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《改革开放40年中国人权事业的发展进步》白皮书


来源:国新办    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2019-01-02 11:38   点击: 次  

改革开放40年中国人权事业的发展进步

Progress in Human Rights over the 40 Years of Reform and Opening-Up in China

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

2018年12月

December 2018

目录

Contents

前言

Foreword

一、牢固树立尊重和保障人权的治国理政原则

I. Firmly Establishing a Governance Principle of Respecting and Protecting Human Rights

二、大幅提升生存权发展权保障水平

II. Better Protecting the Rights to Subsistence and Development

三、有效实现各项人权全面发展

III. Fully Developing Human Rights in All Respects

四、显著改善特定群体权利

IV. Ensuring the Rights of Special Groups

五、全面加强人权法治建设

V. Comprehensively Promoting the Rule of Law for Human Rights

六、努力推动各国人权事业共同发展

VI. Facilitating the Development of Human Rights in the World

七、积极参与全球人权治理

VII. Active Participation in Global Governance of Human Rights

八、成功走出符合国情的人权发展道路

VIII. Path of Human Rights Protection Suited to National Conditions

结束语

Conclusion

前言

Foreword

2018年,是中国改革开放40周年。改革开放是中国共产党在新的时代条件下带领全国人民进行的新的伟大革命,是决定当代中国命运的关键一招。改革开放极大地解放和发展了社会生产力,成功地开辟了中国特色社会主义道路,也揭开了中国人权事业发展的新篇章。

2018 marks the 40th anniversary of reform and opening-up in China. The Communist Party of China (CPC) has led the people in carrying out this great new revolution in the new era – one that holds the key to the destiny of contemporary China. Reform and opening-up has helped to liberate and develop social productive forces. It has opened up a path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and ushered in a new chapter in the development of human rights.

40年来,在中国共产党的坚强正确领导下,中国人民团结一心、励精图治、艰苦奋斗、勇往直前,国家面貌发生了翻天覆地的变化,人民生活水平不断提高。中华民族迎来了从站起来、富起来到强起来的伟大飞跃。

Over the four decades, the Chinese people have worked hard as one under the strong and coherent leadership of the CPC. Huge changes have taken place, and living standards have significantly improved. The Chinese nation has risen and become prosperous and strong.

40年来,中国共产党始终把人民的利益放在首位,做到改革为了人民,改革依靠人民,改革成果由人民共享,切实维护最广大人民的根本利益,尊重人的价值和尊严,促进人的全面发展。

Over the four decades, the CPC has always prioritized the people’s interests, ensuring that reform is conducted for the people and by the people, and that its benefits are shared by the people. It has worked to safeguard the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people, respect human values and dignity, and promote the well-rounded development of the people.

40年来,中国在改革开放中尊重人权,在改革开放中保障人权,在改革开放中促进人权,成功走出了一条符合国情的人权发展道路,创造了人类文明发展史上人权保障的新经验、新奇迹。

Over the four decades, China has showed respect for, protected and promoted human rights in the course of reform and opening-up. It has blazed a trail of development in human rights that conforms to the national conditions, and created new experiences and new progress in safeguarding human rights.

40年来,中国总结历史经验,汲取人类文明发展成果,坚持把人权的普遍性原则与本国实际相结合,不断创新人权发展理念,形成了以人民为中心、以生存权发展权为首要的基本人权、以全面加强人权法治建设为路径、以各项人权综合协调发展为目标的人权发展新理念。

Over the four decades, China has summed up its historical experience, drawn on the achievements of human civilization, combined the universal principles of human rights with the prevailing realities of the country, and generated a series of innovative ideas on human rights. It has brought into being basic rights that center on the people and prioritize their rights to subsistence and development, and proposed that China should follow a path of comprehensive and coordinated human rights development under the rule of law.

40年来,中国广泛开展人权领域交流合作,认真履行国际人权义务,全面参与国际人权事务,积极促进全球人权治理体系变革,致力于构建人类命运共同体,为推动世界人权事业发展不断作出新贡献。

Over the four decades, China has carried out extensive exchanges and cooperation in the field of human rights, earnestly fulfilled its international human rights obligations, fully participated in international human rights affairs, actively promoted reform of the global human rights governance system, worked hard for the building of a global community of shared future, and made a consistent contribution to the international cause of human rights.

