020)

These efforts have helped persons with disabilities to enjoy the benefits of proactive employment policies. Based on market-oriented employment mechanisms, the state has taken preferential policies and supportive and protective measures for the employment and self-employment of persons with disabilities such as tax reductions, supplying facilities, preferential purchasing by the government, favorable loans and capital support, post allowance and social security subsidies.

The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Traditional Chinese Medicine provides that persons with visual disabilities who have obtained the qualification as blind medical massagers according to relevant state regulations can engage in self-employment or serve in medical institutions. The state gives support to the training, employment and self-employment of blind massagers. More than 110,000 therapeutic massagers and 10,000 medical massagers with visual disabilities have been trained.

残疾人就业创业服务和培训广泛开展。各地将残疾人就业纳入公共服务范围,为有劳动能力和就业意愿的城乡残疾人免费提供就业创业服务,为残疾人就业和用人单位招用残疾人提供帮助。省、市、县三级政府建立了专门的残疾人就业服务机构,为残疾人提供政策咨询、求职登记、职业指导、职业介绍、职业培训等就业服务,并于元旦、春节期间举办就业援助月专项活动,集中为残疾人就业提供帮扶。截至2018年,全国共有残疾人就业服务机构2811家,工作人员3.4万人。实施残疾人职业技能提升计划,开展适合残疾人特点的职业培训和创业培训,组织各类残疾人职业技能竞赛,提升残疾人就业创业能力。2018年,城乡新增残疾人实名制培训49.4万人。建立了500家国家级残疾人职业培训基地,350家省级残疾人职业培训基地。

Extensive training and services for persons with disabilities to seek employment or start businesses. The employment of persons with disabilities is covered by public services at all levels: Persons with disabilities in both rural and urban areas who are able to and wish to work are entitled to free services in finding employment or establishing self-employment; help is offered to those with disabilities in seeking employment and to employers in hiring them. Special employment service agencies for persons with disabilities have been set up at provincial, municipal and county levels to provide services such as policy advice, employment registration, career guidance, job opportunities, and training. Employment aid month activities take place during the New Year and Spring Festival to help them find jobs. By 2018, there had been 2,811 employment service organizations for persons with disabilities, with 34,000 staff.

Plans have been carried out to improve occupational skills for persons with disabilities, run training courses on jobs and entrepreneurship tailored to their needs, and hold occupational skill competitions to improve their abilities in finding employment or starting their own businesses. In 2018, another 494,000 persons with disabilities took part in training sessions. And 500 occupational training centers have been set up at the state level and 350 at the provincial level.

残疾人就业方式丰富多样。残疾人按比例就业、集中就业、自主就业创业稳定发展。近年来,政府优化公益性就业岗位开发管理,鼓励“互联网+”就业。制定《关于发展残疾人辅助性就业的意见》,针对就业年龄段内有就业意愿但难以进入竞争性劳动力市场的智力、精神和重度肢体残疾人,安排辅助性就业,集中组织生产劳动,在劳动时间、劳动强度、劳动报酬和劳动协议签订等方面采取灵活方式。截至2017年,全国所有市辖区至少建立了一所残疾人辅助性就业机构。通过优惠措施帮助农村残疾人从事种植业、养殖业、手工业等生产劳动,实现就业创业。近十年来,中国残疾人就业总体规模与结构趋于稳定,新增残疾人就业人数每年保持在30万人以上。2018年,城乡持证残疾人新增就业36.7万人,其中,城镇新增就业11.8万人,农村新增就业24.9万人。截至2018年,城乡持证残疾人就业人数达到948.4万人。

Various provisions for employment of persons with disabilities. Steady progress has been made in reserving a certain proportion of employment positions, centralized employment, and self-employment for persons with disabilities. In recent years, the government has optimized the development and management of welfare jobs and encouraged “internet plus” employment. It has formulated “Directives on Supported Employment for Persons with Disabilities”, which aims to assist persons with disabilities – including intellectual, mental, and severe physical disabilities – who are working-age individuals eager to be employed but find it hard to enter the competitive job market, to obtain and maintain employment. Provisions are also made for flexible working hours, intensity, pay and labor contract. By 2017, there had been at least one supported employment agency in every municipal district. Preferential measures have been taken to help persons with disabilities in rural areas to engage in farming, breeding, and handicraft industries, all effective sources of employment.

In the past decade, the size and structure of employed persons with disabilities has remained stable, and the number has risen by 300,000 every year. In 2018, another 367,000 persons with certified disabilities were hired, 118,000 in urban areas and 249,000 in rural areas. By 2018, the employment figure of people with certified disabilities had reached 9.48 million.

产业扶贫助推贫困残疾人就业增收。制定《农村残疾人扶贫开发计划(2001-2010年)》《农村残疾人扶贫开发纲要(2011-2020年)》。2011年以来,中国扶持近1300万残疾人发展生产,其中676万贫困残疾人摆脱贫困。各地建立残疾人扶贫基地5490个,安置88.1万残疾人就业,扶持带动176.9万户残疾人家庭增加收入。支持残疾人贫困户因地制宜发展种养业和手工业。深入实施“雨露计划”,优先培训贫困残疾人,将适合从事农业生产的贫困残疾人纳入农民教育培训相关工程,鼓励他们在农业领域创业。实施职业技能提升计划和贫困户教育培训工程,残疾人贫困户优先接受培训,确保贫困残疾人家庭劳动力至少掌握一门致富技能。落实残疾人贫困户培训后资金、场地、设备、市场信息、经营管理等方面的就业创业服务与扶持政策措施。将优秀脱贫致富残疾人纳入贫困村创业致富带头人培训工程。制定《发展手工制作促进贫困残疾妇女就业脱贫行动实施方案》,加强对残疾妇女的实用技术和就业技能培训,发展手工制作,促进贫困残疾妇女就业脱贫。鼓励“全国巾帼脱贫基地”负责人、农村致富女带头人等与残疾妇女结对帮扶。在城镇举办劳动技能培训,加强就业指导和服务,积极扶持残疾妇女自主择业创业。

Increasing the income of persons with disabilities through poverty relief efforts. The Chinese government has formulated the “Development-oriented Poverty Alleviation Program for Persons with Disabilities in Rural Areas (2001-2010)” and the “Outline of Development-oriented Poverty Alleviation for Persons with Disabilities in Rural Areas (2011-2020)”. Since 2011, it has helped nearly 13 million persons with disabilities to engage in production activities through poverty relief efforts, and as a result 6.76 million have got out of poverty. Across the country, 5,490 poverty alleviation centers for persons with disabilities have been set up, employing 881,000 persons with disabilities and helping to increase the income of 1.77 million households with one or more disabled members.

Support has been given to low-income households to engage in farming, breeding and handicraft industries as suited to local conditions. The Rain-Dew Anti-poverty Campaign is carried out to a deeper level, in which priority is given to training impoverished persons with disabilities and encouraging them to start up business in agriculture by including those capable of farming into the training programs for farmers.

A vocational skill improvement program and a training program for impoverished households have been launched to ensure labors with one or more disabled family members are prioritized in receiving training and they acquire at least one skill to achieve prosperity. And policies and measures have been taken to serve and support their employment and entrepreneurship, covering capital, worksites, facilities, market information and management. Poverty alleviation models with disabilities are included in programs for training entrepreneurship-based poverty relief leaders in poor villages.

