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关于2018年中央和地方预算执行情况与2019年中央和地方预算草案的报告


来源:en84    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2019-03-19 08:16   点击: 次  

关于2018年中央和地方预算执行情况与2019年中央和地方预算草案的报告

Report on the Execution of the Central and Local Budgets for 2018 and on the Draft Central and Local Budgets for 2019

——2019年3月5日在第十三届全国人民代表大会第二次会议上

Second Session of the 13th National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China

March 5, 2019

财政部

Ministry of Finance

各位代表:

Esteemed Deputies,

受国务院委托,现将2018年中央和地方预算执行情况与2019年中央和地方预算草案提请十三届全国人大二次会议审议,并请全国政协各位委员提出意见。

The Ministry of Finance has been entrusted by the State Council to submit this report on the execution of the central and local budgets for 2018 and on the draft central and local budgets for 2019 to the present Second Session of the 13th National People’s Congress (NPC) for your deliberation and for comments from members of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).

一、2018年中央和地方预算执行情况

I. Execution of the 2018 Central and Local Budgets

2018年是全面贯彻党的十九大精神的开局之年。在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,各地区各部门以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,深入贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中全会精神,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,按照高质量发展要求,落实党中央、国务院决策部署,严格执行十三届全国人大一次会议审查批准的预算,保持了经济持续健康发展和社会大局稳定,朝着实现全面建成小康社会的目标迈出了新的步伐。中央和地方预算执行情况较好。

The year 2018 was the first year of fully implementing the guiding principles from the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC). Under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, all localities and departments followed the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, thoroughly put into practice the guiding principles from the Party’s 19th National Congress and the second and third plenary sessions of the 19th Party Central Committee, and remained committed to the general principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability. With due consideration to the requirements of high-quality development, we implemented the policy decisions and plans of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, and acted in strict accordance with the budgets reviewed and approved by the First Session of the 13th NPC. As a result, we have maintained sustained and healthy economic development and overall social stability, and have taken new strides toward achieving our goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Execution of both central and local budgets was satisfactory.

(一)2018年一般公共预算收支情况。

General public budgetary revenue and expenditure in 2018

1.全国一般公共预算。

1) National general public budget

全国一般公共预算收入183351.84亿元,为预算的100.1%,比2017年同口径(下同)增长6.2%。加上调入资金及使用结转结余14772.77亿元(包括中央和地方财政从预算稳定调节基金、政府性基金预算、国有资本经营预算调入资金,以及地方财政使用结转结余资金),收入总量为198124.61亿元。全国一般公共预算支出220906.07亿元,完成预算的105.3%,增长8.7%。加上补充中央预算稳定调节基金1018.54亿元,支出总量为221924.61亿元。收支总量相抵,赤字23800亿元,与预算持平。

Revenue in the national general public budget reached 18.335184 trillion yuan, representing 100.1% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 6.2% over 2017. With the addition of 1.477277 trillion yuan of funds from other sources and utilized carryover and surplus funds (namely, funds transferred from the Central Budget Stabilization Fund and local budget stabilization funds, the budgets of central and local government-managed funds, and the budgets of central and local government state capital operations; and carryover and surplus funds used by local governments), the total revenue rose to 19.812461 trillion yuan.

Expenditure in the national general public budget reached 22.090607 trillion yuan, representing 105.3% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 8.7%. With the addition of 101.854 billion yuan used to replenish the Central Budget Stabilization Fund, the total expenditure rose to 22.192461 trillion yuan. Total expenditure therefore exceeded total revenue, leaving a deficit of 2.38 trillion yuan, which is consistent with the figure projected.

2018年我国经济运行总体平稳、稳中有进,全国一般公共预算收入保持增长。1-4月增长12.9%,随着5月1日起实施增值税减税措施,出台支持小微企业发展税收优惠政策,10月1日起提高个人所得税基本减除费用标准并适用新的税率表,以及经济出现新的下行压力等,5-12月收入增幅放缓至2.6%。从收入构成看,税收收入156400.52亿元,增长8.3%,占一般公共预算收入比重提高至85.3%;非税收入26951.32亿元,下降4.7%,占一般公共预算收入比重为14.7%。

Throughout 2018, China was able to achieve overall economic stability while also ensuring progress, and revenue in the national general public budget saw continued growth. The growth rate was 12.9% from January to April. As a combined result of measures on reducing value added tax (VAT) effective from May 1, preferential tax policies issued to support the development of small and micro businesses, the rise of the individual income tax threshold (basic standard deduction) and application of the new tax rate table starting from October 1, and new downward pressure on the economy, the revenue growth rate from May to December slowed to 2.6%. In terms of revenue composition, tax revenue totaled 15.640052 trillion yuan, an increase of 8.3% and rising to 85.3% as a proportion of national general public budget revenue; non-tax revenue totaled 2.695132 trillion yuan, a decrease of 4.7% and accounting for 14.7% of revenue in the national general public budget.

2.中央一般公共预算。

2) Central general public budget

中央一般公共预算收入85447.34亿元,为预算的100.1%,增长5.3%。加上从中央预算稳定调节基金调入2130亿元,从中央政府性基金预算、中央国有资本经营预算调入323亿元,收入总量为87900.34亿元。中央一般公共预算支出102381.8亿元,完成预算的99.1%,增长7.7%,其中,本级支出32707.81亿元,完成预算的100.7%,增长8.8%;对地方税收返还和转移支付69673.99亿元,完成预算的99%,增长7.2%。加上补充中央预算稳定调节基金1018.54亿元,支出总量为103400.34亿元。收支总量相抵,中央财政赤字15500亿元,与预算持平。

Revenue in the central government’s general public budget reached 8.544734 trillion yuan, representing 100.1% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 5.3% over 2017. Adding in contributions of 213 billion yuan from the Central Budget Stabilization Fund and 32.3 billion yuan from the budgets of central government-managed funds and central government state capital operations, the total revenue amounted to 8.790034 trillion yuan.

Expenditure in the central government’s general public budget totaled 10.23818 trillion yuan, representing 99.1% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 7.7%. Within this total figure, central government expenditure reached 3.270781 trillion yuan, representing 100.7% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 8.8%; tax rebates and transfer payments from central to local governments reached 6.967399 trillion yuan, representing 99% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 7.2%. With the addition of 101.854 billion yuan contributed to the Central Budget Stabilization Fund, the total expenditure reached 10.340034 trillion yuan. Total expenditure exceeded total revenue, leaving a deficit of 1.55 trillion yuan, which is consistent with the figure projected.

