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双语对照:国新办《关于中美经贸磋商的中方立场》白皮书发布会


来源:国新办    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2019-07-18 17:39   点击: 次  

郭卫民:

Guo Weimin:

女士们、先生们,记者朋友们:

大家上午好!欢迎出席国务院新闻办新闻发布会。

Ladies, gentlemen, media friends, good morning. Welcome to this press conference.

今天,国务院新闻办公室发表《关于中美经贸磋商的中方立场》白皮书,同时举行新闻发布会,向大家介绍和解读白皮书的主要内容。

Today, the State Council Information Office (SCIO) released a white paper entitled "China's Position on the China-U.S. Economic and Trade Consultations." At this press conference, we will brief you about its major content, along necessary explanations.

出席今天发布会的是商务部副部长兼国际贸易谈判副代表王受文先生。我是国务院新闻办公室副主任郭卫民,今天的发布会由我主持。

Present at this press conference is Mr. Wang Shouwen, vice minister of the Ministry of Commerce and deputy China international trade representative. I'm your host, Guo Weimin, vice minister of the State Council Information Office.

首先,我就白皮书的主要内容做简要介绍。《关于中美经贸磋商的中方立场》白皮书,系统梳理和介绍中美经贸摩擦的来龙去脉和两国经贸磋商的基本情况,阐明了中国政府关于中美经贸磋商的原则立场。白皮书全文约8300字,由前言、正文和结束语三部分组成。

First of all, let me brief you about the major content of the white paper. The document is entitled "China's Position on the China-U.S. Economic and Trade Consultations." It summarizes and introduces the history of China-U.S. trade friction, and the general situation of the bilateral trade talks. It also explains China's principles and position on the various issues involved. The document contains approximately 8,300 words, and contains three parts - foreword, main content and conclusion.

白皮书指出,中美经贸关系是两国关系的“压舱石”和“推进器”,事关两国人民根本利益,事关世界繁荣和稳定。2018年3月以来,针对美国政府单方面发起的中美经贸摩擦,中国不得不采取有力应对措施,坚决捍卫国家和人民利益。同时,中国始终坚持通过对话协商解决问题的基本立场,与美国开展多轮经贸磋商,努力稳定双边经贸关系。对于贸易战,中国不愿打,不怕打,必要时不得不打,这个态度一直没变。

The white paper notes that trade cooperation remains the ballast and the propeller for China-U.S. relations. This issue is critical to the fundamental interests of the two nations and their people, as well as world prosperity and peace. Since March 2018, in response to the economic and trade friction unilaterally initiated by the United States, China has had to take forceful measures to defend its national interests and its people. At the same time, China has always adhered to the basic principle of resolving disputes through dialogue and consultations, and there have been several rounds of trade negotiations with the United States. China has tried its best to maintain a stable trade relationship with the United States. We certainly don't want to see  a trade war occur. However, if it really comes, we won't be afraid, and will fight it if necessary. Our attitude on this has never changed.

白皮书指出,美国挑起对华经贸摩擦损害两国和全球利益。美国加征关税措施损人不利己,阻碍双边贸易投资合作,影响两国乃至全球市场信心和经济平稳运行。贸易战没有给美国带来所谓的“再次伟大”,提高美国企业生产成本,抬升美国国内物价,影响美国经济增长和民生,阻碍美对华出口。美国贸易霸凌行径殃及全球,损害多边贸易体制,严重干扰全球产业链和供应链,损害市场信心,给全球经济复苏带来严峻挑战,给经济全球化趋势造成重大威胁。

The white paper clearly shows how China-U.S. trade friction provoked by the United States has harmed the interests of both countries and, indeed, the world as a whole. The imposition of trade tariffs has done no good to the United States as well as others. It has impeded bilateral trade investment and cooperation. It has also affected market confidence and economic stability worldwide. A trade war won't "make America great again." Instead, it has raised the production costs of American enterprises, increased domestic prices in America, harmed U.S. economic growth and people's livelihood, and obstructed the flow of American exports to China. The trade bullying carried out by the U.S. have had a negative influence on the entire world. They have damaged the multilateral trading system, enormously disturbed the global industrial chain and supply chain, and damaged market confidence. They pose a severe challenge to the recovery of the global economy, and pose a grave threat to advancement of economic globalization.

白皮书指出,美国在中美经贸磋商中出尔反尔、不讲诚信。美国挑起经贸摩擦后,两国贸易、投资关系受到影响,双方都认为有必要坐下来进行谈判,通过磋商解决问题。自2018年2月经贸磋商启动以来取得很大进展,两国就大部分内容达成共识,但也经历了多次波折,每次波折都源于美国政府的违背共识、出尔反尔、不讲诚信。中美经贸磋商严重受挫,责任完全在美国政府。

The white paper noted that in the trade negotiations with China, the United States has gone back on its words, and not acted in good faith. Since the United States provoked the trade friction, bilateral trade and investment have been badly affected. This led to both sides agreeing to sit down and discuss a solution. Since the trade negotiations started in February 2018, significant progress has been made, and consensus has been reached on the majority of issues. However, there were also various twists and turns, all of them caused by the U.S. government, as it has repeatedly abandoned the bilateral consensus, gone back on its words, and broken its promises. The setbacks in our trade negotiations should all be blamed on the U.S. government.

白皮书指出,中国始终坚持平等、互利、诚信的磋商立场。中国政府始终认为,以贸易战相威胁,不断加征关税的做法无益于经贸问题的解决。中美应秉持相互尊重、平等互利的精神,本着善意和诚信,通过磋商解决问题。

The white paper pointed out that China has always adhered to the principles of equality, mutual benefit and good faith throughout the consultations. It has always believed that the U.S. threat of trade war and the imposition of tariffs won't help solve trade problems. China and the United States should seek solutions through consultations in the spirit of mutual respect, equality, mutual benefit, goodwill and good faith.