The state has formulated the “Plan on Developing Handicraft Industry to Lead Impoverished Women with Disabilities Out of Poverty”. It has strengthened training for these women in practical and employable skills, and developed handicrafts to help them shake off poverty. The heads of National Women’s Poverty Eradication Centers and female leaders in helping villagers achieve prosperity are encouraged to partner with and assist women with disabilities. The government holds skill training sessions in urban areas and provides more employment guidance and services to support women with disabilities in finding jobs and starting businesses.

六、基本生活与社会保障

VI. Basic Life and Social Security

中国残疾人社会保障体系不断完善。残疾人按规定享受社会救助、社会福利和社会保险待遇,生活质量提升,获得感显著增强。

The social security system for persons with disabilities has been steadily improved. They enjoy social assistance, welfare and insurance benefits according to regulations, and lead a higher-quality life with a greater sense of gain.

残疾人享有平等的社会保障权利。按照平等不歧视原则,国家保障包括残疾人在内的所有公民享有社会保障权利。《中华人民共和国宪法》明确规定:公民在年老、疾病或者丧失劳动能力的情况下,有从国家和社会获得物质帮助的权利;国家和社会保障残废军人的生活,抚恤烈士家属,优待军人家属;国家和社会帮助安排盲、聋、哑和其他有残疾的公民的劳动、生活和教育。《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》明确规定“国家保障残疾人享有各项社会保障的权利”。《中华人民共和国社会保险法》《社会救助暂行办法》《工伤保险条例》《军人抚恤优待条例》等法律法规对残疾人的社会保障权利作出具体规定。国家承担更加积极的义务,促进残疾人社会保障权利的实现,包括将符合条件的成年无业重度残疾人按照单人户纳入最低生活保障范围,对贫困和重度残疾人参加社会保险给予补贴,对残疾人实行社会优待等。

Persons with disabilities have equal rights to social security. Following the principles of equality and non-discrimination, the Chinese government protects the right to social security for all citizens, including persons with disabilities. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China stipulates: “Citizens have the right to material assistance from the state and society when they are old, ill or disabled,” and “The state and society ensure the livelihood of disabled members of the armed forces, provide pensions to the families of martyrs and give preferential treatment to the families of military personnel. The state and society help make arrangements for the work, livelihood and education of the blind, deaf-mute and other handicapped citizens.” The Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities states that “the state shall protect the right of persons with disabilities to various social security.” The Social Insurance Law of the People’s Republic of China, Interim Measures for Social Assistance, Regulations on Work-related Injury Insurance, Regulations on Pensions and Preferential Treatments for Servicemen, and some other laws and regulations have specific provisions on the right of persons with disabilities to social security.

The Chinese government undertakes a more positive obligation to ensure the right of persons with disabilities to social security. It includes eligible unemployed adults with severe disabilities in the system of minimum living allowances for single-person households, subsidizes impoverished persons with disabilities and those with severe disabilities in their social insurance, and gives preferential social treatment to persons with disabilities.

残疾人生活保障体系不断完善。按照“普惠+特惠”的原则,通过完善社会救助制度保障残疾人的基本生存权利。同时,依法对贫困残疾人、重度残疾人、一户多残家庭给予重点救助,综合采取措施保障其基本生活。截至2018年3月,全国共有904.4万残疾人享受城乡最低生活保障。落实国务院《关于进一步健全特困人员救助供养制度的意见》,将近90万残疾人纳入特困人员救助供养范围。在城市公租房、旧住宅区整治建设中,优先安排贫困残疾人住房。2018年,全国共有62万残疾人享受公租房保障。各地通过贷款贴息帮助残疾人进行危房改造。截至2018年,中央财政共支持176.5万户农村贫困残疾人家庭完成危房改造。自2017年起,中央财政集中支持农村贫困残疾人家庭等4类重点对象改造危房,户均补贴标准为1.4万元。将符合条件的贫困残疾人纳入医疗救助范围,资助其参加基本医疗保险,并对基本医疗保险、大病保险和其他补充医疗保险支付后难以负担的个人自负合规医疗费用给予补助。部分省市对低收入残疾人家庭的生活用水、电、气、暖等基本生活支出给予优惠和补贴。

The living security system for persons with disabilities has been improved. Following the principle of “universal benefit plus special treatment”, the Chinese government protects the basic subsistence right of persons with disabilities by improving the social assistance system. At the same time, it makes legal provision for priority assistance to impoverished disabled people, severely disabled people, and households with more than one disabled member, and takes comprehensive measures to meet their basic living needs. By March 2018, over 9 million persons with disabilities had received urban or rural subsistence allowances. The “Directives on Further Improving the Assistance and Support System for People Living in Dire Poverty”, issued by the State Council, has been implemented, which includes nearly 900,000 persons with disabilities in the scope of assistance and support for the destitute.

In the management and renovation of public rental housing and old residential areas in urban areas, priority is given to poor people with disabilities. In 2018, 620,000 persons with disabilities enjoyed public rental housing security. All localities help persons with disabilities to renovate their dilapidated houses through loans with discounted interest. By 2018, the central finance had supported 1.77 million rural poor households with one or more disabled members to renovate their dilapidated houses. Since 2017, the central government has supported four key groups to renovate dilapidated houses, including rural poor households with one or more disabled members, providing an average subsidy of RMB14,000 per household.

Eligible impoverished persons with disabilities are covered by medical assistance, and receive subsidies for basic medical insurance; they also receive subsidies, based on relevant regulations, for unaffordable out-of-pocket medical expenses not covered by the basic medical insurance, serious disease insurance and other supplementary medical insurance. Some provinces and municipalities give preferential policies and subsidies to low-income families with one or more disabled members for the use of domestic water, electricity, gas and heating, and other basic living expenses.

残疾人福利体系初步建立。建立困难残疾人生活补贴和重度残疾人护理补贴制度。2018年,受益残疾人超过2190万人次,发放补贴超过230亿元。大力发展托养服务,残疾人托养设施逐年增加。截至2018年,全国共有已竣工托养设施791个,总建筑面积214.8万平方米,共有残疾人托养机构8435个,为22.3万残疾人提供托养服务,有88.8万残疾人接受了居家服务。不断完善残疾人托养购买服务、评估监管和人才培养等机制,制定托养服务国家标准,积极培育社会力量,为残疾人提供多层次、多元化托养服务。按照国家加快推进残疾人小康进程的总体规划,加快农村托养建设进程,探索以贫困重度残疾人为主要保障对象的农村托养模式。公园、旅游景点和公共文化体育设施对残疾人免费或优惠开放,为残疾人发放专用机动轮椅车燃油补贴,对军人、警察等特殊伤残群体实施抚恤和优待政策。大多数城市对残疾人搭乘市内公共交通工具给予便利和优惠。

A welfare system for persons with disabilities has been established. Systems for providing living allowances for poor people with disabilities and nursing subsidies for severely disabled persons have been established. In 2018, more than 21.9 million disabled people benefited from the systems, receiving subsidies of more than RMB23 billion. Vigorous efforts have been made to develop care services, and the number of care facilities for persons with disabilities has increased year by year. By 2018, there were 791 care facilities around China with a total floor area of 2.15 million sq m, and 8,435 care institutions providing residential care services for 223,000 and home services for 888,000 disabled persons. Mechanisms for purchasing such care services, assessment and supervision, and personnel training in this field have been improved; national standards for care services have been formulated; and social forces are encouraged to engage in this work. Through all these efforts, persons with disabilities now have access to multi-level and diverse care services. In accordance with the national plan for accelerating the process toward prosperity for persons with disabilities, the Chinese government has sped up the development of rural care services and a model of rural care with poor and severely disabled people as the major targets.