一、牢固树立尊重和保障人权的治国理政原则

I. Firmly Establishing a Governance Principle of Respecting and Protecting Human Rights

尊重和保障人权,是中国共产党和中国政府的坚定意志和不懈追求。改革开放40年来,“尊重和保障人权”先后载入中国共产党的全国代表大会报告、国家宪法、中国共产党党章以及国家发展战略规划,成为中国共产党和中国政府治国理政的一条重要原则。

It is the determination and ultimate goal of the CPC and the Chinese government to respect and protect human rights. Since the launch of reform and opening-up in 1978, “respecting and protecting human rights” has been written into the reports to CPC National Congresses, the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the Constitution of the Communist Party of China, and strategies and plans for national development, becoming an important principle of governance for the CPC and the Chinese government.

国家尊重和保障人权成为中国宪法的重要原则。宪法是国家的根本大法,是人权保障的宣言书。中国宪法以其最高的法律地位,有力保障了人民当家作主,推动了中国人权事业发展。1954年,新中国制定了第一部宪法。1982年宪法在“总纲”和“公民的基本权利和义务”中全面系统规定了全体人民享有广泛的人身人格权利,财产权利,政治权利和经济、社会、文化权利。随后国家又根据改革开放的形势和要求对宪法进行了5次修改,人权在宪法中的地位不断加强。2004年,宪法确立了“国家尊重和保障人权”原则,进一步明确了公民在经济、政治、文化、社会诸方面全面发展的权利,开创了以宪法原则指引人权事业发展的新格局。2018年通过的宪法修正案坚持人民主体地位,进一步为新时代坚持和发展中国特色社会主义人权事业、实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标和中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供了有力保障。

That the state respects and protects human rights has been established as an important principle of the Constitution of the PRC. The Constitution is the fundamental law of a country, making it a declaration of human rights protection. As the supreme law, the Constitution of China effectively ensures that the people are masters of the country, and has promoted the cause of human rights in China. In 1954, the first Constitution of the PRC was created. The Constitution of 1982 stipulated clearly in the “General Principle” and “The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens” that all people enjoy a wide range of rights, including personal rights, right to dignity, property rights, political rights, and economic, social and cultural rights.

Since then, the state has revised the Constitution five times in accordance with the developments and requirements of reform and opening-up, enhancing the status of human rights. In 2004, the Constitution established the principle that “the state respects and protects human rights”, and further clarified citizens’ rights in the economic, political, cultural and social fields. This launched a new stage where human rights develop under the guidance of constitutional principles. The amendment to the Constitution adopted in 2018 guarantees the principal position of the people, ensuring in the new era the development of socialist human rights with Chinese characteristics, and the realization of the Two Centenary Goals and the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation.

尊重和保障人权成为中国共产党的执政主张。中国共产党根据改革开放实际,先后提出一系列人权主张,与时俱进地不断赋予中国人权发展新的内涵。1997年,中国共产党第十五次全国代表大会明确提出,“共产党执政就是领导和支持人民掌握管理国家的权力,实行民主选举、民主决策、民主管理和民主监督,保证人民依法享有广泛的权利和自由,尊重和保障人权”。2002年,“尊重和保障人权”作为社会主义政治文明建设的重要目标再次写入中共十六大报告。2007年,中共十七大报告在总结过去五年“人权事业健康发展”的同时,进一步指出要“尊重和保障人权,依法保证全体社会成员平等参与、平等发展的权利”。同年,“尊重和保障人权”首次写入《中国共产党章程》。