中央一般公共预算主要收入项目具体情况是:国内增值税30753.04亿元,为预算的104%。国内消费税10631.75亿元,为预算的100.6%。进口货物增值税、消费税16878.75亿元,为预算的98.9%。关税2847.75亿元,为预算的90.7%。企业所得税22241.81亿元,为预算的101.6%。个人所得税8324.41亿元,为预算的107.4%。出口货物退增值税、消费税15913.45亿元,为预算的107.7%。

Main revenue items in the central government’s general public budget: Domestic VAT revenue was 3.075304 trillion yuan, 104% of the budgeted figure. Domestic excise tax revenue amounted to 1.063175 trillion yuan, 100.6% of the budgeted figure. Revenue from VAT and excise tax on imports totaled 1.687875 trillion yuan, 98.9% of the budgeted figure. Revenue from customs duties came to 284.775 billion yuan, 90.7% of the budgeted figure. Corporate income tax revenue was 2.224181 trillion yuan, 101.6% of the budgeted figure. Individual income tax revenue was 832.441 billion yuan, 107.4% of the budgeted figure. VAT and excise tax rebates on exports totaled 1.591345 trillion yuan, 107.7% of the budgeted figure.

中央一般公共预算本级主要支出项目具体情况是:一般公共服务支出1503.68亿元,完成预算的103.4%。外交支出583.37亿元,完成预算的97.1%。国防支出11069.7亿元,完成预算的100%。公共安全支出2041.51亿元,完成预算的102.5%。教育支出1731.23亿元,完成预算的101.2%。科学技术支出3120.27亿元,完成预算的100.2%。粮油物资储备支出1375.64亿元,完成预算的100.3%。债务付息支出4161.65亿元,完成预算的97.1%。

Main expenditures in the central government’s general public budget: General public service expenditures reached 150.368 billion yuan, 103.4% of the budgeted figure. Spending on foreign affairs totaled 58.337 billion yuan, 97.1% of the budgeted figure. National defense spending was 1.10697 trillion yuan, 100% of the budgeted figure. Public security expenses totaled 204.151 billion yuan, 102.5% of the budgeted figure. Spending on education came to 173.123 billion yuan, 101.2% of the budgeted figure. Spending on science and technology amounted to 312.027 billion yuan, 100.2% of the budgeted figure. Spending on stockpiling grain, edible oils, and other materials was 137.564 billion yuan, 100.3% of the budgeted figure. Interest payments on debt reached 416.165 billion yuan, 97.1% of the budgeted figure.

中央对地方税收返还和转移支付具体情况是:税收返还7987.86亿元,完成预算的98.2%。一般性转移支付38759.04亿元,完成预算的99.4%,占转移支付总额的比重提高至62.8%。专项转移支付22927.09亿元,完成预算的98.8%。

Central government tax rebates and transfer payments made to local governments: Tax rebates came to 798.786 billion yuan, 98.2% of the projected figure. General transfer payments reached 3.875904 trillion yuan, making up 99.4% of the budgeted figure and rising to 62.8% as a proportion of total transfer payments. Special transfer payments reached 2.292709 trillion yuan, 98.8% of the budgeted figure.

2018年中央一般公共预算收入超收90.34亿元和支出结余928.2亿元,全部转入中央预算稳定调节基金。中央预备费预算500亿元,实际支出17.48亿元,主要用于支持地方加强非洲猪瘟防控等方面,剩余482.52亿元(已包含在上述支出结余928.2亿元中)全部转入中央预算稳定调节基金。2018年末,中央预算稳定调节基金余额3763.99亿元。

In 2018, the extra 9.034 billion yuan of revenue in the central general public budget and the 92.82 billion yuan underspent were transferred in full to the Central Budget Stabilization Fund. Central government reserve funds budgeted for 2018 amounted to 50 billion yuan. Of this, actual spending was only 1.748 billion yuan, which was mainly used to support local governments in strengthening prevention and control of African swine fever, and in other areas. The 48.252 billion-yuan surplus (already included in the afore-mentioned 92.82 billion yuan underspent) was transferred in full to the Central Budget Stabilization Fund. At the end of 2018, the Central Budget Stabilization Fund had a balance of 376.399 billion yuan.

3.地方一般公共预算。

3) Local general public budget

地方一般公共预算收入167578.49亿元,其中,本级收入97904.5亿元,增长7%;中央对地方税收返还和转移支付收入69673.99亿元。加上地方财政从地方预算稳定调节基金、政府性基金预算、国有资本经营预算调入资金及使用结转结余12319.77亿元,收入总量为179898.26亿元。地方一般公共预算支出188198.26亿元,增长8.7%。收支总量相抵,地方财政赤字8300亿元,与预算持平。

Revenue in the local general public budget reached 16.757849 trillion yuan. This figure included 9.79045 trillion yuan in local government revenue, which is an increase of 7% over 2017, and 6.967399 trillion yuan in tax rebates and transfer payments from the central government. With the addition of 1.231977 trillion yuan of funds transferred from local budget stabilization funds, local government-managed funds, and the local state capital operations budget as well as utilized carryover and surplus funds, the total revenue reached 17.989826 trillion yuan. Expenditures in the local general public budget totaled 18.819826 trillion yuan, representing an increase of 8.7%. Total expenditure exceeded total revenue, creating a local government deficit of 830 billion yuan, which is consistent with the figure projected.

(二)2018年政府性基金预算收支情况。

2. Budgetary revenue and expenditure of government-managed funds in 2018

按照地方政府债务管理有关规定,地方政府专项债务收支纳入政府性基金预算管理。

In accordance with the relevant regulations for management of local government debt, revenue and expenditure generated from local government special debt are included in the budgets of government-managed funds.

全国政府性基金收入75404.5亿元,增长22.6%。加上2017年结转收入385.59亿元和地方政府发行专项债券筹集收入13500亿元,全国政府性基金相关收入为89290.09亿元。全国政府性基金相关支出80562.07亿元,增长32.1%。

Revenue of China’s government-managed funds in 2018 reached 7.54045 trillion yuan, a rise of 22.6%. Adding 38.559 billion yuan carried over from 2017 and 1.35 trillion yuan raised through local government issuance of special purpose bonds, the total revenue amounted to 8.929009 trillion yuan. Expenditure of government-managed funds totaled 8.056207 trillion yuan, an increase of 32.1%.