Parks, tourist attractions, and public cultural and sports facilities are open to persons with disabilities free of charge or at a discount. Fuel subsidies are granted to people with motorized wheelchairs. Pensions and preferential treatment are given to service veterans, police officers, and other special groups with disabilities. Most cities offer conveniences and benefits to persons with disabilities on public transport.

残疾人社会保险保障力度持续增强。实施全民参保计划,加大残疾人参保支持力度,对招用符合条件的就业困难残疾人的企业给予参保补贴,对城乡贫困残疾人和重度残疾人参保给予补贴。截至2018年,2561.2万城乡残疾人参加城乡社会养老保险,1024.4万残疾人领取养老金。595.2万重度残疾人中有576万人得到了政府参保补助,代缴养老保险费比例达到96.8%;另有298.4万非重度残疾人享受全额或部分代缴养老保险费的优惠政策。近年来,残疾人参加各项社会保险的人数和比例持续上升,2018年,持证残疾居民养老保险参保率为79.2%。试点和完善与残疾人相关的社会保险制度,2010年,国务院修订《工伤保险条例》,提高工伤致残补偿标准。2018年,全国参加工伤保险人数为23874万人,评定伤残等级人数为56.9万人,享受工伤保险待遇人数为198.5万人。部分地区探索残疾人意外伤害保险制度,财政给予参保补贴,缓解了残疾家庭的经济压力。在全国15个城市试点长期护理保险制度,对符合条件的长期失能残疾人基本护理服务费用按规定支付,减轻了残疾家庭的护理负担。

Coverage of social insurance for persons with disabilities has continued to expand. The Chinese government has adopted an insurance regime of universal coverage, under which more support is given to persons with disabilities, insurance subsidies are granted to enterprises employing disabled people with difficulties in finding jobs, and subsidies are granted to impoverished disabled persons and severely disabled persons in both urban and rural areas. By 2018, 25.61 million persons with disabilities had been covered by urban and rural social old-age insurance, and 10.24 million received pensions. 5.76 million of the 5.95 million persons with severe disabilities received insurance subsidies from the government, 96.8 percent had their old-age insurance premiums paid on their behalf, and another 2.98 million persons with mild disabilities had their old-age insurance premiums paid by their employers in full or partially. In recent years, the numbers and proportion of persons with disabilities being covered by various social insurances have continued to grow. In 2018, 79.2 percent of residents with certified disabilities were covered by the old-age insurance.

Pilot work has been done to carry out and improve social insurance systems related to persons with disabilities. In 2010, the State Council revised the Regulations on Work-related Injury Insurance to increase the compensation standards for work-related injuries. In 2018, 239 million people took out work-related injury insurance policies, 569,000 people received evaluation of the degree of their disabilities, and almost 2 million people were granted work-related injury compensations. In some areas, an accident insurance system for persons with disabilities has been established with financial subsidies for those insured, which alleviates the financial pressure on families with one or more disabled members. Pilot work has been done to implement a long-term care insurance system in 15 cities, under which the cost of basic care services for eligible persons with long-term disabilities will be paid in accordance with the regulations, which reduces the burden of care for families with one or more disabled members.

残疾人脱贫攻坚深入开展。中共十八大以来,政府将贫困残疾人脱贫纳入国家脱贫攻坚战略布局,并作为脱贫攻坚重要内容,在制度设计、政策安排、项目实施上给予支持。中共中央、国务院2018年发布《关于打赢脱贫攻坚战三年行动的指导意见》,专节部署贫困残疾人脱贫行动,确保到2020年贫困残疾人同全国一道进入全面小康社会。国务院扶贫办、国家发展改革委、中国残联等26部门制定《贫困残疾人脱贫攻坚行动计划(2016-2020年)》,并制定了电子商务助残扶贫行动、产业扶持助残扶贫行动等配套实施方案。加大金融资金投入,2011年至2018年,中央财政累计安排康复扶贫贴息贷款53亿元,35万贫困残疾人受益。实施精准扶贫战略以来,政府将600多万残疾人纳入贫困户建档立卡范围,截至2018年,建档立卡贫困残疾人人数已减少到169.8万。

Poverty eradication for persons with disabilities has been advanced. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the government has included poverty eradication for people with disabilities into the national strategy as an important element, and offers support in system design, policy arrangements, and project implementation. In 2018, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued the “Directives on Winning the Three-year Poverty Eradication Campaign”, which designates a special section to poverty eradication activities for impoverished people with disabilities to ensure they achieve moderate prosperity with the rest of the country by 2020. Twenty-six departments, including the State Council Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development, National Development and Reform Commission, and CDPF, formulated the “Action Plan on Poverty Eradication for Impoverished Persons with Disabilities (2016-2020)” and supporting programs on lifting these people out of poverty through e-commerce or industrial development. Financial investment has been increased in this regard. From 2011 to 2018, the central finance arranged a total of RMB5.3 billion as subsidized loans for rehabilitation-based poverty alleviation, benefiting 350,000 poor people with disabilities. Since the targeted poverty alleviation strategy was established, the government has registered more than 6 million persons with disabilities as poverty-stricken households in need of help. By 2018, the number of registered poor people with disabilities had decreased to 1.7 million.

七、无障碍环境建设与个人行动能力

VII. Creating an Accessible Environment and Enabling Mobility

中国重视无障碍环境建设与辅助器具供应和适配服务,逐步完善相关法律法规和标准,不断加大支持力度。

China attaches importance to creating an accessible environment and supplying and adapting assistive devices and tools. It has improved relevant laws, regulations and standards, and increased support in this regard.

无障碍环境建设形成规范体系。自1989年《方便残疾人使用的城市道路和建筑物设计规范(试行)》颁布实施以来,中国相继制定了《无障碍设计规范》《无障碍设施施工验收及维护规范》等国家标准;发布实施《城市公共交通设施无障碍设计指南》《标志用公共信息图形符号第9部分:无障碍设施符号》等国家标准。国家民航、铁路、工业和信息化、教育、银行等主管部门分别制定实施了民用机场旅客航站区、铁路旅客车站、网站及通信终端设备、特殊教育学校、银行等行业无障碍建设标准规范。2012年,国务院颁布《无障碍环境建设条例》。中共十八大以来,无障碍环境建设立法进一步加强,法律法规和政策措施呈现明显增长的态势。截至2018年,全国省、地(市)、县共制定无障碍环境与管理的法规、规章等规范性文件475部。

A system of standards for creating an accessible environment has taken shape. After the “Design Standards of Urban Roads and Buildings for the Convenience of Persons with Disabilities (Trial)” came into effect in 1989, China has formulated the “Codes for Accessibility Design”, the “Construction Acceptance and Maintenance Standards of the Barrier-free Facilities” and other national standards, and issued the “Accessibility Design Guide for Urban Public Transport Facilities” and the “Public Information Graphical Symbols for Use on Sign – Part 9: Symbols for Accessible Facilities”. The administrative departments of civil aviation, rail, industry and information technology, education, and banking have drawn up construction codes for accessibility facilities in passenger terminals of civil airports, passenger railway stations, websites, telecommunications terminal devices, special education schools, and banks. In 2012, the State Council issued the Regulations on the Building of an Accessible Environment. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, legislation on creating an accessible environment has been intensified and the number of relevant laws, regulations, policies and measures has seen an obvious increase. By 2018, 475 rules and regulations on creating and managing an accessible environment had been made by authorities of provinces, prefectures (cities) and counties.