白皮书强调,中美经贸磋商中,一国的主权和尊严必须得到尊重,双方达成的协议应是平等互利的。对于重大原则问题,中国决不退让。

The white paper also emphasizes that, in China-U.S. trade consultations, the sovereignty and dignity of each country must be respected. Any agreement must be on an equal basis and be beneficial to both sides. When it concerns major issues of principle, China will never take a step back.

白皮书最后强调,中美达成一个互利双赢的协议,符合中美两国利益,顺应世界各国期待。希望美国同中国相向而行,管控经贸分歧,加强经贸合作,共同推进以协调、合作、稳定为基调的中美关系,增进两国和世界人民福祉。

Finally, the white paper stresses that a mutually beneficial, win-win agreement between China and the United Stated conforms to the interests of both countries, and also meet world expectations. We hope that the United States and China can work together and meet each other halfway when managing trade disputes and enhancing trade cooperation, so as to jointly promote the Sino-U.S. relationship on the basis of coordination, cooperation and stability, and to increase the benefits available to the people of the two countries and the world.

《关于中美经贸磋商的中方立场》白皮书以中、英、法、俄、德、西、阿、日等8个语种发表,由人民出版社、外文出版社分别出版,在全国新华书店发行。

The white paper "China's Position on the China-U.S. Economic and Trade Consultations" is available in eight languages, namely: Chinese, English, French, Russian, German, Spanish, Arabic and Japanese. It is published by the People's Publishing House and the Foreign Languages Press, and is distributed by the Xinhua Bookstore across the country.

我就先介绍这些情况。下面,请商务部副部长兼国际贸易谈判副代表王受文先生作介绍。

That's all for my part. Now, let's welcome Mr. Wang Shouwen, vice minister of the Ministry of Commerce, deputy China international trade representative, to provide a detailed briefing.

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

谢谢郭主任,各位新闻界的朋友们,女士们、先生们,大家上午好!今天国务院新闻办发布了《关于中美经贸磋商的中方立场》白皮书,非常感谢大家利用周末的时间来参加发布会。刚才郭主任已经对白皮书的主要内容作了简要介绍,我在这里再作几点补充。

Thank you, Mr. Guo. Friends from the press, ladies and gentlemen, good morning. Today, the State Council Information Office issued a white paper titled "China's Position on the China-U.S. Economic and Trade Consultations." Thank you very much for joining us this weekend. Mr. Guo has just provided a brief introduction to the main contents of the white paper, and I would like to add a few more points here.

中美经贸磋商受到国际社会的高度关注,其中也有一些传言和猜测。为了澄清事实,表明中方在这一问题上的立场,中国政府编写了《关于中美经贸磋商的中方立场》白皮书。白皮书从中美经贸摩擦的影响、美方在磋商过程中几次出尔反尔、中方对待磋商的原则立场等角度,回顾了中美经贸磋商的基本情况,阐明了中方对于中美经贸磋商的政策立场。

The international community has paid close attention to the China-U.S. economic and trade consultations, and there are some rumors and speculations. In order to clarify the facts and show China's position on this issue, the Chinese government has compiled a white paper, "China's Position on the China-U.S. Economic and Trade Consultations." The white paper provides a comprehensive picture of the China-U.S. economic and trade consultations and presents China's policy position on these consultations from the perspectives of the impacts of China-U.S. economic and trade frictions, the backtracking of the U.S. on commitments in China-U.S. trade consultations, and China's principle and position on the consultations.

中方认为,中美两国作为世界上最大的两个经济体,合则两利,斗则互伤,双边经贸关系事关两国人民的根本利益,事关全球经济繁荣和稳定。建交40年来,中美两国抓住了世界经济一体化和贸易投资自由化的历史机遇,充分发挥两国经济的巨大互补优势,推动了双边经贸合作从无到有、从小到大,从单一到多元的跨越式发展。中美双边的货物贸易,建交时只有25亿美元,去年双边货物贸易达到6335亿美元,增长252倍。双边服务贸易额也达到1250亿美元,双向直接投资接近1600亿美元。中美经贸合作可以说达到了前所未有的广度和深度,两国经济日益紧密地联系在一起,不仅为两国和两国人民带来实实在在的利益,也为世界经济繁荣与稳定作出了贡献。

China believes that China and the U.S., the two largest economies in the world, benefit from cooperation and harm each other in disputes. The bilateral economic and trade relations bear on the fundamental interests of the two peoples and the prosperity and stability of the global economy. Since the establishment of diplomatic ties 40 years ago, China and the U.S. have seized the historic opportunities brought by the integration of the global economy and the liberalization of trade and investment, giving full play to the huge complementary advantages of the two economies, and promoting the leapfrog and diversified development of bilateral economic and trade cooperation from scratch. The value of bilateral trade in goods was only $2.5 billion when the two countries established diplomatic ties. Last year, bilateral trade in goods reached $633.5 billion, an increase of 252 times. The volume of bilateral trade in services reached $125 billion, and the two-way direct investment approached $160 billion. It can be said that China and the U.S. witnessed an economic and trade cooperation that has never been broader or deeper as today, and the two economies have become more closely linked, which not only brings tangible benefits to the two countries and the two peoples, but also contributes to the prosperity and stability of global economy.

当然,由于两国经济发展阶段不同,经济制度不同,在经贸合作之中,难以避免地会出现一些分歧和摩擦,我们认为这是正常的。这需要双方采取理性、合作的态度,通过对话协商解决问题,化解矛盾,扩大共识,缩小分歧,使双边经贸关系沿着合作的轨道前进。

Certainly, it is inevitable that there are some differences and frictions in the economic and trade cooperation because the two countries are in different stages of economic development and have adopted different economic systems. This is normal in our view and requires both sides to solve problems, resolve disputes, expand consensus, and narrow differences through dialogues and consultations while adopting a rational and cooperative attitude, so as to push bilateral economic and trade relations along the track of cooperation.