中央政府性基金收入4032.65亿元,为预算的104.4%,增长4.2%。加上2017年结转收入385.59亿元,收入总量为4418.24亿元。中央政府性基金支出4021.55亿元,完成预算的94.7%,增长8.4%,其中,本级支出3089.29亿元,对地方转移支付932.26亿元。调入一般公共预算1.46亿元。中央政府性基金收大于支395.23亿元,其中,结转下年继续使用358.24亿元;单项政府性基金结转超过当年收入30%的部分合计36.99亿元,按规定补充中央预算稳定调节基金。

Revenue of central government-managed funds reached 403.265 billion yuan, representing 104.4% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 4.2%. With the additional 38.559 billion yuan carried forward from 2017, the total revenue rose to 441.824 billion yuan. Expenditure of central government-managed funds totaled 402.155 billion yuan, representing 94.7% of the budgeted figure and an 8.4% increase. Broken down, this figure included 308.929 billion yuan of central government spending and 93.226 billion yuan of transfer payments to local governments. Funds transferred from central government-managed funds to the general public budget amounted to 146 million yuan. Revenue of central government-managed funds exceeded expenditure by 39.523 billion yuan. Of this figure, 35.824 billion yuan was carried forward to 2019, and 3.699 billion yuan, comprised of any portion of carryover funds from individual government-managed funds exceeding 30% of that fund’s revenue in 2018, was contributed to the Central Budget Stabilization Fund in accordance with regulations.

地方政府性基金本级收入71371.85亿元,增长23.8%,其中,国有土地使用权出让收入65095.85亿元,增长25%。加上中央政府性基金对地方转移支付收入932.26亿元和地方政府发行专项债券筹集收入13500亿元,地方政府性基金相关收入为85804.11亿元。地方政府性基金相关支出77472.78亿元,增长32.9%,其中,国有土地使用权出让收入相关支出69941.04亿元,增长34.2%。

Revenue of local government-managed funds reached 7.137185 trillion yuan, an increase of 23.8%. Revenue from the sale of state-owned land-use rights accounted for 6.509585 trillion yuan of this figure, a 25% rise. Adding in the transfer payments of 93.226 billion yuan from central government-managed funds and 1.35 trillion yuan raised through local government issuance of special purpose bonds, the total revenue rose to 8.580411 trillion yuan. Expenditure of local government-managed funds totaled 7.747278 trillion yuan, a rise of 32.9%; of this spending 6.994104 trillion yuan was funded by revenue from the sale of state-owned land-use rights, an increase of 34.2%.

(三)2018年国有资本经营预算收支情况。

3. Budgetary revenue and expenditure of state capital operations in 2018

按照国有资本经营预算管理有关规定,国有资本经营预算收入主要根据国有企业上年实现净利润一定比例收取,同时按照收支平衡原则安排相关支出。2017年全国国有及国有控股企业(不含国有一级金融类企业)营业总收入53.75万亿元,实现净利润2.35万亿元,归属于母公司所有者的净利润1.42万亿元;年末资产总额183.52万亿元,负债总额118.46万亿元。

In accordance with relevant management regulations for the budgets of state capital operations, budgetary revenue from state capital operations is mostly collected as a certain proportion of the net profits of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) from the previous year, while expenditure is planned according to the principle of balance between expenditure and revenue. In 2017, Chinese SOEs and enterprises with state-held controlling stakes (not including class one state-owned financial enterprises) had a total business revenue of 53.75 trillion yuan, and their net profits reached 2.35 trillion yuan, of which 1.42 trillion yuan belonged to the owners of their parent companies; by the end of that year, their asset value totaled 183.52 trillion yuan and their total debt reached 118.46 trillion yuan.

全国国有资本经营预算收入2899.95亿元,增长9.8%。全国国有资本经营预算支出2159.26亿元,增长6.7%。

Budgetary revenue of state capital operations nationwide totaled 289.995 billion yuan in 2018, an increase of 9.8%, while expenditure totaled 215.926 billion yuan, an increase of 6.7%.

中央国有资本经营预算收入1325.31亿元,为预算的96.3%,增长1.6%。加上2017年结转收入113.59亿元,收入总量为1438.9亿元。中央国有资本经营预算支出1111.73亿元,完成预算的95.1%,增长10.1%,其中,本级支出1024.85亿元,对地方转移支付86.88亿元。调入一般公共预算321.54亿元,调入比例提高至25%。结转下年支出5.63亿元。

Budgetary revenue of central state capital operations was 132.531 billion yuan, representing 96.3% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 1.6%. With the added 11.359 billion yuan carried over from 2017, the total revenue was 143.89 billion yuan. Budgetary expenditure of central state capital operations reached 111.173 billion yuan, representing 95.1% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 10.1%. This expenditure included 102.485 billion yuan of central government spending and 8.688 billion yuan in transfer payments to local governments. A total of 32.154 billion yuan was transferred into the central general public budget, with the transfer proportion being raised to 25%; 563 million yuan of budgetary revenue from these operations has been carried over to 2019.

地方国有资本经营预算本级收入1574.64亿元,增长17.8%。加上中央国有资本经营预算对地方转移支付收入86.88亿元,收入总量为1661.52亿元。地方国有资本经营预算支出1134.41亿元,下降9.2%,主要是调入一般公共预算资金增加至432.45亿元。

Budgetary revenue of local state capital operations reached 157.464 billion yuan, a rise of 17.8%. Adding in the transfer payments of 8.688 billion yuan to local governments from the central state capital operations budget, the total revenue was 166.152 billion yuan. Budgetary expenditure of local state capital operations amounted to 113.441 billion yuan, a drop of 9.2%. This drop was mainly due to the proportion of funds allocated from the local state capital operations budget to the local general public budget being increased to 43.245 billion yuan.

(四)2018年社会保险基金预算收支情况。

4. Budgetary revenue and expenditure of social security funds in 2018

为均衡地区间企业职工基本养老保险基金负担、实现基本养老保险制度可持续发展,2018年出台实施了企业职工基本养老保险基金中央调剂制度,通过调剂将收支状况较好省份的基金结余按一定比例调剂至缺口省份,确保各地养老金按时足额发放。

To coordinate the burden of enterprise employees’ basic aged-care pension among different regions and ensure sustainable development of the basic aged-care insurance system, in 2018 we put in place a central regulation system for enterprise employees’ basic aged-care pension funds to be used inter-provincially. Through central regulation, we can proportionately allocate the surplus funds of provinces with a good balance of payments to those provinces with shortfalls, ensuring that pension benefits are paid across all regions on time and in full.

全国社会保险基金收入72649.22亿元,增长24.3%,剔除机关事业单位基本养老保险后同口径增长7.3%,其中,保险费收入52543.2亿元,财政补贴收入16776.83亿元。全国社会保险基金支出64586.45亿元,增长32.7%,剔除机关事业单位基本养老保险后同口径增长12.7%。当年收支结余8062.77亿元,年末滚存结余86337.13亿元。

Revenue of social security funds nationwide reached 7.264922 trillion yuan, an increase of 24.3%; the increase would be 7.3% after deducting the basic aged-care pension funds for employees of Party and government offices and public institutions. This revenue included 5.25432 trillion yuan in insurance premiums and 1.677683 trillion yuan in government subsidies. Expenditure of social security funds nationwide totaled 6.458645 trillion yuan, representing an increase of 32.7%; the increase would be 12.7% after deducting the basic aged-care pension funds for employees of Party and government offices and public institutions. The social security fund surplus for 2018 was 806.277 billion yuan, which was rolled over to make the year-end balance 8.633713 trillion yuan.