城乡无障碍环境建设由点到面有序推进。“十五”期间,在12个城市开展了创建全国无障碍设施建设示范城市活动;“十一五”期间,创建活动扩展到100个城市;“十二五”期间,50个市县获选全国无障碍建设示范市县,143个市县获选全国无障碍建设创建市县。2015年2月,住房城乡建设部、民政部、中国残联等部门发布了《关于加强村镇无障碍环境建设的指导意见》,推进无障碍环境建设由城市逐步向农村发展。开展无障碍环境市县村镇创建工作。截至2018年,全国所有直辖市、计划单列市、省会城市都开展了创建全国无障碍建设城市的工作,开展无障碍建设的市、县达到1702个;全国村(社区)综合服务设施中已有75%的出入口、40%的服务柜台、30%的厕所进行了无障碍建设和改造。政府加快了残疾人家庭无障碍改造进度,2016年至2018年共有298.6万户残疾人家庭得到无障碍改造。

Creating an accessible environment has been expanded from pilot cities to the whole country in an orderly manner. During the 10th Five-year Plan period (2001-2005), 12 cities were selected as demonstration cities for creating an accessible environment. This was expanded to 100 cities during the 11th Five-year Plan period (2006-2010). During the 12th Five-year Plan period (2011-2015), 50 cities and counties were cited as models in building an accessible environment and 143 cities or counties were selected as models in innovative building of an accessible environment. In February 2015, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, Ministry of Civil Affairs, CDPF and some other ministries jointly issued the “Guiding Opinions on Improving Accessibility in Towns and Villages” to extend the campaign to rural areas. More efforts have been made to create more such models. By 2018, all municipalities directly under the central government, cities specifically designated in the state plan, and provincial capitals had started building an accessible environment. A thousand seven hundred and two cities and counties had initiated efforts to improve accessibility and remove barriers. Among comprehensive service facilities in villages or communities across the country, 75 percent of entrances, 40 percent of service counters and 30 percent of restrooms have been constructed or upgraded for accessibility. The government has also accelerated the pace of adapting the houses of families with disabled members, and improved almost 3 million of such houses between 2016 and 2018.

信息无障碍建设步伐加快。制定关于信息无障碍的国家技术标准,推动政务和公共服务网站的信息无障碍建设。加强信息无障碍标准体系建设,发布多个国家及行业标准,为残疾人便利使用信息通信设备、获取互联网信息、操纵辅助装置等提供有效标准支撑。推进中国政务网站信息无障碍建设。截至2018年,500多家政府单位完成了信息无障碍公共服务平台建设,3万多个政务和公共服务网站实现了无障碍服务。将手语和盲文的规范化和推广作为国家义务,《国家中长期语言文字事业改革和发展规划纲要(2012-2020年)》和《国家语言文字事业改革“十三五”发展规划》将手语和盲文纳入国家语言文字工作总体规划。2018年,《国家通用手语常用词表》和《国家通用盲文方案》正式颁布实施。全国人民代表大会等重大会议的直播加配手语播报,中央广电总台和部分地方电视台在重要节目中加配手语播报服务。截至2018年,全国省、地市级电视台共开设电视手语栏目295个,广播电台共开设残疾人专题广播节目230个,省、地(市)、县三级公共图书馆共设立盲文及盲文有声读物阅览室1124个。对残疾人信息消费给予优惠或补贴。中国残联、工业和信息化部发布《关于支持视力、听力、言语残疾人信息消费的指导意见》,鼓励基础电信企业推出面向特定人群的资费优惠,引导大型互联网企业为从事互联网行业的视力、听力、言语残疾人在技能培训、运营管理、信息共享等方面提供便利。互联网企业也在提升残疾人网购体验、开放信息无障碍技术、开展职业技能培训等方面提供了一系列服务。

Information accessibility has been improved. China has drawn up national technical standards for information accessibility, and upgraded government and public service websites. The state has issued a series of national and industrial standards for persons with disabilities to use information communications equipment, to obtain online information, and to operate assistive devices, which has further completed China’s system of standards in this field. China has also made efforts to enable persons with disabilities to access information on government websites. By 2018, over 500 government departments had built accessible public service platforms, and more than 30,000 websites on government affairs and public service on had removed barriers for persons with disabilities.

The state is obligated to standardize and promote sign language and Braille. The “Outline of the Long and Medium-term Reform and Development Plan of Spoken and Written Languages of China (2012-2020)” and the “National Reform Plan of Spoken and Written Languages During the 13th Five-year Plan Period (2016-2020)” both include sign language and Braille in the overall plan. The “Lexicon of Common Expressions in Chinese National Sign Language” and the “Chinese Common Braille Scheme” were issued and came into effect in 2018. Important meetings such as the NPC plenary sessions have sign language interpretation in live broadcast, and China Media Group and some local television stations provide sign language interpretation for some important programs. In 2018, provincial and prefectural/city television stations ran 295 sign language programs, and radio stations broadcast 230 programs for persons with disabilities; and public libraries at provincial, prefectural/city and county levels had 1,124 Braille and audio rooms.

China offers preferential policies or subsidies to persons with disabilities to enable them to access information. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the CDPF jointly issued the “Guiding Opinions on Supporting the Information Consumption by People with Visual, Hearing or Speech Impairments”, which encourages telecommunications service providers to offer preferential plans to these specific groups, and guides large internet companies to provide convenience for these people in such domains as skills training, operations management, and information sharing, to facilitate their participation in internet-related businesses. Internet companies also make efforts to improve their online shopping experience, to share information accessibility technologies, and to give vocational skill training.

重点领域无障碍建设积极推进。启动到2035年交通运输无障碍出行服务体系建设,交通运输部在客运枢纽、高速公路服务区、客运码头、地铁站等交通基础设施以及城市公共汽车电车、地铁等交通工具的设计使用标准中增加无障碍要求。各地积极推广应用无障碍化客运车辆,在公共交通工具上设置“老弱病残”专座,使用低地板公交车和无障碍出租汽车。大部分城市公交车都配备车载屏幕和语音报站系统,部分城市公交车安装了车载导盲系统。多个省份客运设施无障碍建设率达到100%。铁路部门为3400余辆动车组列车设置了残疾人专座,允许盲人携带导盲犬乘坐火车。银行业金融机构改造轮椅坡道和盲道,配置语音叫号系统、叫号显示屏等设备,设立无障碍卫生间和无障碍停车位。邮政部门为重度残疾人提供上门服务,快递行业为聋人客户提供短信服务,盲人读物免费寄送。完善诉讼无障碍设施及服务。大力推进法院接待场所、审判场所的无障碍设施建设,方便残疾人参加诉讼。积极推进信息交流无障碍环境建设,根据案件情况,允许相关辅助、陪护人员陪同残疾当事人出庭。

Creating an accessible environment has been promoted in key areas. The 2035 plan for a barrier-free public transport system has been launched. The Ministry of Transport adds accessibility requirements in the design standards of transport facilities such as passenger terminals, expressway service areas, ferry terminals, subway stations, city buses and subway trains. Various localities use more accessible passenger vehicles like low-floor buses and wheelchair accessible taxies, and require reserved seats for the elderly, infirm, sick, and disabled in public transport vehicles. Buses are equipped with telescreens and next-stop announcement systems in most cities, and blind guidance systems in some cities. All public transport facilities are accessible for persons with disabilities in many provinces. The rail administration reserves seats for them on more than 3,400 CRH trains, and permits visually impaired people to board with guide dogs. Financial institutions have upgraded wheelchair ramps and tactile paving, installed number calling and display systems, and set up accessible restrooms and disabled parking spaces. Post offices provide door-to-door services for persons with severe disabilities. Delivery companies send text messages to clients with hearing impairments, and deliver publications in Braille for free. The facilities and services for persons with disabilities to access the legal services have been improved. Accessibility has been upgraded in the reception rooms and judicial tribunals of courts to enable them to enjoy equal legal rights. The courts also promote information accessibility, and allow assistants to those with disabilities to appear in court when necessary.