Respecting and protecting human rights is a pursuit in CPC governance. Based on the realities of reform and opening-up, the CPC has proposed a series of ideas on human rights in China, constantly adding new elements to reflect the changes in our time. In 1997, the 15th CPC National Congress clearly stated: “As a ruling party, the Communist Party leads and supports the people in exercising the power of running the state, holding democratic elections, making policy decisions in a democratic manner, instituting democratic management and supervision, ensuring that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedom endowed by law, and respecting and guaranteeing human rights.” In 2002, “human rights are respected and guaranteed” was written into the report to the 16th CPC National Congress as an important goal of socialist political progress. In 2007, when summarizing “sound development of the cause of human rights” over the previous five years, the report to the 17th CPC National Congress further pointed out: “We must respect and safeguard human rights, and ensure the equal right to participation and development for all members of society in accordance with the law.” And in the same year, this principle was written for the first time into the CPC Constitution.

2012年,中共十八大将“人权得到切实尊重和保障”作为全面建成小康社会的重要目标,从战略层面确立了人权事业的重要地位。中共十八大修改通过的《中国共产党章程》再次重申尊重和保障人权。2014年,中共十八届四中全会通过《中共中央关于全面推进依法治国若干重大问题的决定》,从推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的高度,作出了全面依法治国的重大战略部署,强调“加强人权司法保障”“增强全社会尊重和保障人权意识”。2017年,中共十九大确立习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为党的指导思想,明确提出“加强人权法治保障,保证人民依法享有广泛权利和自由”。习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想蕴含着丰富的人权内涵,对新时代中国人权事业发展提出了新的更高要求,为坚持中国特色人权发展道路、全面推进中国人权事业提供了根本遵循。

In 2012, the principle that “human rights should be fully respected and protected” was defined by the 18th CPC National Congress as an important goal in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, establishing the importance of human rights from a strategic perspective. The CPC Constitution amended and adopted at this congress reaffirms the principle of respecting and protecting human rights. In 2014, the Fourth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee adopted the “Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Advancing the Rule of Law”, making a major strategic plan to comprehensively advance the rule of law as part of its effort to modernize the state governance system and enhance its administrative capacity. The resolution emphasizes the need to “provide stronger judicial protection of human rights” and to “strengthen awareness throughout the whole of society about the need to respect and safeguard human rights”. In 2017, the CPC 19th National Congress established Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era as the guiding ideology of the CPC, and clearly stated that we should “strengthen legal protection for human rights to ensure that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedoms as prescribed by law”. Xi Jinping thought raises new and higher development requirements for China’s human rights in the new era, and provides fundamental principles for us to follow the path and advance the cause of human rights with Chinese characteristics.

尊重和保障人权成为国家发展的核心目标。中国的国家发展战略坚持以尊重和保障人权为价值取向,以增进人民福祉、保障人民权利、促进人的全面发展为出发点和落脚点。按照建设中国特色社会主义的要求,自改革开放初期提出现代化建设“三步走”发展战略以来,中国共产党和中国政府始终把提高人民生活水平、保障人民各项基本权利的实现作为执政目标。中共十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央,明确将“人民对美好生活的向往”作为执政目标,进一步提出了实现“两个一百年”的奋斗目标。2017年,中共十九大提出到2020年全面建成小康社会,并在此基础上确定分两步走在本世纪中叶建成社会主义现代化强国的战略安排。

It has become a core goal of national development to respect and protect human rights. In its national development strategies, the Chinese government upholds the values of respecting and safeguarding human rights, and is committed to improving the people’s wellbeing, safeguarding their rights, and promoting their well-rounded development.

To meet the requirements of building socialism with Chinese characteristics since the three-step development strategy for achieving modernization was laid out in the early days of reform and opening-up, the CPC and the Chinese government have always pursued the goals of improving people’s living standards and ensuring that they enjoy various basic rights. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the Central Committee led by General Secretary Xi Jinping has made it clear that, in governing the country, it will follow the goal of meeting the people’s aspiration to live a better life and subsequently set the Two Centenary Goals. In 2017, the 19th CPC National Congress proposed that on the basis of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020, a two-step approach should be taken to build China into a strong and modern socialist country by the middle of the century.