中央社会保险基金收入582.11亿元,其中,保险费收入301.84亿元,财政补贴收入274.7亿元。加上地方上缴的中央调剂基金收入2413.3亿元,收入总量为2995.41亿元。中央社会保险基金支出532.13亿元,加上安排给地方的中央调剂基金支出2406.8亿元,支出总量为2938.93亿元。当年收支结余56.48亿元,年末滚存结余315.49亿元。

Revenue of central government social security funds reached 58.211 billion yuan, which included 30.184 billion yuan in insurance premiums and 27.47 billion yuan in government subsidies. With the addition of 241.33 billion yuan contributed by local governments to come under central regulation, the total revenue rose to 299.541 billion yuan. Expenditure of central government social security funds reached 53.213 billion yuan. Adding in 240.68 billion yuan reallocated to local governments through central regulation, the total expenditure rose to 293.893 billion yuan. The surplus for 2018 was 5.648 billion yuan, which was rolled over to make the year-end balance 31.549 billion yuan.

地方社会保险基金收入72067.11亿元,其中,保险费收入52241.36亿元,财政补贴收入16502.13亿元。加上中央调剂资金收入2406.8亿元,收入总量为74473.91亿元。地方社会保险基金支出64054.32亿元,加上中央调剂资金支出2413.3亿元,支出总量为66467.62亿元。当年收支结余8006.29亿元,年末滚存结余86021.64亿元。

Revenue of local government social security funds reached 7.206711 trillion yuan, which included 5.224136 trillion yuan in insurance premiums and 1.650213 trillion yuan in government subsidies. Adding in 240.68 billion yuan of local government funds reallocated by the central government, the total revenue rose to 7.447391 trillion yuan. Expenditure of local government social security funds was 6.405432 trillion yuan. After adding 241.33 billion yuan of local government funds reallocated by the central government, the total rose to 6.646762 trillion yuan. The local government social security fund surplus for 2018 was 800.629 billion yuan, which was rolled over to result in a year-end balance of 8.602164 trillion yuan.

2018年末,中央财政国债余额149607.42亿元,控制在全国人大批准的债务余额限额156908.35亿元以内;地方政府债务余额183861.52亿元,包括一般债务余额109938.75亿元、专项债务余额73922.77亿元,控制在全国人大批准的债务余额限额209974.3亿元以内。

At the end of 2018, outstanding central government debt stood at 14.960742 trillion yuan, well within the budgeted limit of 15.690835 trillion yuan approved by the NPC. Total outstanding local government debt was 18.386152 trillion yuan, which included 10.993875 trillion yuan of general debt and 7.392277 trillion yuan of special debt, and fell within the NPC-approved budget limit of 20.99743 trillion yuan.

预算执行中,按照深化党和国家机构改革统一部署,及时安排新组建部门所需开办及筹建经费,认真做好相关部门预算划转等工作,确保部门正常运转和履职需要,保障党和国家机构改革顺利实施。所有中央部门预算批复工作在法定时限内完成。

During the course of implementing the budgets, in accordance with the unified arrangement for deepening reform of Party and state institutions, we promptly allocated the necessary funds for newly set up departments and made appropriate budget transfers between relevant departments. These efforts ensured that those departments were able to operate normally in the performance of their duties, and that the reforms could progress smoothly. We examined and approved all the budgets of central government departments within the statutory time frame.

以上预算执行的具体情况及相关说明详见《中华人民共和国2018年全国预算执行情况2019年全国预算(草案)》。

For a more detailed account of the budget execution in regard to the above items, please refer to the Chinese language version of the Report on the Execution of the 2018 Budgets of the People’s Republic of China and the 2019 Draft Budgets.

(五)2018年主要财税政策落实和重点财政工作情况。

5. Implementation of main fiscal and tax policies and other major fiscal work in 2018

2018年,财政部门认真贯彻党中央、国务院决策部署,按照预算法和《关于人大预算审查监督重点向支出预算和政策拓展的指导意见》,落实全国人大预算决议要求,聚力增效实施积极的财政政策,加大对三大攻坚战的支持,更多向创新驱动、“三农”、民生等领域倾斜,深化财税体制改革,狠抓预算执行管理。

In 2018, finance departments conscientiously implemented the policy decisions and plans of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, followed the Budget Law and the Guidelines on People’s Congresses Expanding the Focus of Their Budget Review and Oversight to Cover Expenditure Budgets and Policies, and acted on the requirements in the budget resolution adopted at the NPC. We have enforced a proactive fiscal policy with the focus on concentrating fiscal strength and boosting fiscal efficacy, increased support for the three critical battles against potential risk, poverty, and pollution, weighted spending toward innovation-driven development, agriculture, rural areas, rural residents, and the improvement of living standards, deepened reform of the fiscal and tax systems, and worked vigorously to improve management of budget execution.

大力实施减税降费。完善增值税制度。降低制造业、交通运输、建筑、基础电信服务等行业及农产品等货物的增值税税率,统一增值税小规模纳税人标准至500万元,对装备制造等先进制造业、研发等现代服务业符合条件企业和电网企业的期末留抵税额予以一次性退还。实施个人所得税改革。修改个人所得税法,自2018年10月1日起,提高基本减除费用标准,调整优化税率结构,在此基础上研究制定个人所得税专项附加扣除暂行办法,设立子女教育等6项专项附加扣除,修订个人所得税法实施条例,自2019年1月1日起正式实施,实现从分类税制向综合与分类相结合税制的重大转变,惠及约8000万纳税人。加大小微企业税收支持力度。将享受减半征收企业所得税优惠政策的小型微利企业年应纳税所得额上限由50万元提高到100万元,将符合条件的小微企业和个体工商户贷款利息收入免征增值税单户授信额度上限由100万元提高到1000万元。鼓励企业加大研发投入。取消企业委托境外研发费用不得加计扣除限制,将企业研发费用加计扣除比例提高到75%的政策由科技型中小企业扩大至所有企业,将高新技术企业和科技型中小企业的亏损结转年限由5年延长至10年,对企业新购进单位价值不超过500万元的设备、器具允许当年一次性税前扣除。调整完善进出口税收政策。分两批对4000多项产品提高出口退税率并简化退税率结构。对包括抗癌药在内的绝大多数进口药品实施零关税,降低汽车整车及零部件、部分日用消费品和工业品进口关税,我国关税总水平由2017年的9.8%降至7.5%。进一步清理规范涉企收费。停征首次申领居民身份证工本费等一批行政事业性收费,降低重大水利工程建设基金等部分政府性基金征收标准,延长阶段性降低社会保险费率和企业住房公积金缴存比例政策期限。上述减税降费措施全年减负约1.3万亿元。

We took strong measures to cut taxes and fees.