辅助器具供应和适配服务获得政策支持。2016年,国务院制定《关于加快发展康复辅助器具产业的若干意见》,对推进辅助器具产业快速发展作出部署。财政部、税务总局、民政部联合发布《关于生产和装配伤残人员专门用品企业免征企业所得税的通知》,免征上述企业的企业所得税,降低伤残人员专门用品的生产成本。各地相继制定辅助器具补贴办法,对购买辅助器具和提供适配服务给予补贴。2018年,有319.1万残疾人获得盲杖、助视器、假肢等各类辅具适配服务。自1996年以来,各级政府组织实施“长江新里程计划”假肢服务、彩票公益金辅助器具服务等重点项目,累计为1500万人次提供了服务。

Services for supplying and adapting assistive appliances are guaranteed by national policies. In 2016, the State Council formulated “Directives on Accelerating the Development of the Industry of Rehabilitation Assistive Appliances”, and the Ministry of Finance, State Taxation Administration and Ministry of Civil Affairs jointly issued the “Notice on the Exemption of Corporate Income Tax from the Enterprises Manufacturing and Assembling the Special Products for Persons with Disabilities” to reduce the cost of such products. Local governments have formulated subsidy measures for assistive appliances and adaption services. In 2018, 3.19 million persons with disabilities benefited from adaption services of such assistive devices as white canes, visual aids and artificial limbs. Programs organized by governments at various levels such as Cheung Kong New Milestone Plan (for artificial limbs) and lottery-subsidized assistive tools have benefited 15 million people since 1996.

残疾人个人行动能力得到提升。公安部不断放宽残疾人申领驾驶证条件,已有27.9万肢体、听力等残障人员申领驾驶证。《残疾人航空运输管理办法》要求承运人、机场和机场地面服务代理人为具备乘机条件的残疾人免费提供登机、离机所需要的移动辅助设备。每列火车预留残疾人旅客专用票额。盲人可以免费乘坐市内公交。制定《导盲犬》国家标准。积极发展网络、电话预约出租汽车服务,方便残疾人群体乘车出行。

The personal mobility of persons with disabilities has been improved. The Ministry of Public Security has relaxed the restrictions preventing persons with disabilities from applying for a driving license, and 279,000 people with physical or hearing disabilities have gained licenses. “Measures for the Administration of Air Transport for Persons with Disabilities” require transport providers, airports and airport ground service agents to provide sufficient free mobility assistive facilities to enable eligible disabled persons to embark and disembark. All trains should reserve a certain quota of tickets for persons with disabilities. Visually impaired people can ride city buses for free. China has drawn up national standards for guide dogs. The government has also developed online and telephone taxi reservation services for those with disabilities.

八、人身自由与非歧视

VIII. Personal Freedom and Non-Discrimination

中国禁止基于残疾的歧视,制定特别保护措施,保护残疾人的生命权和人身自由,保障残疾人平等享有各项公民权利。

China prohibits any forms of disability discrimination. It has drawn up specific measures to protect the right to life and personal freedom of persons with disabilities and ensure that they enjoy equal rights as other citizens.

残疾人人身权利得到法律严格保护。《中华人民共和国刑法》《中华人民共和国民法总则》《中华人民共和国侵权责任法》《中华人民共和国婚姻法》《中华人民共和国未成年人保护法》《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》《中华人民共和国精神卫生法》《中华人民共和国反家庭暴力法》等相关法律对残疾人的人身权利作出相应规定,对虐待、遗弃、故意伤害残疾人等行为依法予以惩处。《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》全面具体规定了残疾人人身权利及保障措施。

Personal rights of persons with disabilities are fully protected by laws. In China, the Criminal Law, General Provisions of the Civil Law, Tort Law, Marriage Law, Law on the Protection of Minors, Labor Contract Law, Mental Health Law, Anti-domestic Violence Law and many other laws define the personal rights of persons with disabilities and stipulate the punishments for maltreating, abandoning, or maliciously injuring them. The Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities makes full and detailed provisions for their personal rights and defines measures to protect them.

适时调整相关机制保障残疾人人身自由。废除收容遣送制度,对包括残疾人在内的流浪乞讨人员实行自愿救助;废除对麻风病人实行严格隔离的做法,让患者回归家庭和社区;实施“中央补助地方严重精神障碍管理治疗项目”,严重精神障碍患者登记报告、救治救助、随访服务等已覆盖全国。

Efforts have been made to adjust mechanisms for protecting the personal freedom of those with disabilities. The state has abolished the system to shelter and send back vagrants and beggars – including those with disabilities – to their homes, but provides assistance to them in line with their own free choice. The practice of isolating lepers from family or community has been abrogated. The central government has established a nationwide program to subsidize local governments for the management and treatment of serious mental illnesses, so as to register, report and rehabilitate such patients through medical treatment and follow-up.

加大对侵犯残疾人人身自由犯罪的打击力度。《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》禁止任何单位和个人以暴力、威胁或者非法限制人身自由的手段强迫残疾人劳动。为切实保障残疾人人身自由和安全,刑法修正案(六)增加“强迫组织残疾人、儿童乞讨罪”,刑法修正案(九)增加对残疾人负监护、看护职责的人虐待残疾人,情节恶劣的,要承担刑事责任条款。最高人民检察院等部门发布《关于在检察工作中切实维护残疾人合法权益的意见》,要求对强迫智力残疾人劳动、拐卖残疾妇女儿童等违法犯罪行为依法从重打击。公安部开展整治强迫、诱骗未成年残疾人流浪乞讨和强迫、拐骗聋哑青少年违法犯罪行为专项行动。人力资源社会保障部开展整治非法用工专项行动。最高人民法院、中国残联联合发布《关于在审判执行工作中切实维护残疾人合法权益的意见》等规范性文件,对侵害残疾人权益的犯罪行为,依法严厉惩处,切实保护残疾人的人身财产安全。

Action has been stepped up against crimes that violate the personal freedom of persons with disabilities. The Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities forbids any entity or individual to force any person with disability to work by means of violence, threat or illegal restriction of personal freedom. The Amendment VI to the Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China adds a crime of “organizing any disabled person or any minor to go begging”, and the Amendment IX to the Criminal Law adds a clause defining the criminal responsibility borne by anyone with a duty to ward or nurse a disabled person who maltreats the person under his or her guardianship or provides improper care. The Supreme People’s Court and the CDPF jointly issued the “Directives on Effectively Protecting the Lawful Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in Trial and Enforcement” and other regulatory documents, requiring stiff punishments in accordance with the law for crimes that violate the rights and interests of these people, so as to effectively ensure their safety and protect their property. The Supreme People’s Procuratorate and other departments issued the “Directives on Effectively Protecting the Lawful Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in Procuratorial Work”, requiring severe punishments in accordance with the law for crimes like forcing persons with intellectual disabilities to labor or trafficking disabled women and children. The Ministry of Public Security launched a special campaign against crimes that force or lure disabled minors to beg or deaf juveniles to commit crimes. The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security also initiated a special effort to control illegal employment.