按照建设社会主义现代化国家的要求和发展战略,中国政府制定国家发展规划,保障人民各项权利的实现。从1953年到2001年,每5年制定一个国家发展计划,对国家经济、文化、社会等各方面发展作出安排。自2006年起,改计划为规划,实现了从具体、微观、指标性的发展计划向宏观的国民经济和社会发展规划的转变。目前,中国已经连续制定了十三个国民经济和社会发展计划或规划,涵盖脱贫攻坚、教育、健康、就业、社会保障、民主法治建设、反腐败斗争等,涉及经济、社会、文化权利和公民及政治权利的诸多内容,为推动人权发展确定了指导思想、目标方向、基本要求和实施举措。

In accordance with the requirements and strategies for building a modern socialist country, the Chinese government has made a national plan every five years from 1953 to 2001 for the development of the economy, culture, society, and other sectors. In 2006, the detailed, micro plan with growth targets was transformed to a macro program for national economic and social development. China has formulated 13 such programs for national economic and social development, covering poverty elimination, education, healthcare, employment, social security, democracy and the rule of law, and the anti-corruption campaign and involving economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights. These plans set out the guiding principles, goals, basic requirements and implementation measures for the development of human rights.

中国积极响应联合国《维也纳宣言和行动纲领》,先后制定并实施《国家人权行动计划(2009-2010年)》《国家人权行动计划(2012-2015年)》《国家人权行动计划(2016-2020年)》,确定尊重和保障人权的阶段性目标和任务。目前已圆满完成第一、二期国家人权行动计划预定的各项指标,正在扎实推进第三期国家人权行动计划的落实。国家还制定了经济、文化、社会和环境等方面的专项行动计划,以及保障少数民族、妇女、儿童、老年人、残疾人等特定群体权利的专项规划,努力促进全体人民共同享有人生出彩的机会,共同享有梦想成真的机会,共同享有充分人权。

In response to the UN Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, the Chinese government has made and carried out the National Human Rights Action Plan (2009-2010), National Human Rights Action Plan (2012-2015), and National Human Rights Action Plan (2016-2020), setting phased goals and tasks for respecting and safeguarding human rights. It has fulfilled the targets set in the first two action plans, and is working on the third. The Chinese government has also formulated special action plans relating to the economy, culture, society, the environment and other fields, as well as special plans to protect the rights of specific groups such as ethnic minorities, women, children, the elderly, and people with disabilities. In so doing, the government is determined to ensure equal opportunities for all people to live a rewarding life, realize their dreams, and enjoy full access to human rights.

二、大幅提升生存权发展权保障水平

II. Better Protecting the Rights to Subsistence and Development

改革开放40年来,中国坚持以生存权和发展权作为首要的基本人权,把发展作为执政兴国的第一要务和解决中国所有问题的关键,以保障和改善民生为重点,努力通过解决最紧迫和最突出的问题增进人民福祉。人民生活总体上实现了从贫困到温饱、从温饱到小康的历史性飞跃。

Over the past 40 years, China has worked to better protect basic human rights, with its primary focus on the rights to subsistence and development. Development is China’s top priority in governance and considered to be the key to addressing the country’s main problems. China has focused on ensuring and improving people’s wellbeing by resolving their most serious and urgent problems, realizing historic leaps from poverty to securing access to food and clothing, and thence to moderate prosperity.

减贫取得历史性成就。消除贫困是中国人权保障的重中之重。改革开放是中国消除贫困的强大驱动力。40年来,中国政府持续开展以农村扶贫开发为中心的减贫行动,在全国范围内开展有组织有计划的大规模开发式扶贫,先后实施《国家八七扶贫攻坚计划(1994-2000年)》《中国农村扶贫开发纲要(2001-2010年)》《中国农村扶贫开发纲要(2011-2020年)》等中长期扶贫规划。中共十八大以来,中共中央把贫困人口脱贫作为全面建成小康社会的底线任务和标志性指标,作出一系列重大部署,以前所未有的力度推进,中国扶贫开发进入脱贫攻坚新阶段。中共中央、国务院发布关于打赢脱贫攻坚战的决定,明确脱贫攻坚的目标标准,确立精准扶贫精准脱贫的基本方略,建立中国特色的脱贫攻坚制度体系,全面推进精准扶贫重点工作。中共十九大提出坚决打赢脱贫攻坚战的战略目标,中共中央、国务院印发关于打赢脱贫攻坚战三年行动的指导意见,把精准脱贫作为决胜全面建成小康社会必须打好的三大攻坚战之一,并庄严承诺确保到2020年中国现行标准下农村贫困人口实现脱贫、让贫困人口和贫困地区同全国一道进入全面小康社会。