Improving the VAT system

We lowered VAT rates in industries such as manufacturing, transportation, construction, and basic telecommunication services as well as for agricultural products and other goods, and adopted a unified annual sales threshold of 5 million yuan for small-scale VAT payers. The end-of-tax-period VAT credit was refunded in one lump sum to qualified enterprises in equipment manufacturing and other advanced manufacturing industries and in research and development (R&D) and other modern service industries, as well as to power grid enterprises.

Implementing individual income tax reform

Implementing the revised Individual Income Tax Law, we raised the individual income tax threshold and optimized the structure of tax rates, starting from October 1, 2018. On this basis, we formulated the interim measures for special additional deductions for individual income tax, creating six special additional deduction items including children’s education, and amended the implementation regulations for the Individual Income Tax Law, which officially went into effect on January 1, 2019. This represents a major shift from a system of classified taxes to a system of taxation that is based on both adjusted gross income and specific income types, benefiting approximately 80 million taxpayers.

Increasing tax support for small and micro businesses

More low-profit small businesses now enjoy halved corporate income tax, with the upper limit of taxable annual income raised from 500,000 yuan to 1,000,000 yuan. We raised the single-client credit line on which the interest income is eligible for VAT exemption from 1 million yuan to 10 million yuan in loans made to qualified small and micro businesses and self-employed people.

Encouraging enterprises to increase investment in research and development

We abolished the restrictions on additional tax deductions for R&D costs for those enterprises who entrust their R&D work to overseas contractors. The policy of additional tax deductions for 75% of R&D expenses for small and medium sci-tech enterprises was extended to cover all enterprises. The period for rollover of losses was extended from 5 years to 10 years for new- and high-tech enterprises and small and medium sci-tech enterprises. A one-off tax deduction in the year of purchase will be offered to enterprises for new instrument or equipment purchases of less than 5 million yuan in unit price.

Adjusting and improving import and export tax policies

Export rebate rates were raised for over 4,000 products in two batches and the rebate rate structure was simplified. We accorded zero tariff treatment to the vast majority of imported medicine including anticancer drugs, and lowered import tariffs for whole vehicles and auto parts, as well as for some non-durable consumer goods and manufactured goods. China’s overall tariff level has been lowered from 9.8% in 2017 to 7.5% in 2018.

Taking further steps to tidy up regulations for the levying of charges on enterprises

A number of administrative charges were abolished, including the processing fee paid by first-time applicants for citizen identity cards. We lowered the required payments to some government-managed funds such as the major water conservancy projects fund. Further, we extended the validity period of the policies of temporarily reducing social insurance premiums and lowering the proportion that enterprises contribute to the housing provident fund. These efforts to reduce taxes and fees led to a relief of burdens by around 1.3 trillion yuan over the year.

推动三大攻坚战取得明显成效。加强地方政府债务风险防控。落实地方政府债务限额管理和预算管理,地方政府存量债务置换基本完成。支持地方做好专项债券发行和使用,提前两个月完成1.35万亿元的发行目标,完善管理措施,严控法定限额内专项债务风险。出台地方政府债务信息公开办法,指导地方有序公开债务限额余额、债券发行和资金使用安排、债务还本付息等信息。进一步完善地方政府隐性债务风险监管政策,加强资金供给端、项目建设源头风险防控。强化监督问责,配合建立终身问责、倒查责任机制,组织核查部分市县和金融机构违法违规举债行为,并公开通报曝光。健全统计监测机制,及时警示债务风险。督促地方落实属地管理责任,牢牢守住不发生系统性风险的底线。大力支持脱贫攻坚。中央财政补助地方专项扶贫资金1060.95亿元,增加200亿元,增长23.2%,增加的资金重点用于“三区三州”等深度贫困地区。全面推进贫困县涉农资金整合试点,全年整合资金超过3000亿元。严控扶贫领域融资风险,将易地扶贫搬迁贷款融资等统一调整规范为发行地方政府债券融资。探索建立财政扶贫资金动态监控机制,加强各级各类财政扶贫资金管理。制定财政扶贫项目资金绩效管理办法,绩效目标管理基本实现全覆盖,涉及约11万个扶贫项目、8000多亿元。全年减少农村贫困人口1386万。加大污染防治力度。中央财政支持污染防治攻坚战相关资金约2555亿元,增长13.9%,其中大气、水、土壤污染防治投入力度为近年来最大。扩大中央财政支持北方地区冬季清洁取暖试点范围。实施促进长江经济带生态保护修复奖励政策,建立长江流域重点水域禁捕补偿制度。启动城市黑臭水体治理示范,支持中西部地区城镇污水处理提质增效。将宁夏贺兰山东麓、贵州乌蒙山区等14个项目纳入第三批山水林田湖草生态保护修复工程试点,加上前两批11个试点项目,基本涵盖了“两屏三带”的生态功能区块。

We achieved significant success in the three critical battles.

Strengthening prevention and control of local government debt risk

Actions were taken to impose ceilings on local government debt and incorporate them into budget management, and the work on issuing local government bonds to replace outstanding debt was basically completed. We supported the issuance and use of special bonds by local governments and attained the goal of issuing 1.35 trillion yuan of special bonds two months ahead of schedule. We have improved management measures to put under strict control the risks related to special bonds within the statutory debt ceilings. We rolled out measures for the disclosure of local government debt information and guided local governments in the orderly release of information regarding the remaining balance of debt ceilings, bond issuance and arrangements for fund usage, and repayment of principal and interests. We further refined oversight and regulatory policies for hidden debt-related risks facing local governments, and further strengthened risk prevention and control at the supply end of funds and at the source of project construction. Intensifying oversight and accountability and setting up mechanisms for lifelong accountability and the retroactive investigation of liability, we organized investigations into illegal and regulation-breaking borrowing by some cities, counties, and financial institutions, publicly exposing those cases. We improved the statistical and monitoring mechanisms and gave timely warnings about debt risk, and we urged local governments to perform their due responsibilities within their geographical jurisdiction and succeeded in forestalling systemic risks.

Providing strong support in the fight against poverty

The central government allocated 106.095 billion yuan to subsidize local poverty alleviation funds, an increase of 20 billion yuan, or 23.2%, over 2017. The increase in funds was mainly directed to areas of extreme poverty such as the three regions and the three prefectures . We advanced trials across the country to integrate different rural development funds in poverty-stricken counties with merged funds surpassing 300 billion yuan for the year. We strictly controlled financing risks related to poverty alleviation, and replaced loans used to relocate people from inhospitable areas and other financing forms with a unified form of financing through issuance of local government bonds. We explored the establishment of mechanisms for dynamic monitoring of budgetary funds for poverty alleviation and strengthened management of government poverty alleviation funds of all kinds and at all levels. We formulated measures for performance-based management of budgetary funds in poverty alleviation projects, and basically achieved full coverage of performance targets, involving around 110,000 projects with an amount of over 800 billion yuan. A total of 13.86 million rural people were lifted out of poverty over the year.