立法禁止基于残疾的歧视。法律法规对反歧视和合理便利作出具体规定。2007年制定的《中华人民共和国就业促进法》明确规定,用人单位招用人员,不得歧视残疾人。2008年修订的《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》明确了反歧视原则:禁止基于残疾的歧视,禁止侮辱、侵害残疾人,禁止通过大众传播媒介或者其他方式贬低损害残疾人人格。2010年以来,制定《中华人民共和国精神卫生法》《残疾预防和残疾人康复条例》《残疾人航空运输管理办法》以及修订《残疾人教育条例》《残疾人就业条例》等相关法律法规,增加了不歧视的内容,并对不歧视作出具体规定。

Laws have been enacted to prohibit any forms of disability discrimination. China’s laws and regulations contain detailed provisions to combat discrimination and ensure reasonable accommodation. The Employment Promotion Law of the People’s Republic of China adopted in 2007 stipulates that an employer recruiting staff must not discriminate persons with disabilities. The Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities revised in 2008 defines the principle of anti-discrimination: “Discrimination on the basis of disability shall be prohibited. Insult of and disservice to persons with disabilities shall be prohibited. Disparagement of and infringement upon the dignity of persons with disabilities by means of mass media or any other means shall be prohibited.” Since 2010, China has enacted the Mental Health Law, Regulations on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities, and Measures for the Administration of Air Transport for Persons with Disabilities, and revised the Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities and Regulations on the Employment of Persons with Disabilities, all of which include detailed clauses to combat discrimination.

九、营造良好社会环境

IX. Creating a Good Social Environment

中国倡导社会主义核心价值观和“平等、参与、共享”的理念,弘扬中华民族传统美德和人道主义精神,培育全社会扶残助残意识,形成关爱残疾人、关心残疾人事业的良好社会风尚。

China advocates core socialist values and the concepts of “equality, participation and sharing”, carries forward China’s traditional virtues and humanitarianism, and cultivates awareness of helping people with disabilities as part of the effort to create a social environment in which persons with disabilities are cared for, and the programs to help them are promoted.

残疾人文化事业欣欣向荣。《中华人民共和国公共文化服务保障法》和《“十三五”推进基本公共服务均等化规划》均载入残疾人文化服务项目,将残疾人文化事业纳入国家公共文化服务体系。各地采取措施确保残疾人以无障碍方式获得文化产品和服务,欣赏电视、电影、戏剧等文化作品。文化和旅游部与中国残联连续多年在全国开展残疾人文化周活动,2018年120余万残疾人参与该活动。各类残疾人艺术团体快速发展,全国各类残疾人艺术团体已有283个,残疾人文化艺术从业人员近30万名。“共享芬芳 共铸小康”公益巡演展览活动启动三年以来,共有17万余人参加。每四年举办一届全国残疾人艺术汇演,截至2017年,共举办9届,每届参与的残疾人达10多万人。中国残疾人艺术团出访100个国家和地区进行交流演出,被联合国教科文组织指定为“联合国教科文组织和平艺术家”,《千手观音》节目享誉世界。2011年至2018年,中央财政投入近1200万元,在城市社区实施“残疾人文化进社区”项目,为社区设立“残疾人书架”,配备文化活动用品。在“农家书屋”工程中把为残疾人服务的图书列入采购书目。实施文化进残疾人家庭“五个一项目”,支持中西部和农村地区10万户贫困、重度残疾人家庭每年读一本书、看一次电影、游一次园、参观一次展览、参加一次文化活动。建成融多种功能于一体的中国盲文图书馆,组织实施盲人数字阅读推广工程。

The cultural activities of persons with disabilities are thriving. The Public Cultural Service Guarantee Law of the People’s Republic of China and the “Plan for Promoting Equal Access to Basic Public Services in the 13th Five-year Plan Period” have included the cultural service programs for those with disabilities into the national cultural service system.

Measures have been taken across the country to ensure accessibility to cultural products and services for persons with disabilities, enabling them to appreciate TV programs, films and dramas. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism and CDPF have held an annual cultural week for persons with disabilities for several years. In 2018, over 1.2 million people with disabilities took part in such activities.

Art troupes of persons with disabilities are growing fast; their number has increased to 283, employing about 300,000 disabled art workers. During the three years since the launch of the Charity Performance Tours and Exhibitions, a total of 170,000 persons with disabilities have taken part in the initiative. The National Disability Art Festival is held every four years. By 2017, it had been held nine times, attracting over 100,000 to participate each year. Designated as UNESCO Artist for Peace, the China Disabled People’s Performing Art Troupe has visited 100 countries and regions for performance and exchanges; the Thousand-hand Bodhisattva dance enjoys prestige throughout the world.

From 2011 to 2018, the central budget allocated about RMB12 million to launch the project of “Enriching the Community Culture for Persons with Disabilities” in cities, setting up reading sections and supplying cultural products for them. Books for people with disabilities have been added on the shopping list in the “Village Library” project. A cultural campaign has been launched for households with disabled members, particularly the 100,000 impoverished households and those with severely disabled members in the middle and western regions and rural areas. The campaign will enable each of them to read one book, watch one film, tour one park, visit one exhibition, and take part in one cultural activity every year. We have built a multifunctional Braille library and launched a digital reading project for persons with disabilities.

残疾人体育事业蓬勃发展。残疾人健身体育、康复体育和竞技体育全面发展。2011年,启动残疾人自强健身工程,提高残疾人体育健身指导服务能力和服务水平。自2011年起,体育总局支持中国残联开展残疾人社会体育指导员培训,截至2017年,共培养10.4万名社会体育指导员。各级政府和组织加大经费投入,为各类残疾人开辟日常体育活动场所。2017年,各地残疾人文化体育活动场所达到9053个。成功举办上海特奥会、北京残奥会和广州亚残运会,成功申办2022年冬季残奥会;共参加9届夏季残奥会,1337名运动员参加,获得433块金牌、339块银牌、250块铜牌,打破261项世界纪录,实现金牌榜4连冠;参加4届冬季残奥会,55名运动员参加,在2018年平昌冬残奥会上实现冬季项目金牌零的突破。积极参加国际听障奥运会和特奥会。

Sports for persons with disabilities are flourishing. Fitness and rehabilitation activities and competitive sports are making rapid progress. In 2011, a fitness program was launched to provide better guidance and service for persons with disabilities. Since 2011, the General Administration of Sport has supported the CDPF in training social sports instructors for people with disabilities. By 2017, a total of 104,000 instructors had been trained. Governments and organizations at all levels have increased investment in the building of sports venues for people with disabilities. In 2017 there were 9,053 cultural and sports venues for people with disabilities across the nation.

Shanghai Special Olympics, Beijing Paralympic Games, and Guangzhou Asia Para Games have been successful. China has succeeded in a bid for the 2022 Winter Paralympic Games. And it has attended nine summer Paralympics in which 1,337 athletes have participated, wining 433 gold, 339 silver and 250 bronze medals. They have broken 261 world records and ranked top in the gold medal tally for the last four Paralympics. China has competed in four Winter Paralympics with a total of 55 athletes, and won the first gold medal in the 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Paralympic Games. China has actively taken part in Deaflympics and Special Olympics.

助残社会组织逐步壮大。2012年以来,中央财政每年划拨专项资金支持社会组织参与社会服务,其中残疾人社会服务是重点领域之一。推进社会组织“放管服”改革,支持社区社会组织承接社区公共服务和基层政府委托事项,完善国家对助残社会组织的税收优惠政策。助残社会组织的数量迅速增长。截至2017年,各地民政部门共登记助残社会组织6200余个,包括1500余个社会团体、4600余个民办非企业单位和约100个基金会。

Social organizations of disability support are growing. Since 2012, the central budget has allocated special funds to support social organizations in providing social services, particularly for persons with disabilities. We have encouraged social organizations to streamline administration, delegate powers, innovate supervision, and improve services. We have given support to community-level social organizations in undertaking community public services and tasks entrusted by grassroots governments. And the state has improved preferential tax policies for social disability support organizations. These organizations are growing rapidly. By 2017, over 6,200 such organizations had been registered at local civil affairs departments, including 1,500 civil societies, 4,600 private non-enterprise entities and 100 foundations.