Tremendous achievements in poverty reduction. Poverty elimination is the top priority in China’s effort to protect human rights. Reform and opening-up have been a great driving force for poverty elimination in China. Over the past four decades, the Chinese government has made continuous endeavors in poverty reduction, concentrating on development-oriented poverty alleviation in rural areas. The government has carried out large-scale development-oriented poverty-alleviation campaigns across the country in a planned and organized way, and implemented a number of medium- and long-term programs, including the Seven-Year Program for Lifting 80 Million People Out of Poverty (1994-2000), the Outline for Development-Oriented Poverty Alleviation for China’s Rural Areas (2001-2010), and the Outline for Development-Oriented Poverty Alleviation for China’s Rural Areas (2011-2020).

Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the CPC Central Committee has gone all out to win the battle against poverty, taken poverty elimination as the primary task, made it a defining indicator in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and made unprecedented efforts to implement major plans for development-oriented poverty alleviation. The CPC Central Committee and the State Council have issued the Decision on Winning the Battle Against Poverty, which lays out the goals and criteria for poverty elimination, establishes the basic strategy of targeted poverty alleviation and elimination, creates a poverty elimination system with Chinese characteristics, and defines comprehensive efforts to advance key plans for targeted poverty alleviation.

In the light of the strategic goal of poverty elimination set out by the 19th CPC National Congress, the central authorities issued a Three-Year Guideline on Winning the Battle Against Poverty. The 19th CPC National Congress defined targeted poverty elimination as one of the three crucial battles in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and pledged to help all the rural population living below the current poverty line shake off poverty by the year 2020 and ensure that poor people and poor areas will join the moderately prosperous society together with the rest of the country.

经过多年不懈奋斗,中国农村贫困人口显著减少,贫困发生率持续下降,解决区域性整体贫困迈出坚实步伐,贫困地区农民生产生活条件显著改善,贫困群众获得感显著增强,脱贫攻坚取得决定性进展。据世界银行测算,按照人均每天支出1.9美元的国际贫困标准,过去40年中国共减少贫困人口8.5亿多人,对全球减贫贡献率超过70%。按中国现行贫困标准,1978年至2017年,中国农村贫困人口由7.7亿人减少到3046万人,贫困发生率由97.5%下降到3.1%。2012年至2017年,中国每年有1000多万人稳定脱贫。中国是世界上减贫人口最多的国家,也是率先完成联合国千年发展目标减贫目标的发展中国家。中国的减贫成就是中国人权事业发展的最显著标志。

Through decades of efforts, the number of rural poor has markedly dropped and the poverty headcount ratio has seen a continuous decrease. Solid steps have been taken to eliminate regional poverty, and the working conditions and living standards of the rural poor have notably improved, which created a stronger sense of gain for the people, indicating decisive progress has been made in the fight against poverty. According to World Bank estimates, over the past 40 years, the number of people in China living on less than US$1.9 a day (international poverty line) has dropped by more than 850 million – this represents 70 percent of the total world figure. The number of rural poor fell from 770 million in 1978 to 30.46 million in 2017 when calculated in accordance with China’s current poverty line, with the incidence of poverty dropping from 97.5 percent to 3.1 percent. More than 10 million people rose and remained above the poverty level every year from 2012 to 2017. With the highest number of people moving out of poverty, China was the first developing country to realize the UN Millennium Development Goal for poverty reduction. Poverty reduction is the most telling evidence of China’s progress in human rights.