Intensifying pollution prevention and control efforts

Around 255.5 billion yuan was allocated from the central budget to support the critical battle against pollution; this was a year-on-year increase of 13.9% and it included the largest investment toward addressing air, water, and soil pollution in recent years. We expanded the range of central government-financed trials to promote clean energy sources for winter heating across northern China, put in place incentivizing policies for the protection and restoration of ecosystems along the Yangtze Economic Belt, and established a compensation system for fishing bans in key waters of the Yangtze River basin. We launched models for treatment of black, malodorous water bodies in urban areas, and supported the enhancement of quality and efficacy in urban sewage treatment in the central and western regions. We entered 14 trial projects, including those at the eastern foot of the Helan Mountains in Ningxia and in the Wumeng mountainous areas in Guizhou, into the third group of pilot projects under the initiative to protect and restore mountain, water, forest, farmland, lake, and grassland ecosystems. Together with the previous two groups of 11 trial projects, these projects basically cover the key zones of the two ecological shields and three ecological belts.

支持深化供给侧结构性改革。推进科技创新能力建设。中央一般公共预算本级科学技术支出增长10.3%。支持实施国家科技重大专项,并选取部分专项探索开展基于诚信和绩效的“绿色通道”试点。开展中央财政科研项目资金管理改革督察,在优化科研项目和经费管理、减少报表和过程检查、推进科研项目绩效评价等方面推出一系列新举措。鼓励香港、澳门特别行政区高等院校和科研机构参与中央财政科技计划(专项、基金等)组织实施。支持制造业转型升级。推动智能制造、工业强基、绿色制造和工业互联网发展,支持制造业创新中心加强能力建设。落实首台(套)重大技术装备保险补偿试点政策,累计支持推广1087个项目,涉及装备价值总额1500多亿元。激发创业创新活力。支持100个国家级、省级实体经济开发区打造特色载体,助推中小企业“双创”升级。设立国家融资担保基金,提升服务小微企业和“三农”等的能力。对扩大小微企业融资担保业务规模、降低小微企业融资担保费率成效明显的地方予以奖补激励。落实“三去一降一补”重点任务。出台推进去产能和“僵尸企业”债务重组相关政策,继续支持钢铁、煤炭行业化解过剩产能,中央企业处置“僵尸企业”和治理特困企业工作取得积极进展。加大重点领域补短板力度,发挥中央基建投资作用。规范有序推进政府和社会资本合作(PPP),截至2018年末,全国PPP综合信息平台项目管理库累计落地项目4691个、投资额7.2万亿元,落地率54.2%。促进城乡区域协调发展。中央财政均衡性转移支付增长9.2%,老少边穷地区转移支付增长15.7%,不断加大对中西部地区的支持力度。构建雄安新区规划建设起步阶段财政支持政策体系,研究对海南全面深化改革开放等重大区域战略财政支持政策。建立健全实施乡村振兴战略财政投入保障制度。建立跨省域补充耕地国家统筹机制和城乡建设用地增减挂钩节余指标跨省域调剂机制。加快消化粮食库存,完善稻谷等粮食价格形成机制,全面推进优质粮食工程建设,支持深化农业供给侧结构性改革。

We supported the deepening of supply-side structural reform.

Promoting capacity building for scientific and technological innovations  

The central general public budget saw a 10.3% increase in expenditure on science and technology. We supported the implementation of major national science and technology programs and conducted trials on selected programs of a “green channel” based on integrity and performance. We supervised management reform of the funding for central government-funded scientific and technological research projects, launching a series of new measures to optimize project and economic management, reduce report forms and process reviews, and promote performance evaluation. We encouraged institutions of higher learning and research institutes in the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions to take part in the organization and implementation of central government-funded science and technology programs (projects and funds).

Supporting the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing sector

We promoted the development of smart manufacturing, strong foundations for industry development, green manufacturing, and the industrial internet, and supported manufacturing innovation centers in improving their capacities. We implemented the policy on piloting insurance compensation for newly-developed major technological equipment, supporting and promoting a total of 1,087 projects with over 150 billion-yuan worth of equipment.

Stimulating the drive for innovation and entrepreneurship

We supported 100 real-economy development zones at national and provincial levels in developing platforms with distinctive features and we facilitated the efforts of small and medium-sized enterprises to upgrade the national initiative to promote business startups and innovation. We set up a national financing guaranty fund to enhance our capacity to serve small and micro businesses and serve agriculture, rural areas, and rural residents. We provided rewards and subsidies to regions that achieved clear results in expanding the scale of financing guaranties and reducing guaranty fees for small and micro businesses.

Carrying out the five priority tasks

We introduced policies on further cutting overcapacity and restructuring the debts of “zombie enterprises,” and continued to support the de-escalation of overcapacity in the steel and coal industries. Active progress was made in the central government’s efforts to address “zombie enterprises” and improve those enterprises in particular difficulty. We redoubled efforts to strengthen key areas of weakness, fully exerting central government investment in infrastructure.

We regulated and promoted the application of the public-private partnership (PPP) model in an orderly fashion. By the end of 2018, of all the projects in the database of the national information platform for multiple PPP models, 4,691 were in progress, involving an aggregate investment of 7.2 trillion yuan, and accounting for 54.2% of the total.

Promoting coordinated development between regions and between urban and rural areas

To consistently strengthen support for central and western regions, the central government increased transfer payments to help equalize access to basic public services by 9.2%, and increased payments for old revolutionary base areas, areas with large ethnic minority populations, border areas, and poor areas by 15.7%. We set up a policy system for financial support to Xiongan New Area in its initial stage of planning and construction, and conducted studies on fiscal policies to support major regional strategies such as comprehensively deepening reform and opening up in Hainan Province. We established and implemented sound mechanisms for guaranteeing government funding for the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy. We put in place mechanisms for national coordination of newly-added cropland and for inter-provincial adjustment of quotas produced by linking newly-added cropland quotas with the amount of land used for construction. We accelerated our efforts to reduce excess stockpiles of grain, refined price-setting mechanisms for rice and other types of grain, promoted development of the quality grain project in all its aspects, and supported the deepening of supply-side structural reform in agriculture.