新一届美国政府上任以来,不顾中美两国乃至全世界利益,无视中美经贸合作互利共赢的本质,以贸易逆差、知识产权问题为借口,频频挑起经贸摩擦,对华采取单边加征关税措施,中方不得不采取有力的应对措施,坚决捍卫国家和人民的利益。同时,中方始终坚持通过对话协商解决争议的基本立场,与美方开展多轮经贸磋商,努力稳定双边经贸关系。中国的态度是一贯的、明确的,就是对于两国的经贸分歧,我们愿意采取合作的方式加以解决,推动达成互利双赢的协议。但是合作有原则,磋商有底线,在重大原则问题上,中方决不让步。

Since it took office, the current U.S. administration has frequently provoked economic and trade frictions with trade deficits and intellectual property rights as excuses, and imposed unilateral tariffs on China, regardless of the interests of China, the U.S. and even the world, or the nature of the mutually beneficial cooperation between China and the U.S. in economic and trade fields. China has to take effective measures to safeguard the interests of the country and its people. Meanwhile, China has always insisted on resolving disputes through dialogues and consultations and has conducted several rounds of economic and trade consultations with the U.S. side, working hard to stabilize bilateral economic and trade relations. China adopts a consistent and clear attitude that we are willing to address the economic and trade differences between the two countries through cooperation and push for a mutually beneficial agreement; however, there are principles for cooperation and a bottom line for consultations, and China will not back down on major issues of principle.

正如习近平主席指出的,合作是中美两国唯一正确的选择,无论形势如何变化,中方将认真做好自己的事,希望美方与中方相向而行,本着相互尊重、平等互利的精神,管控分歧,加强合作,共同推进中美经贸关系稳定健康发展,增进两国和世界人民的福祉。谢谢。

As President Xi Jinping pointed out, cooperation is the only correct choice for China and the United States. China will continue to work earnestly no matter how the situation changes. We would like to see both sides to meet halfway, and narrow differences and strengthen cooperation in the spirit of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, in a bid to promote the steady and sound development of the China-U.S. economic and trade relations together and improve the well-being of the people of the two countries and the world at large. Thank you.

郭卫民:

Guo Weimin:

谢谢。下面进入提问环节,提问时请报一下所代表的新闻机构。今天发布会采用同传,用英语提问时现场会有翻译。下面开始提问。

Thank you. Now, it's time for questions. Please identify the news organization you represent before asking questions. Simultaneous interpretation service is provided at today's press conference, and if you ask questions in English, we will provide translations on the spot. Let's start.

中央广播电视总台央视记者:

CCTV:

请问王受文副部长,近期美方高级官员表示,中方在磋商中“立场倒退”,导致谈判陷入停滞,请问您对此有何评论?另一个问题,也有消息称,谈判破裂是因为中方对此前协议草案文本进行删减,请问这是否属实?谢谢。

Question goes to Mr. Wang. Recently senior American officials accused China of "backtracking" that led to the stagnation of the negotiations. What's your comments on that? Sources also said that China deleted some of the draft text of the agreements, which led to the breakdown of the negotiations. Is it true? Thanks.

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

谢谢。中方对中美经贸磋商始终抱着最大的诚意,美方指责中方在谈判中立场倒退,这是不负责任的,是“泼脏水”。在磋商谈判中,就所有的问题达成协议之前,谈判桌上的一切都只是讨论,不存在协议,也就不存在所谓的“立场倒退”。谈判里面,大家经常说,“Nothing  is  agreed  until  everything  is  agreed”。去年12月,中美两国元首在阿根廷达成一项重要共识,即同意通过磋商来解决经贸分歧,最终方向就是取消双方加征的所有关税。中方高度重视中美元首达成的共识,从维护两国经贸关系角度出发,我们始终保持理性和克制的态度,以最大的诚意和善意回应美方的关切。

Thank you. China has always showed our full sincerity toward the China-U.S. trade talks. It is irresponsible for the U.S. to accuse China of "backtracking" during the consultations. This is mud-slinging. During the consultations, and before reaching an agreement, everything we put on the table is only a discussion; there is no so-called "backtracking" since there is no deal yet. There is a saying on consultations, that "Nothing is agreed until everything is agreed." Last December, China and America's presidents reached an important consensus during their meeting in Argentina that economic and trade frictions will be resolved through consultation, with the ultimate objective of removing all tariffs imposed by the two sides. China is committed to the presidential consensus in the interest of China-U.S. economic and trade relations. China has always kept reasonable, exercised restraint and showed its full sincerity and kindness when responding to the concerns of the United States.

在磋商之中,美方提出的很多问题,中方都克服困难,提出务实的解决办法。但是,美方出尔反尔,得寸进尺,坚持不合理的高要价,坚持在协议中写入涉及中国主权事务的一些要求,而且坚持不取消经贸摩擦开始以来加征的全部关税,并且以提高加征关税的税率来施压,致使双边经贸摩擦升级,致使谈判严重受挫。大家从这些事实上可以看出来,孰是孰非,不证自明。

On many issues raised by the U.S. side during the consultations, China has overcome difficulties and come up with practical measures. However, when you give the U.S. an inch, they'll want a yard. The U.S. side insisted on unreasonably lofty requests. They insisted that some requirements that interfere with China's sovereignty should be included in the agreement. They also insisted that all tariffs imposed since the trade frictions started should remain in place. They also put pressure on China by raising the rate of tariffs, leading to the escalation of the bilateral economic and trade friction and the severe setback on the consultation. All of us can tell from the facts which side should be responsible for the current status of the negotiations.

中方强调,谈判要坚持相互尊重,相向而行,平等互利。相互尊重就是要尊重各自的主权和核心利益,相向而行就是双方都要体现互让互谅的精神,都要作出让步,不是一方作出让步。平等互利就是双方谈判的地位是平等的,谈判的结果应该是对双方都有好处的。如果一方不尊重另一方的主权和核心利益,想通过施压迫使对方作出让步,以取得只对一方有利的结果,这种谈判是不可能成功的。如果美方想通过极限施压、升级贸易摩擦的方式,逼迫中方屈服作出让步,那是决不可能的。谢谢。

China always stresses that consultations should be based on mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, and the two sides should meet each other halfway. By saying mutual respect, it means that each party should respect the other's sovereignty and core interests. We hope the U.S. can meet China halfway. With mutual understanding, both sides should compromise, instead of asking only one side to compromise. Equality and mutual benefit means that the two sides are on an equal footing and the results of the consultation should be beneficial to both sides. If one side doesn't respect the other side's sovereignty and core interests and tries to force the other side to compromise, negotiations cannot succeed. It is futile for the U.S. to exercise extreme pressure and other ways to escalate the trade frictions to force China to compromise. Thanks.