扶残助残社会风尚基本形成。中国政府网站开设残疾人信息与服务专栏,报刊、广播、电视和网络等新闻媒体广泛报道残疾人生活和事务,促进尊重残疾人的尊严和权利,消除对残疾人的偏见和歧视,形成理解、尊重、帮助残疾人的社会氛围。自1991年设立全国助残日(每年5月第三个星期日)以来,已开展29次全国助残日活动。每年开展“牵着蜗牛去散步”等公益系列活动,各类公益慈善组织、志愿者服务组织开展了形式多样的面向残疾儿童的公益活动。举办残疾人运动会、文艺汇演、职业技能竞赛等大型活动,展示残疾人自强不息的精神风貌。开展百家图书馆、百家媒体、百家博物馆、百家出版社等文化公益助残活动,提升全社会对残疾人的关注。在中小学生中开展“红领巾手拉手助残”行动;在高校学生和广大青年中开展中国青年志愿者助残“阳光行动”;成立中国助残志愿者协会,整合凝聚社会力量推进志愿助残服务。

Social norms to support and help persons with disabilities have been established. Government websites have special sections for disability information and services. News media such as newspaper, radio, television and internet have wide coverage of the life of people with disabilities to help promote respect for their dignity and rights, eradicate prejudice and discrimination against them, and establish social norms to encourage the general public to understand, respect and help them. Since 1991 when the National Day for Helping Persons with Disabilities (the third Sunday in every May) was designated, 29 theme activities have been held.

Every year, public welfare activities to help people with intellectual disabilities are organized, and a variety of other activities for children with disabilities are also carried out by charity and volunteer organizations. Sporting activities, art performances, and vocational skills competitions of people with disabilities are held to celebrate their spirit of self-improvement and resilience. Non-profit campaigns in the cultural sector have also been launched to raise the public profile of this group, such as ensuring their access to 100 libraries and museums, and to books donated by 100 publishing houses, and expanding news coverage of their stories by 100 news media.

In primary and secondary schools, able-bodied Young Pioneers are encouraged to pair with their disabled peers to learn from each other. For college students and young people, the Sunshine Action has been launched to recruit youth volunteers to help people with disabilities. The China Association of Volunteers for Persons with Disabilities has been set up to unite all social forces in providing better services for these people.

残疾人精神和贡献获得社会褒扬。残疾人积极投身于国家建设,努力实现自身价值,并为社会做出贡献。他们中涌现出一大批自强不息、奋发有为的先进人物,获得“全国劳动模范”“全国三八红旗手”等称号。国家和地方表彰了一大批残疾人自强模范,授予“自强模范”“助残先进个人”“助残先进集体”等称号。召开6次全国自强模范暨助残先进表彰大会,表彰919个“全国自强模范”、1117个“全国助残先进集体”和“全国助残先进个人”。

The spirit of persons with disabilities and the contribution they make is winning favor with the public. Persons with disabilities devote themselves to national development, and try to maximize the value of their contribution to society. A number of aspirant and enterprising models have emerged and won the titles of “National Model Worker” and “National Model Women Worker”. The state and local governments have rewarded a large number of role models with disabilities and individuals and units of disability support. The state has held six national conferences on commending role models with disabilities and model individuals and units for helping those with disabilities, rewarding 919 “National Self-improvement Models”, and 1,117 “Outstanding Units for Helping Persons with Disabilities” and “Outstanding Individuals for Helping Persons with Disabilities”.

十、对外交流与国际合作

X. International Exchanges and Cooperation

积极开展残疾人事务国际交流与合作,增进国际社会对中国残疾人事业的理解与支持,促进国际残疾人事业的发展与进步。

China actively participates in international exchanges and cooperation on disability, promotes better understanding and stronger support in the international community for the cause of persons with disabilities in China, and contributes to the development and progress of these people worldwide.

认真履行条约义务。中国认真履行《残疾人权利公约》缔约国责任和义务。根据《残疾人权利公约》规定,2010年提交第一次履约报告,并接受联合国残疾人权利委员会审议,2018年提交第二、三次合并履约报告。中国是《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约》等核心人权公约的缔约国,公约所确定的残疾人权利得到普遍尊重和保障。中国还批准了国际劳工组织《(残疾人)职业康复和就业公约》,于2015年提交了最新一次履约报告。

Fulfilling obligations in international instruments on disability. China fulfills all the responsibilities and obligations of a signatory state prescribed in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. In accordance with the provisions of the convention, China submitted its first report in 2010, which was reviewed by the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. In 2018, it submitted a consolidated report of the second and third implementations of the convention. As a signatory state of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which is a core human right instrument, China respects and safeguards all the rights of persons with disabilities as stipulated by the covenant. In 1987, China approved the Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention from the International Labor Organization, and submitted the latest report of its implementation in 2015.

主动承担国际责任。中国积极主动向联合国、有关国际残疾人组织和发展中国家提供力所能及的资金、技术和物资支持,向埃塞俄比亚、布隆迪、蒙古等十多个国家捐赠残疾人辅助器具,向东南亚海啸受灾国捐赠救灾款物并向残疾人定向捐赠,向国际残奥委会发展基金捐款,为亚太经济合作组织成员经济体和非洲国家残疾人提供能力建设培训。2016年,中国残联主席张海迪就任康复国际主席。资助建立康复国际非洲基金和康复国际全球残疾人事务发展基金。

Living up to international responsibilities. China actively provides financial, technical and material support to the UN, and to relevant international disability organizations and developing countries. We have donated assistive devices for persons with disabilities to more than 10 countries including Ethiopia, Burundi and Mongolia, provided humanitarian relief to tsunami-stricken Southeast Asian countries with a focus on persons with disabilities, subscribed to the Development Fund for the International Paralympic Committee, and given capacity-building training to people with disabilities from Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies and Africa. In 2016, chairwoman of the CDPF Zhang Haidi was elected chair of Rehabilitation International (RI). China has subsidized the RI in establishing the Africa Fund and the Global Disability Development Fund.

积极推动国际残疾人事务发展。中国是制定《残疾人权利公约》的积极倡导者和参与者,推动将残疾人事务纳入联合国2030年可持续发展议程,促成建立亚太经济合作组织、亚欧会议、中国-东盟博览会等框架下残疾人事务合作机制,积极开展“一带一路”残疾人领域合作。在联合国亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会(简称“联合国亚太经社会”)的支持下,首倡发起“亚太残疾人十年”活动。与联合国亚太经社会共同主办2013-2022亚洲及太平洋残疾人十年中期审查高级别政府间会议,通过《北京宣言和行动计划》。举办亚欧会议框架下残疾人合作暨全球辅助器具产业发展大会。积极参加并承办与残疾人相关的国际研讨会议、国际残疾人艺术节、国际残疾人职业技能竞赛,多次参加国际残奥会。

Actively advancing the international cause of persons with disabilities. China is an active advocate and participant of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. We have worked to include the cause of persons with disabilities in the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. We have helped to establish disability cooperation mechanisms within APEC, Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), China-Asian Expo and other frameworks. China energetically carries out cooperation along the Belt and Road to promote the cause.