社会民生持续改善。实施更加积极的就业政策。落实就业创业补贴政策,加强公共就业服务能力建设,中央财政就业补助资金支出468.78亿元,增长6.8%,全年城镇新增就业1361万人。推动教育改革发展。中央财政教育转移支付的84.4%投向中西部地区,并向贫困地区倾斜。全国约1.45亿义务教育学生免除学杂费并获得免费教科书,1392万家庭经济困难寄宿生获得生活费补助,1400万进城务工农民工随迁子女实现相关教育经费可携带,3700万学生享受营养膳食补助。支持学前教育、普通高中、职业教育、高等教育发展。加强基本民生保障。机关事业单位和企业退休人员基本养老金标准提高约5%。城乡居民基本养老保险基础养老金最低标准提高至88元,并建立了基本养老保险待遇确定和基础养老金正常调整机制。划转部分国有资本充实社保基金,5户中央企业和浙江、云南两省的划转试点工作基本完成,19户中央企业的划转工作正在推进中,推动建立国有资本划转和企业职工基本养老保险基金缺口逐步弥补相结合的运行机制。城乡居民医保财政补助标准提高到每人每年490元,增加的40元中一半用于加强大病保险保障能力。基本公共卫生服务经费人均财政补助标准达到55元。支持做好最低生活保障、特困人员救助供养等困难群众救助工作。提高优抚对象等人员抚恤和生活补助标准,惠及全国860余万优抚对象。继续支持各类棚户区改造、公租房配套基础设施建设等,全年棚户区改造开工626万套、农村危房改造190万户。深入实施文化惠民工程,支持5万余所公共文化设施免费开放。

People’s lives continued to improve.

Implementing a more proactive employment policy

We implemented policies on subsidies for employment and business start-ups, and strengthened capacity building for providing better public employment services. The central budget’s employment subsidies totaled 46.878 billion yuan, a rise of 6.8%; a total of 13.61 million new urban jobs were created over the year.

Promoting reform and development in education

A total of 84.4% of the central budget’s transfer payments for education went to the central and western regions, and were weighted especially toward poor areas. This has resulted in exemption of all tuition and miscellaneous fees and free textbooks for around 145 million students in compulsory education around the country, living allowances for 13.92 million boarding students from financially disadvantaged families, 14 million children living with migrant worker parents in cities being able to have their fiscal outlays for education transferred along with them, and 37 million students receiving subsidies for nutritious meals. Funding support was also provided for the development of preschool education, regular senior high schools, vocational education, and higher education.

Ensuring the basic wellbeing of the people

Basic pension payments for retirees of enterprises, Party and government offices, and public institutions were raised by around 5%. The minimum basic pension benefits for rural and non-working urban residents under the basic aged-care insurance scheme were raised to 88 yuan per person per month, and mechanisms were established to set standards on and regularly adjust basic aged-care insurance benefits. Work was carried out to transfer a portion of state capital to top up social security funds; this work was basically completed on a trial basis in five central government enterprises and in Zhejiang and Yunnan provinces, and is ongoing in 19 central government enterprises. This has promoted the establishment of an operating mechanism for combining transferring a portion of state capital with efforts to gradually make up for shortfalls in enterprise employees’ basic aged-care pension funds. The government subsidy for basic medical insurance for rural and non-working urban residents was raised to 490 yuan per person per annum, with half of the 40-yuan increase being allocated to the serious disease insurance scheme. Annual per person government subsidies for basic public health services were raised to 55 yuan.

We supported the provision of subsistence allowances and of assistance and aid to people living in extreme poverty or facing financial difficulties. Subsidies and living allowances were increased for entitled groups, benefiting over 8.6 million people around the country. We continued to provide support for the rebuilding of housing in run-down urban areas and for the development of supporting infrastructure for public rental housing, funding the rebuilding of 6.26 million housing units in run-down urban areas and 1.9 million dilapidated rural houses. We deepened our efforts to bring cultural benefits to the people, subsidizing over 50,000 public cultural facilities to keep them free and open to the public.

财税改革向纵深推进。加快财政体制改革。出台基本公共服务领域中央与地方共同财政事权和支出责任划分改革方案,以及医疗卫生领域财政事权和支出责任划分改革方案。教育、科技、交通运输等领域财政事权和支出责任划分改革正在积极推进。深化预算管理制度改革。深入贯彻落实《中共中央 国务院关于全面实施预算绩效管理的意见》,在中央财政层面初步建立了项目支出为主的全过程预算绩效管理体系,中央本级项目和对地方专项转移支付绩效目标、运行监控和绩效自评实现全覆盖,建立重点绩效评价常态化机制,2018年组织第三方机构对38个重点民生政策和重大项目开展重点绩效评价,涉及资金5513亿元,评价结果已经用于改进管理、预算安排和完善政策。中央预算决算公开内容更加细化,省市县级政府和部门预算决算公开深入推进。政府财务报告编制试点范围进一步扩大。完善税收制度。结合减税降费,初步建立综合与分类相结合的个人所得税制,改革完善增值税制度。加快税收立法进程,环境保护税法、船舶吨税法、烟叶税法顺利实施,耕地占用税法、车辆购置税法经全国人大常委会审议通过,资源税法按程序提请全国人大常委会初次审议。深化国资国企改革。首次向全国人大常委会作了全口径国有资产管理情况综合报告和金融企业国有资产专项报告。推动出台国有资本投资、运营公司改革试点的实施意见,推进中央党政机关和事业单位经营性国有资产集中统一监管试点的实施意见,以及完善国有金融资本管理的指导意见,扎实有序落实相关重点工作。剥离国有企业办社会职能和解决历史遗留问题取得重要进展。

We intensified fiscal and tax reforms.      

Accelerating reform of the fiscal system

We released reform plans on defining the respective fiscal powers and expenditure responsibilities of central and local governments for basic public services and for the medical and healthcare sector. Looking forward, we are actively advancing these reforms in fields like education, science and technology, and transportation.

Deepening reform of the budget management system

We implemented the CPC Central Committee and the State Council’s Guidelines on Implementing Comprehensive Performance-Based Budget Management, and established an initial management system of this kind for project outlays of the central budget, covering the whole budget process from performance targets to execution oversight and performance self-evaluation for all central government projects and special transfer payments to local governments. We also put in place a mechanism to ensure the regular performance evaluation of key budgets, and during 2018 organized performance evaluations by third-party organizations on 38 key policies regarding public wellbeing and major projects, involving a total of 551.3 billion yuan; the evaluation results have been used to improve management, budget arrangement, and relevant polices. Central government budgets and final accounts were released in more detail, and further progress has been made in advancing the disclosure of budgets and final accounts of local governments and their departments at the provincial, city, and county levels. The trial preparation of government financial statements was expanded.