经济日报记者:

Economic Daily:

美方称,在中美经贸摩擦之中受损的主要是中方,对美方的影响不大,您对此怎么看?谢谢。

The U.S. claimed that trade frictions has hurt China more than it has the U.S. What is your point of view on this? Thank you.

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

贸易战没有赢家。美国对中国采取加征关税措施,不仅对中国有影响,对美国也会带来伤害,而且会损害全球经济发展。

There will be no winners in a trade war. The measure of imposing tariffs taken by the U.S. on Chinese goods has not only affected China, but also taken a toll on the U.S. and the global economy.

贸易限制措施对美方有多少影响,我想美国的研究最有说服力。比如说,美方声称“美国对中国有巨大的贸易逆差,通过贸易战可以减少美方的贸易逆差”。实际上,去年美国自己的统计,美国货物贸易逆差增长了10.4%,美国对中国大豆出口下降了50%,美国对中国的汽车出口也下降了20%以上。可以看出,贸易限制措施损害了美国工人的利益,损害了美国农民的利益。加征关税也损害了美国消费者的利益,国际货币基金组织的研究表明,美国对中国进口产品加征的关税基本上都是由美国消费者所承担,承担了多少呢?纽约联邦储备银行作的研究是,给每个美国家庭带来831美元的额外支出。贸易摩擦还将给美国的就业带来压力。美国智库“贸易伙伴”作出的一项研究表明,如果美国对来自中国的进口产品加征关税,那将使美国失去223万个就业机会。贸易限制措施对美国会带来损失,而且也会给世界经济带来影响。贸易摩擦扰乱了全球价值链,导致世界贸易秩序的紊乱,损害了全球投资者的信心。联合国贸发会议报告表明,2017年、2018年全球跨境投资都是下降的,而且是以两位数的幅度下降。美国挑起贸易摩擦,进一步损害了投资者的信心,对全球经济产生负面影响。谢谢。

I think the results from U.S. research are most convincing and compelling when it comes to assessing the impact of the trade restrictions on the U.S. For instance, the U.S. claims that because the U.S. suffers a huge trade deficit with China, the trade war could help narrow this deficit. The fact of the matter is that U.S. statistics last year showed that the U.S. goods trade deficit rose by 10.4 percent, the U.S. soybeans exports to China plunged by 50 percent, and the U.S. automobile exports to China decreased by more than 20 percent. It shows that the trade sanctions have hurt the interests of the U.S. workers and farmers. The sanctions have also hurt U.S. consumers as well. A report released by the International Monetary Fund found that the tariff revenue collected has been borne almost entirely by U.S. consumers. How much is that? A research by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York showed that every U.S. household has to pay $831 more as a result of the tariffs. The trade friction will also put pressure on U.S. employment. Trade Partnership, an U.S. based think tank, found in its research that if the U.S. increased tariffs on Chinese imported goods, the U.S. would lose 2.23 million jobs. The trade sanctions will hit the U.S. and the world economy as well. The trade friction has disrupted the global value chain, caused chaos in the trade order and dented confidence of investors across the world. A report by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development found that the global cross-border investment slipped in 2017 and 2018 by a two-digit rate. The trade friction caused by the U.S. has not only harmed consumers' confidence, but also the world economy. Thank you.

英国路透社记者:

Reuters:

本月在日本举行的G20峰会上,习近平主席是否会和特朗普总统会面?如果会面的话,他们两人将讨论哪些议题?尤其是哪些贸易议题?

I want to ask whether Xi Jinping will meet with Donald Trump at the G20 this month. And should they meet, what sorts of topics, what specific trade issues might they be talking about?

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

谢谢你的提问,我没有这方面的消息可以提供。

Thank you for your question. However, I have no information for you on this.

彭博新闻社记者:

Bloomberg:

在我看来,中方把谈判破裂的责任归咎于美方,请问中方希望美方作出什么样的姿态,来显示谈判的诚意,从而使得双方能够重新回到谈判桌?也就是说,下一步是否希望美国先作出一些举措,包括双方如何建立互信,来进一步推进磋商?第二个问题,请问刘鹤副总理是否计划出席下周在日本举行的G20贸易部长会?是否中方和美方的谈判磋商团队在这个过程中有相关的接触,包括易纲行长是否会在出席G20相关会议期间与美方进行接触?

It seems to me from what you said today that you blame the U.S. for the breakdown of the talks. What gestures or what kind of statements of sincerity does the U.S. have to do to bring China back to the table? Is the next step, from your perspective, that the U.S. having to make the next move? Or is there some kind of trust building that you could go through? My second question is will Liu He be going to the trade ministerial meeting in Tsukuba in Japan next week? And if not, will there be any contact between the U.S. and Chinese negotiation teams either in Tsukuba or the finance ministerial meeting which Yi Gang will be attending? Thank you.

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

谢谢你的提问。中美经贸磋商已经进行了11轮。在第11轮磋商期间,美方将从中国进口的2000亿美元商品加征关税税率由10%提高到25%,随后美方又对来自中国的3000亿美元商品启动加征关税的程序。美方还滥用出口管制措施,将中国一些企业纳入出口管制实体清单,不断升级贸易摩擦,使经贸磋商严重受挫,责任完全应该是美方承担的。

Thank you for your question. China and the U.S. have held 11 rounds of high-level economic and trade consultations. During the 11th round, the U.S. took the step of raising the tariff from 10% to 25% on a total of Chinese goods valued at $200 billion. It also announced it had launched procedures for additional tariffs on other Chinese goods worth around $300 billion. The U.S. also misused its export control, listing against some Chinese companies. These actions have ratcheted up the trade friction and represent a severe setback to the consultations. The U.S. government should bear the sole responsibility for this.