温饱问题得到切实解决。改革开放初期,解决近10亿人口温饱问题是中国面临的头等大事。中国改革农村土地制度,实行家庭联产承包责任制,极大激发了农民生产积极性,农业综合生产能力实现质的飞跃。2017年,中国粮食总产量达66161万吨,比1978年翻一番。近年来,中国谷物、肉类、花生、茶叶产量稳居世界第一位,油菜籽产量稳居世界第二位,甘蔗产量稳居世界第三位。中国以不足世界10%的耕地,养活了接近世界20%的人口,从根本上消除了饥饿,持续提升了人民的营养水平,实现了人民的基本生存权。

Adequate food and clothing ensured. In the early days of reform and opening-up, providing enough food and clothing for nearly one billion people was the top issue facing China. Reform of the rural land system and the implementation of the household responsibility system greatly stimulated farmers’ enthusiasm and boosted agricultural production capacity. China’s food grain output reached 661.61million tons in 2017, double the figure of 1978. In recent years, China has become the world’s largest producer of grain, meat, peanuts and tea, the second-largest producer of rapeseed, and the third-largest producer of sugarcane. China feeds approximately 20 percent of the world’s population using less than 10 percent of the arable land, guaranteeing the basic right to subsistence by eradicating hunger and improving nutrition.

饮水安全得到有效保障。实施全国重要饮用水水源地达标建设工程。2016年将600余个供水人口20万以上地表水饮用水水源地及年供水量2000万立方米以上地下水饮用水水源地全部纳入《全国重要饮用水水源地名录》管理,每年开展安全状况评估。2017年评估结果显示,99.5%的水源地供水保证率合格,90.9%的水源地水质合格。实施农村饮水安全工程建设。2005年至2015年,全国累计解决5.2亿农村居民和4700多万农村学校师生的饮水安全问题。2016年以来,实施农村饮水安全巩固提升工程,截至2017年,巩固提升受益人口9509万人,其中,1169万贫困人口的饮水安全问题得到解决,全国农村集中供水率和农村自来水普及率分别达到85%和80%。

Safer drinking water. National standards for major drinking water sources have been implemented. In 2016, more than 600 surface water sources each supplying drinking water for 200,000 people or more, and all ground water sources each supplying 20 million or more cubic meters of drinking water annually were incorporated into the Catalogue of China’s Major Drinking Water Sources, subject to annual quality assessment. The 2017 assessment results show that 99.5 percent of the drinking water sources met the water supply reliability standard, and 90.9 percent met the water quality standard.

A program was launched in 2005 to ensure drinking water safety in rural areas. By the end of 2015, a total of 520 million rural residents and 47 million teachers and students in rural areas had gained access to safe drinking water. Since 2016, the program has been upgraded to reinforce rural drinking water safety. By the end of 2017, the upgrade had benefitted 95.09 million rural residents, among whom 11.69 million were people living below the poverty line. Centralized water supply now covers 85 percent of the rural population and 80 percent of rural people have access to tap water.

基本居住条件明显改善。改革开放40年来,人民居住条件显著改善。2017年,城镇居民、农村居民人均住房建筑面积分别为36.9、46.7平方米,比1978年分别增加30.2、38.6平方米。国家高度重视解决困难家庭的住房问题。2008年至2017年,全国城镇保障性安居工程累计开工建设约6400万套,通过棚户区改造帮助约1亿人“出棚进楼”;2017年底,3500多万困难群众住进公租房,累计2000多万困难群众领取公租房租赁补贴。中共十八大以来,加大对农村危房改造的支持力度,累计安排1625亿元补助资金、支持1659万贫困农户改造危房,帮助数千万贫困农民告别原来的破旧泥草房、土坯房、树皮房等危房,住上基本安全房。

Improved housing conditions. The past 40 years have witnessed a remarkable improvement in housing conditions. In 2017, the per capita floor space of urban residents was 36.9 sq m, up from 6.7 sq m in 1978, and that of rural residents was 46.7 sq m, up from 8.1 sq m in 1978. The state has made it a priority to resolve housing problems for poor families. From 2008 to 2017, government subsidies were used to build 64 million housing units in urban areas, and redevelopment of run-down areas helped 100 million people move from sub-standard accommodation to new apartments. By the end of 2017, more than 35 million people in straitened circumstances had moved into public rental housing units, and more than 20 million poor people had received public rental subsidies. Since the 18th CPC National Congress the state has increased funding for dilapidated rural housing renovation, allocating RMB162.5 billion in subsidies for renovating the sub-standard housing of 16.59 million rural households, and helping tens of millions of rural households move into proper accommodation from dilapidated houses built of such materials as beaten earth, and timber and bark.