Improving the tax system

Amid tax and fee cuts, we took initial steps to establish an individual income tax system based on both adjusted gross income and specific types of income, and reformed and improved the VAT system. We pressed for tax legislation, for the smooth implementation of the Environmental Protection Tax Law, Vessel Tonnage Tax Law, and Tobacco Leaf Tax Law, for the deliberation and adoption by the NPC Standing Committee of the Tax Law on Farmland Used for Non-agricultural Purposes and the Vehicle Purchase Tax Law, and for the submission as per procedure of the Resource Tax Law to the NPC Standing Committee for its first reading.

Deepening the reform of state capital and SOEs

For the first time, we presented to the NPC Standing Committee a comprehensive report on the management of all state-owned assets and a specific report on state-owned assets in financial enterprises. We drove forward the issuance of guidelines on piloting reforms in state capital investment and management companies, on piloting unified oversight and supervision over state-owned productive assets of central Party and government offices and public institutions, and on improving the management of state-owned financial capital, and we made steady and solid progress in ensuring their implementation. We made major progress in relieving SOEs of their obligations to operate social programs and in resolving their other longstanding issues.

财政管理水平继续提高。强化管理基础工作。多措并举加快预算执行进度,完善对地方转移支付资金调度,支持地方做好保工资、保运转、保基本民生,以及农民工工资支付、清理拖欠民营企业账款等工作。加快推进预算执行动态监控工作,36个省本级、绝大多数市县都已建立预算执行动态监控机制。构建网上报销公务平台,实现公务人员出差报销全流程电子化管理。加强地方暂付款管理。清理整顿地方财政专户工作基本完成。政府会计准则制度体系基本建成,行政事业单位内部控制规范体系进一步健全。严肃财经纪律。围绕落实重大财税政策加大财政监督检查力度,对地方政府债务管理、财政支持脱贫攻坚、污染防治资金使用、经济开发区税收优惠政策执行等情况进行核查检查。加强会计、政府采购代理机构监管,严肃处理违法违规行为。认真整改审计发现问题。高度重视审计指出的具有指定用途的转移支付占比较高、预算绩效评价覆盖面小等问题,落实整改责任,细化整改措施,扎实推进整改,同时认真研究采纳审计建议,注重举一反三,从体制机制上巩固整改成果。

We continued to improve fiscal management.

Strengthening basic work on fiscal management

Through a combination of measures, we accelerated the pace of budget execution, and improved the preparation and allocation of funds for transfer payments to local governments. In addition to this, we supported local governments in their efforts to ensure payment of salaries, normal operations, and the basic wellbeing of the people, to ensure that rural migrant workers get paid, and to clear up overdue payments to private enterprises. Work on conducting dynamic monitoring of budget execution was accelerated, and mechanisms for the dynamic monitoring of budget execution were established in 36 provincial-level budget institutions and in most city- and county-level governments. We built an online platform to enable online reimbursement of official travel expenses. We strengthened control over suspense payments of local governments, and basically completed the work of reviewing and overhauling local governments’ special accounts. A basic system of governmental accounting principles and institutions was established, and internal control standards and systems for administrative agencies and public institutions were improved.

Tightening up financial discipline

We stepped up oversight and compliance checks around the implementation of major fiscal and tax policies, and inspected local governments’ debt management, their financial support for poverty alleviation, their use of funds for pollution prevention and control, and their implementation of preferential tax policies for economic development zones. We strengthened oversight of governmental accounting and government procurement agencies and strictly dealt with violations of laws and regulations.

Conscientiously rectifying problems uncovered in auditing

We put strong emphasis on rectifying problems discovered through the auditing process such as the proportion of transfer payments for specific purposes being too high and the coverage of performance-based budget evaluation being too narrow, determined responsibility for correction, produced detailed rectification measures, and made steady progress in resolving the issues. At the same time, we earnestly studied and adopted suggestions from auditing bodies and, with a focus on applying lessons learned from experience, established institutions and mechanisms for solid corrective results.

总的看,2018年预算执行情况较好,财政改革发展工作取得新进展,有力促进了经济社会持续健康发展。这是以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导的结果,是习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想科学指引的结果,是全国人大、全国政协及代表委员们监督指导的结果,是各地区、各部门以及全国各族人民共同努力的结果。

Overall, budget execution in 2018 was satisfactory and we achieved new outcomes in the reform and development of public finance, which gave strong impetus to sustained and healthy economic and social development. We owe these achievements to the firm leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core; to the sound guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era; to the oversight of the NPC and the CPPCC National Committee together with their deputies and members; and to the concerted efforts of all regions, all departments, and the people of all our nation’s ethnic groups.

同时,预算执行和财政工作中还面临一些问题和挑战。主要是:财政收入增长基础不稳,支出刚性不减,一些市县保工资、保运转、保基本民生支出压力大。预算编制的准确性和预算的约束力需要进一步增强;预算分配管理存在薄弱环节,内部控制需要进一步加强;有的地方和部门预算执行基础工作不扎实,支出进度较慢,造成财政资金闲置浪费。专项转移支付退出机制不完善,定期评估覆盖面较窄。政府性基金预算中有的项目执行慢、结转资金较多;国有资本经营预算范围还不完整;企业职工基本养老保险全国统筹仍未实现,医疗保险可持续筹资和待遇调整机制尚需完善, 社会保险基金财务可持续性面临挑战。有的地区脱离实际,存在超出自身财力过高承诺等问题,影响财政可持续性。有的地方仍违规担保或变相举债,防范化解债务风险任务艰巨。有的政策执行和落实不到位,企业和群众获得感不强。我们高度重视这些问题,将下大气力采取措施加以解决。

At the same time, we have yet to overcome the following main problems and challenges in budget execution and public finance work:

The foundation for revenue growth is fragile, while expenditures remain inflexible; some city- and county-level governments face serious budgetary constraints in ensuring payment of salaries, normal operations, and the basic wellbeing of people in their jurisdictions.

Accuracy in budget compilation still requires improvement and budgets are less binding than they should be; there are a number of weak links in budget allocation and management, and internal controls need to be further strengthened; and some local governments and departments fail to provide a solid foundation for budget execution, and their slow implementation leads to funds sitting idle.

Mechanisms for exit of special transfer payments need to be improved, and the coverage of periodic assessments is too narrow.

The execution of some projects under government-managed fund budgets is too slow, leading to a large carry-over; budget compilation has yet to cover all state capital operations; and enterprise employees’ basic aged-care pensions have not been placed under nationally coordinated management, mechanisms for ensuring sustainable funding and benefit adjustments for medical insurance schemes need improvement, and there are challenges in ensuring sustained financing for social security funds.

Some local governments make promises beyond their financial capacity and in disregard of the actual situation, which harms their fiscal sustainability.

Some local governments are still guarantying debt or making borrowings in breach of regulations, making it hard to keep debt risk under control.

Poor implementation of some policies is masking any sense of benefit that enterprises and the public would otherwise be feeling.

We attach the utmost importance to these problems and will adopt strong measures for their resolution.

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