中美两国元首在阿根廷达成重要共识,同意双方停止相互加征新的关税,加紧开展磋商,方向是取消各自加征的所有关税。现在出现了这些新的情况,都是美方造成的。

The two presidents reached an important consensus in Argentina, agreeing to stop imposing additional tariffs and step up consultations towards the removal of those additions already made. However, events have taken a new turn recently, for which the U.S. side should bear sole responsibility.

你提到在日本筑波举行的G20贸易部长会议,中方肯定有代表出席。谢谢。

As to your second question, China will send representatives to the coming G20 Ministerial Meeting on Trade and Digital Economy in Tsukuba. Thank you.

中央广播电视总台央广记者:

CNR:

过去一段时间,美方一直指责中国公司用各种方法从美国获得有价值的技术和知识产权,并认为是中国政府指使企业投资收购美国企业,来获得这些尖端技术和知识产权的,请问您对此有何回应?

The U.S. has accused Chinese companies of obtaining valuable technologies and intellectual property from America through various ways, and believed that the Chinese government has directed companies to invest in American companies to acquire these cutting-edge technologies and intellectual property. What is your response?

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

谢谢你的提问。中国在知识产权保护方面作了大量工作,已成为越来越重要的知识产权大国。比如去年,中国提出的发明专利申请达到150多万件,已经连续8年名列世界第一。当然,中国在自己发明创造的同时,也和其他国家开展了知识产权贸易,我们从其他国家购买知识产权,也向其他国家出口知识产权。就购买来说,中国在2001年支付的知识产权使用费只有19亿美元,去年支付的知识产权使用费已达到356亿美元,增长了将近19倍。其中,我们向美国支付的知识产权使用费达到86.4亿美元,占我们购买知识产权总额的将近1/4。

Thank you for your question. China has done a lot of work in intellectual property rights protection and has increasingly become an important nation that leads on intellectual property. Last year, for example, China filed more than 1.5 million utility patent applications, ranking first in the world for eight consecutive years. Of course, while China is inventing and creating, it also trades intellectual property with other countries. We buy intellectual property rights from other countries and also export them to other countries. In terms of purchases, China paid $1.9 billion in intellectual property royalties in 2001, but paid $35.6 billion last year, that's a nearly 19-fold increase. Of that amount, we paid $8.64 billion to the United States, nearly a quarter of our total intellectual property purchases.

所以可以看出,中国非常重视知识产权保护,才会使自己的发明越来越多,才会有其他国家的企业愿意把他们的知识产权卖给中国。中国在知识产权立法、司法、执法等方面做了大量工作,才出现了这样一个可喜的现象。中国政府并不参与中国企业从国外购买知识产权或者向国外出口知识产权,中国政府做的就是要创造一个尊重知识、保护知识产权的好的环境,这样能够促进知识产权的产生,使之得到更好地保护,促进创新型经济的发展。

Therefore, this shows that China attaches great importance to the protection of intellectual property, so that more and more inventions of its own can be made and companies from other countries will be willing to sell their intellectual property to China. China has done a lot of work in intellectual property legislation, justice, and law enforcement, so that is a welcome development. The Chinese government is not involved in the acts of Chinese companies buying or exporting intellectual property abroad. What the Chinese government does is to create an environment that respects and protects intellectual property rights. This will promote the creation of intellectual property and better protect it. It's also good for the development of an innovative economy.

你刚才还提到,有人说“中国政府指使中国企业去美国购买企业,以获得先进技术”,我觉得这不是事实。中国企业到国外投资,投资什么项目,购买什么,或者不购买什么,完全是企业自己的决定,企业自负盈亏,自主决策,自担风险,中国政府不参与企业的具体商业行为,不会指使或者要求企业去投资什么项目,或者购买什么技术。谢谢。

You mentioned earlier that some people said that "the Chinese government directs Chinese companies to invest in American companies to acquire advanced technologies." I don't think this is true. When Chinese companies invest abroad, what projects to invest in and what to buy or not to buy are entirely their own decisions, they are responsible for their own profits and losses, and make independent decisions at their own risk. The Chinese government is not involved in the specific commercial activities of companies. It does not direct or require companies to invest in any projects or buy any technologies. Thank you.

凤凰卫视记者:

Phoenix TV:

我们看到从去年3月到现在,贸易摩擦已经持续了一年多,从出发点来看,美方在很多场合包括在特朗普竞选以及他就任之后的很多场合都特别强调的是,美国对华贸易当中有巨大的逆差,甚至有数字达到5000亿美元,说美国损失了数百万的制造业岗位,认为美国在中美贸易过程当中是吃亏的状态,中方在过去这些谈判当中是如何回应美方这样的声音,中方对这样的声音做怎样的评论?谢谢。

The trade row has been lasting since March last year. The United States, on many occasions, including during Donald Trump's presidential election campaign and after he took office, has stressed that the US has a huge deficit in its trade with China, which is as high as $500 billion, and saying that the US has lost millions of jobs in its manufacturing industry, and the US has suffered losses in its trade with China. How do you respond to, and comment on these voices? Thanks.

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

我注意到经常有一些言论说中美贸易中,中方有巨大的顺差,美方吃亏了。实际上,贸易顺差还是逆差,和吃亏、占便宜没有关系。比如说,美国对澳大利亚有贸易顺差,澳大利亚对中国有贸易顺差,中国对美国有贸易顺差。大家可以看出这个循环里有贸易顺差,也有贸易逆差,那谁吃亏、谁占便宜了呢?

I have heard these voices, claiming the U.S. suffers huge deficits in trading with China. In fact, whether it is trade deficit or surplus is not related to one side's loss or of being taken advantage of by the other. For instance, the US maintains surplus in its trade with Australia, while Australia enjoys a surplus with China, and China with the U.S. In this circulatory process, there are trade surpluses as well as deficits. Then who loses? And who gains an extra advantage by unfair means?  