With the support of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), we initiated the Asian and Pacific Decade of Persons with Disabilities. China and the UN ESCAP jointly hosted the High-level Intergovernmental Meeting on the Midpoint Review of the Asian and Pacific Decade of Persons with Disabilities, 2013-2022, at which the Beijing Declaration and Action Plan was adopted. We hosted the ASEM High-level Meeting on Disability and Global Conference on Assistive Devices and Technology. China actively participates in and hosts international events for persons with disabilities, including seminars, art festivals, and vocational skills competitions. It has participated in the Paralympic Games many times.

残疾人权益保障获得国际赞誉。中国残疾人权益保障的成就和经验得到国际社会积极评价。2003年,时任中国残联主席邓朴方获“联合国人权奖”,成为历史上首获此奖的中国人和残疾人。2012年,中国残联主席张海迪获联合国亚太经社会“亚太残疾人权利领袖奖”。2016年,中国举办纪念《残疾人权利公约》通过十周年大会,时任联合国秘书长潘基文出席,对中国残疾人人权保障给予高度评价。

Winning international acclaim for our efforts to ensure the rights and interests of persons with disabilities. The international community speaks highly of China’s achievements and experience in protecting the rights and interests of persons with disabilities. In 2003, Deng Pufang, then chairman of the CDPF, became the first Chinese and the first disabled Chinese to be awarded the United Nations Human Rights Prize. In 2012, Zhang Haidi, chairwoman of the CDPF, won the Asia-Pacific Disability Rights Champions Award from the UN ESCAP. In 2016, China hosted the 10th Anniversary Meeting of the Adoption of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Ban Ki-moon, then UN secretary-general, attended the meeting and hailed China’s efforts in protecting the rights and interests of people with disabilities.

结束语

Conclusion

中国残疾人事业发展仍然不平衡、不充分,滞后于全国经济社会发展总体水平。残疾人生活状况与残疾人对美好生活的期待相比依然存在较大差距,反对基于残疾的歧视还需要长期努力。充分保障残疾人平等权益,全面促进残疾人融合发展依然任重道远。

The development of the programs of persons with disabilities are still unbalanced and inadequate in China, and lags behind the level of national economic and social development. There is still a big gap between the lives these people lead and lives to which they aspire, and a long-term effort will be required to fight the discrimination they face. We have a long way to go in ensuring the rights and interests of persons with disabilities, and in integrating the all-round improvement of their lives with that of wider society.

残疾人是一个特殊困难的群体,需要全社会给予充分的尊重、关心和帮助。中国将不断完善残疾人权益保障机制,努力消除基于残疾的歧视,切实尊重和保障残疾人的人权,增进残疾人福祉,增强残疾人自我发展能力,推进残疾人平等参与发展进程、平等分享发展成果。

As a group who live with special difficulties, persons with disabilities should be fully respected, cared for, and assisted in every aspect of social interaction. China will continue to improve the mechanisms for ensuring their rights and interests – eliminating discrimination, fully respecting and guaranteeing their human rights, improving their wellbeing, enhancing their ability to better their own situation, and ensuring that they are able to participate in the country’s development process and share the ensuing gains as equals.

在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,在决胜全面建成小康社会、夺取新时代中国特色社会主义伟大胜利、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦的新征程中,中国将把保障残疾人权益、促进残疾人全面发展和共同富裕作为重要使命和奋斗目标,努力开创新时代残疾人事业发展的新局面。

Under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping as the core, in our quest to secure a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, strive to realize socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era and the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, we will take disabled people’s rights and interests, their all-round development and common prosperity as an important mission and regard them as the focus of our efforts, and open up a new vista for persons with disabilities in the new era.

点击查看口译资料,热点口译专题,阅读更多相关文章!


    最新优惠 350元《韩刚口译入门学习法》DVD| 350元《韩刚口译实战训练法》DVD |498元李长栓周蕴仪《汉英笔译实战课程》| 498元《李慧CATTI二级口译课程》|598元《夏倩英语口译同传课程》 |398元《俄语口译实战课程》 |

    想快速提高翻译水平吗?

    关注‘天之聪教育’微信,每天都有免费双语学习素材,以及CATTI报考、备考、真题、模拟试题等

    针对口译、笔译学习的精品资料推送, 您可以随时随地通过手机学习!

    打开微信“通讯录”-“添加”-“查找公众号”-输入“kaosee_4008112230”,然后关注;或者来

    扫一扫二维码,速速添加吧!免费口译、笔译课都有机会获得哦~

    课程 课时 优惠价 试听 购买
    CATTI英语三级口译实务指定教材从头学【技能提升+教材解读】 12 ¥128 试听
    【15周,30小时】10人小班口译特训营(底静、靳萌主讲) 30 ¥3980 试听
    【新挑战 新策略】15周快速突破CATTI英语笔译 30 ¥3980 试听
    CATTI英语笔译通关课程--和马茜老师学笔译 11 ¥198 试听
    【备考2019年6月CATTI二级笔译】真题解析+模拟演练 8 ¥128 试听
    【备考2019年6月CATTI三级笔译】真题解析+模拟演练 8 ¥128 试听
    【备考2019年6月CATTI二级口译】真题解析+模拟演练 8 ¥128 试听
    【备考2019年6月CATTI三级口译】真题解析+模拟演练 8 ¥128 试听

    口译入门未必需要太过深厚的英语功底和太过虚华的学历...
    巩固基本技能,强调学习方法,凝练精妙表达,提升全盘备战 ...
    新概念小语种:无需任何外语基础,会中文就能学!原汁原味实用情景对话,学地道外语!
    西雅图工作英语,好英语,好工作!外企白领必备教程,15CD+2教材!

    顶一下
    (0)

    您可能还感兴趣的英语文章

    英语笔译:崔天凯在庆祝中国人民解放军建军92周年招待会上的
    Remarks by Ambassador Cui Tiankai At the Reception Celebrating the 92nd Anniversary of the Founding of the Peoples Liberation Army of China July 31, 2019 中国驻美国大使崔天凯在庆祝中国人民解放军建军92周年招待会上的致辞 2019年7月31日 Distinguished Guests, Ladies and~~
    双语对照:黄溪连大使在中国-东盟媒体高峰论坛上的开幕致辞
    黄溪连大使在中国-东盟媒体高峰论坛上的开幕致辞 Remarks by Ambassador Huang Xilian at the Opening Ceremony of the ASEAN-China High Level Media Forum 2019年7月24日,雅加达 24 July, 2019, Jakarta 尊敬的东盟秘书长林玉辉阁下, Excellency Dato Lim Jock Hoi, Secret~~
    教科文组织总干事奥德蕾·阿祖莱贩卖黑奴及其废除国际纪念日
    Message from Ms. Audrey Azoulay, Director-General of UNESCO, on the Occasion of the International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and Its Abolition 教科文组织总干事奥德蕾阿祖莱贩卖黑奴及其废除国际纪念日致辞 23 August 2019 2019年8月23日 This 23 August, we ho~~
    双语对照:外交部例行记者会(2019年8月22日)
    2019年8月22日外交部发言人耿爽 主持例行记者会 Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Geng Shuangs Regular Press Conference on August 22, 2019 问: 据报道,昨天,美国政府对三名非法向美走私芬太尼的中国公民实施制裁~~

    发表评论:

    表达一些您的想法吧! 已有条评论>>
    文明评论,理性发言!

    最新评论(时间排序)

    视频推荐

    关于天之聪 | 网站动态 | 讲师招聘 | 商务合作 | 联系我们 | 下载专区
    ©2007-2019 中视天之聪教育科技(北京)有限公司 All rights reserved. 版权所有 京ICP备12005225号 京公网安备11010802011421