所以,不能简单地说贸易顺差、逆差和吃亏、占便宜有关系。你提到有人说美国对中国的贸易有巨额的逆差,实际情况是美国的数字有严重的高估成份,比如“去年美国对华货物贸易逆差达到4192亿美元”,这4192亿美元是否准确呢?中美两国商务部之间建立了统计合作小组,根据这个统计合作小组对中美贸易数据所做的研究,发现美方的贸易逆差数字通常要高估20%,所以这个数字是需要打折的。同时我们还要考虑,在中美贸易当中,有很多是加工贸易。在加工贸易里面,中国进口其他国家或者经济体的零部件,在中国组装,之后再出口到美国,这个顺差也不应该算到中国头上。

It cannot be simply concluded that there is any relationship between trade surpluses and profiting at the expense of the others, or between trade deficit and suffering unfair losses. You mentioned the huge American deficit in trade with China. In fact, the US seriously overestimates its trade deficit with China. For instance, the U.S. sets its trade deficit in goods with China at $419.2 billion. However, is that figure of $419.2 billion accurate? According to research of a statistics team formed between the commerce ministries of China and the U.S., the American figure is usually 20 percent higher than the actual level. So, it is necessary to somewhat discount the US data. Meanwhile, we need to consider that, in Sino-U.S. trade, there are large amounts of processing trade, in which China imports parts from other countries or economies and assembles them before exporting the finished products to the United States. So, China's trade surplus with the U.S. should not be all identified as being China's gain.

此外,我们还要考虑中美服务贸易的情况,货物贸易中方有顺差,但是在服务贸易方面,按照美国的统计,美国对中国有巨大的顺差。把这些因素都考虑进去,我们的结论是,中美货物贸易、服务贸易最终加在一起,美方的逆差只有1500多亿美元,根本不是所谓的4100多亿美元。即便说到这1500多亿美元的逆差,也不能说美国就吃亏、中国就占便宜了。因为在中国对美贸易顺差中,有54%是外资企业,有53%是加工贸易。在加工贸易中,中方获得的利益是加工费,美方获得的利益是什么呢?产品是美方设计的,美方提供了很多关键零部件,并负责营销,所以美方从中得到了巨大的利益。当中国产品出口到美国的时候,由于价格有优势,降低了美国消费者的购买成本,而且还带动了美国在批发、零售、物流等行业的大量就业。所以,不能说从中国进口产品损害了美国的利益。

Besides, we should take the bilateral trade in services into account. China does indeed have a surplus in goods trade with the U.S. However, according to American estimates, it maintains a huge surplus in services. If all these factors are considered, our conclusion is that, combining the trade in goods and services, the American deficit is only $150 billion, nothing like the alleged $410 billion-plus. Even the $150 billion trade deficit cannot be interpreted as China using unfair means to gain at American expense. This is because in China's trade surplus with the United States, 54 percent stems from the activities of foreign ventures, and 53 percent from processing industry trade. In the latter, China only profits from the processing costs. What does America gain? The products are designed by the U.S., and many key parts are provided by the U.S., which is also in charge of marketing. So, the U.S. side also obtains huge profits from China's trade surplus. When Chinese commodities are exported to the United States, because of their cost advantage, they help lower the burden on American consumers, and helps create a lot of jobs in the wholesale, retail and logistics sectors on the American side. So, it cannot be simply said that imports from China harm American interests.

你提到从中国进口导致了美国制造业就业岗位的丧失,实际上美国自己的研究机构表明,美国制造业就业机会的减少,在中国加入世贸组织之前就已经发生了,主要是因为科技进步、劳动生产率提高,导致了美国制造业就业减少,把这归咎于中国,是毫无根据、毫无道理的。实际上,美国自己的经济结构发生了变化,制造业就业机会减少,服务业就业在增长,这使今天美国失业率达到了几十年来最低。所以我们讲,中美贸易不管是服务贸易还是货物贸易,不管是谁在哪个行业有顺差,在哪个行业有逆差,中美贸易是互利双赢的,对世界也是有好处的。谢谢。

You mentioned that imports from China have destroyed American manufacturing jobs. In fact, some U.S. research institutes assert that the country started losing manufacturing jobs before China entered the World Trade Organization in 2001. The main reason for this is the advancement of science and technology and the improvement in labor productivity. It is baseless and totally unreasonable to blame China. The American economic structure has changed. Although there are fewer jobs in manufacturing, jobs in the service sector have seen a steady rise, and this has brought the unemployment rate in the U.S. today down to a level not seen for decades. So, whether in service trade or goods trade, no matter who has surplus or deficit on one or the other, Sino-U.S. trade is mutually beneficial and is good for the world as well. Thanks. 

美国有线电视新闻CNN记者:

CNN:

我们注意到,中方最近在言论或者立场上都有日趋强硬的趋势,在贸易战的问题上,包括官员和媒体不停提到的稀土,也看到上周宣布了不可靠实体清单的出台,在美国有人说这个清单言语表达模糊,会让中国政府通过不透明的方式来打击美国科技业巨头以及其他美国企业,包括这几天中国媒体一直提到的联邦快递。也有人从在加拿大逮捕华为高管之后,两名加拿大公民在华逮捕的事件,觉得中国政府开始瞄准美国企业在华高管以及美国公民,来采取类似措施。美国不少人士对美国商业和投资利益以及在中国的人身安全保障产生顾虑和担忧,您对此有什么回应?可不可以对中国打贸易战下一步的战略战术作出一个澄清和解释?谢谢。

It has been noticed that China's comments or stance have become increasingly tougher. While talking about the trade war, officials and media outlets have all mentioned the rare earths issue. And, China announced its "unreliable entity list" on Friday. Some Americans say China remains vague on the list, which gives the Chinese government an opaque means to attack U.S. giants in science and technology, as well as other enterprises. The Chinese media also mentioned FedEx. After Huawei's senior executive was detained in Canada and China detained two Canadian citizens in China, some people feel that the Chinese government will take similar measures targeting at U.S. companies in China as well as American citizens. Some Americans worry about their commercial and investment interests, as well as their personal safety in China. How do you respond to these? Could you clarify and explain China's strategies and tactics in the future trade war? Thank you.

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

谢谢你的提问。中国对待贸易摩擦的立场是非常清楚的,就是中方不愿意打,但是不怕打。我们认为,你提出的这些现象,可能有过度解读的因素。比如说FedEx这件事,中方欢迎外资企业在中国进行合法经营,但是如果违反中国的法律,就需要按照中国的法律进行调查,这是无可厚非的。中国前不久出台了《外商投资法》,强调要一律平等、一视同仁地对待中国投资者和外国投资者,外国投资者的合法利益都会得到保护,所以在这方面,大家不用担心。但是,所有企业都必须要遵守中国的法律,尊重中国的法律,在中国法律的框架内经营。

Thanks for your questions. China's stance on trade frictions is crystal clear - China is not willing to fight, but does not fear fighting. As to what you have said, we think, some of it is being over-interpreted. For instance, as for the FedEx incident, China welcomes foreign enterprises that abide by laws in their operation in China. However, if they violate Chinese laws, we should conduct investigation according to the law. China has just passed its Foreign Investment Law, and stresses that all Chinese and foreign investors in China will be treated equally without discrimination, and foreign investors' lawful rights and interests can be well protected. In this regard, people should feel well assured. However, all companies must abide by Chinese laws, respect Chinese laws, and do business under the framework of Chinese laws.

你提到的不可靠实体清单,我的同事前天已经作了介绍。不可靠实体清单主要针对一些企业违背市场原则、违背契约精神,出于非商业目的对中国企业进行断供或者封锁,给中国企业的合法权利造成损害,可能还会危及中国国家安全和社会公共利益,对这样一些实体,将其列入不可靠实体清单,也是为了保护企业之间稳定、公平、可持续的贸易秩序。所以,对这一点不必过度解读。谢谢。 

As for the unreliable entity list, my colleagues have explained about this the day before yesterday. It mainly targets those enterprises, organizations and individuals that violate market principles, the spirit of contracts, block or cut supplies to Chinese firms for non-commercial reasons, and that in some way violate the legal rights and interests of Chinese enterprises, and harm China's national security and public interests. These entities will be added to the list. The purpose is to protect stable, equitable and sustainable trade order between enterprises. So, there is no need to exaggerate this point. Thanks.

中国国际电视台CGTN记者:

CGTN:

首先,中方为什么在这个时间点发布这样一个《关于中美经贸磋商的中方立场》白皮书,这其中有什么深意?我们知道在6月1日,中方也加征了对于源于美国部分商品的进口关税,中方想表达一个什么样的态度?谢谢。

First, why does China choose to issue the White Paper of China's Position on the China-US Economic and Trade Consultations at this time? What is the significance of it? We know that China increased tariffs on some imported American products from June 1. What kind of message is China trying to send by doing so? Thanks.

郭卫民:

Guo Weimin:

我先回答第一个问题,关于为什么在这个时候发表白皮书。这段时间以来,中美经贸磋商是中美高度关注、也是国际社会高度关注的问题,所以有必要全面介绍一下中美经贸磋商的情况,阐明中国政府的有关立场。我想,现在这个时机是很合适的,发表白皮书是十分必要的,我想先作这样一个回应。

I will answer the first question as to why choose this moment to issue the White Paper. Recently, the China-U.S. economic and trade consultations have received great attention from China and the United States, as well as the international community. It is necessary to offer a comprehensive report on the situations of the consultations and to expound on the stance of the Chinese government on the issue. I think the timing is appropriate and the issuance of the White Paper is of vital importance. This is my answer to the question.

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

谢谢你的提问。中方6月1日对来自美国的一些进口产品提高关税,这完全是为了应对美方升级贸易限制措施作出的必要的、合理的反应。为了捍卫国家利益、人民群众的利益和中国企业的利益,我们需要采取这样的措施。谢谢。

Thank you for your question. China did increase tariffs on some of the imported American products from June 1. This is a necessary and reasonable response to the escalation of the trade protection actions taken by the U.S. side. We need such measures to protect the rights of the nation, the rights of the people and the rights of Chinese companies. Thank you.

中国日报记者:

China Daily:

近期有中介组织发布报告称,在华经营的美国企业正面临着通关速度变慢、检查变多、许可审批延迟等问题,请问您对此如何评价?另外,商务部在本周发布中国将建立不可靠实体清单制度,请问这一制度目前进展如何?谢谢。

Recently, an intermediary organization said in a report that some U.S. companies in China are facing challenges such as slower customs clearance, more inspections and delayed approvals for licenses. What's your comment on this report? Moreover, the Ministry of Commerce said on Friday that China will establish a list of unreliable entities. How is this system progressing? Thank you.

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

谢谢你的提问。你提到的这个报告,我也注意到了。有一些企业反映,在中国的通关速度变慢了,有一些审批时间长了。对这样一些问题,现在我还不知道它是否是真实的、具体的情况,但是我们已经在认真进行调查了解。可以告诉你的是,我们在通关便利化方面采取了很多措施,减少了在进出口通关环节的单证要求,原来是80多件,现在已经减成了40多件,下一步我们还要继续减少。我们还在加快这些单证的处理时间,减少通关时间。同时,也要相应减少通关过程中企业所需要支付的费用。在货物进出口通关方面,中方采取的这些便利化措施可以说效果是很明显的。去年世界银行营商环境报告里面就反映了这一点。

Thanks for your question. I've also noticed the report that you mentioned, saying that some enterprises are experiencing slower customs clearance and longer waits for approvals for licenses in China. I'm not sure whether these problems are true or not, and we need to figure out the details of this situation. But we have already been investigating seriously for more information. I want to stress that China has adopted many measures to simplify its customs clearance process. The number of customs clearance document required for imports and exports has been reduced from more than 80 to more than 40, and this number will further decrease in the future. We are also working on speeding up the handling of these documents so as to reduce the overall time on customs clearance. At the same time, we also aim to cut the expenses paid by enterprises in clearing customs. These facilitation measures that China has adopted are very effective, which was reflected in the World Bank's Doing Business Report last year.

你讲到一些审批方面的事,中国不断深化“放管服”改革的步伐,我们也采取了一系列措施。前不久,相关部委又发布了一项通知,要进一步减少工业产品生产许可证和产品强制性认证种类。要让市场发挥更大的作用,让政府有更多精力做好必须要做的一些监管工作。企业遇到的这些具体问题,也可以向当地商务部门反映。中国整体的营商环境是好的,但是企业可能会遇到一些具体的问题,我建议他们向当地商务部门反映,甚至可以寻求投诉机制帮助。中国刚刚通过的《外商投资法》就确定了要建立健全外商投诉机制,现在已经有这样的外商投诉机制,对个案反映出来的问题,建议他们通过投诉机制反映。

China has been constantly deepening its reforms to delegate power, streamlining its administration and optimizing government services through a series of measures in regards to the aspects of examination and approval you raised. Recently, the relevant authorities have issued a notice to further reduce production permits for industrial goods and types of compulsory certifications for products. This is to enable the market to play a bigger role and allow the government to pay more attention to the supervision and administration work which is something that the government must do. For the specific problems confronted by the companies, they can report them to the local commercial authorities. In general, the business environment in China is good, but for the specific issues encountered by certain companies, I suggest they report to the local commercial authorities, or even use the complaint reporting system. According to China's new Foreign Investment Law passed in March, China will establish and improve the complaints mechanism for foreign companies. With the establishment of the complaints mechanism, I suggest that those enterprises report their specific issues through this channel.

至于你问到不可靠实体清单制度进展情况,有关措施会在近期公布。谢谢。

As for the progress of the list of unreliable entities you've asked about, the relevant measures will be released soon. Thank you.

新加坡联合早报记者:

Lianhe Zaobao:

请问会不会把华为纳入经贸磋商?会不会使用限制出口稀土来反制美国?第三个问题,也是关于不可靠实体清单,请问被列入这个清单的后果是什么?谢谢。

Is it possible that Huawei will be included in the economic and trade consultations? Will China put some restrictions on the exports of rare earth metals to counter the U.S.? The third question is also about the list of unreliable entities. What will be the consequences for an enterprise if it is on the list? Thank you.

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

关于不可靠实体清单,我刚刚已经回答了,具体措施近期会公布。

Regarding the list of unreliable entities, I've answered earlier, the specific measures will be published soon.

关于稀土的问题,中国作为世界上稀土资源最丰富的国家,我们愿意满足其他国家对稀土的正当需求。但是,如果有国家利用中国出口的稀土所制造的产品,打压中国的发展,于情于理这都是难以接受的。

Regarding the rare earth metals, China, being the country with the largest reserves of rare earth metals in the world, is willing to meet justified demands of other countries. However, if some countries use China's rare earth metals to produce products to contain China's development, it is unacceptable. 

至于中美经贸磋商,我刚刚已经提及,经贸磋商要相互尊重,要相向而行,要平等互利。如果做不到这些,磋商没有意义。即便磋商了,也谈不出一个可执行、可持续的协议。谢谢。

Regarding the U.S.-China economic and trade consultations, as I mentioned earlier, it should be based on the principles of mutual respect, equality, mutual benefit and both sides should meet each other halfway. Consultations would be pointless if they are not based on these principles. Without this, we would not be able to reach an enforceable and sustainable agreement in consultations. Thank you.

郭卫民:

Guo Weimin:

最后一个问题。 

The last question.

新华社记者:

Xinhua News Agency:

目前大家都很关心接下来中美经贸谈判的走势,美方在早些时候也表示,在6月份G20峰会上,中美两国元首将会面,舆论也普遍认为这是双方重启谈判的关键。请问王受文副部长,目前双方工作层面是否有接触?是否有谈判的计划?如果有的话,中方将接受怎样的贸易协议?谢谢。

At present, everyone is very concerned about the development of the China-U.S. economic and trade negotiations. The U.S. side also stated earlier that the leaders of China and the United States will meet in June at the G20 summit, which the public generally believe to be a key for both sides to restart negotiations. May I ask Mr. Wang, is there any contact at the working level between the two sides? Is there a plan for negotiations? If so, what kind of trade agreement will China accept? Thank you.

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

谢谢。我刚才说了,中美经贸磋商严重受挫的原因,是因为美国将中国输美的2000亿美元商品加征关税的税率由10%提升到25%,随后又启动了对中国3000亿美元输美商品加征关税的程序。美国还滥用国家安全例外,将中国的一些企业纳入到出口管制实体清单,这是双方经贸摩擦升级的原因。中方对谈判一直是抱有诚意的,如果我们要达成协议,这个协议必须是互利的、平等的。如果要磋商,我再重复一下,双方的磋商必须相互尊重,必须相向而行,必须平等互利。谢谢。

Thank you. As I just mentioned, the reason for the serious setback in the China-U.S. economic and trade consultations is because the United States has raised the additional tariffs on $200 billion of Chinese exports to the U.S. from 10 percent to 25 percent, and then launched procedures to slap additional tariffs on remaining Chinese goods, which are worth around $300 billion. The United States also abuses its national security exceptions and added some Chinese companies onto its list of export control entities, which is the reason for the escalation of economic and trade frictions between the two sides. China has always been sincere in the negotiations. We want to reach an agreement that is mutually beneficial and equal. Allow me to repeat, that if consultations are needed, the two sides involved must respect each other, and work together to meet each other halfway; the consultations must be equal and mutually beneficial. Thank you.

郭卫民:

Guo Weimin:

今天的发布会到此结束,谢谢各位。

This concludes today's press conference. Thank you.

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