人民出行更加便利安全。40年来,中国交通网络日益完善,有力支撑了经济社会发展,保障人民出行便利安全。截至2017年,全国铁路营业里程达12.7万公里,比1978年增长1.5倍,其中高速铁路达2.5万公里,占世界高铁总量60%以上,高速铁路与其他铁路共同构成的快速客运网基本覆盖全国省会;全国公路总里程达477万公里,比1978年增长4.4倍,其中高速公路通车里程达13.6万公里,公路网密度为49.72公里/百平方公里,是改革开放初期的5.4倍,实现“县县通公路”;全国乡镇和建制村通公路率分别达99.99%和99.98%,农村出行条件持续改善。2001年以来,实施危桥改造、公路安全生命防护和干线公路灾害防治三项工程,共改造乡道及以上公路危桥3.9万座,完成66万公里高风险段整治,改造地质灾害易发路段3.1万公里,使出行安全更有保障。完成8440个空白乡镇邮政局所补建,全国总体实现“乡乡设所,村村通邮”。快递乡镇网点覆盖率超过87%,搭建了“工业品下乡、农特产品进城”的双向大通道。

More convenient and safer public transport. Over the past 40 years, China’s steadily-improving public transport network has provided stronger support for the country’s economic and social development, and greater convenience and safety to the public. By the end of 2017, China’s rail network had grown to 127,000 kilometers, up by 150 percent from 1978, and high-speed rail had reached 25,000 kilometers, accounting for more than 60 percent of the world’s total. The high-speed and other railway lines form an extensive passenger transport network covering all provincial capitals in the country. By the end of 2017, China’s road network had increased to 4.77 million kilometers, up by 440 percent from 1978, including 136,000 kilometers of expressways. Road density had grown more than fivefold from the beginning of reform and opening-up to 49.72 km/100 sq km. Every county in China now has access to roads. Rural transport has seen continuous improvement, with roads connecting 99.99 percent of towns and townships and 99.98 percent of administrative villages. Since 2001, programs have been carried out to renovate dangerous bridges, and reinforce road safety, the protection of the public, and road disaster prevention. Through these programs, 39,000 bridges on roads at township level and above, 660,000 kilometers of high-risk roads, and 31,000 kilometers of disaster-prone roads have been renovated to better safeguard public transport safety.

A total of 8,440 new post offices have been built in towns and townships, with the result that every township-level unit has a post office and every village has access to postal services. Express delivery outlets cover 87 percent of towns and townships, establishing a two-way channel that facilitates the transport of manufactured products to rural areas and agricultural products to the cities.

生命健康权保障水平大幅提升。改革开放特别是中共十八大以来,健康中国建设加快推进,为人民提供全生命周期的卫生与健康服务。中国人均预期寿命从1981年的67.8岁提高到2017年的76.7岁,高于72岁的世界平均预期寿命。孕产妇死亡率从1989年的十万分之94.7下降到2017年的十万分之19.6,婴儿死亡率从1991年的50.2‰下降到2017年的6.8‰,提前达到联合国千年发展目标所确定的指标要求。覆盖城乡的基层医疗卫生服务体系基本建成。2017年全国共有医疗卫生机构98.7万个,比1978年增长4.8倍;卫生技术人员898万人,比1978年增长2.6倍。国家基本公共卫生服务项目持续推进,适龄儿童国家免疫规划疫苗接种率达90%以上,5岁以下儿童乙肝病毒表面抗原携带率降至1%。建成全球最大的法定传染病疫情和突发公共卫生事件网络直报系统,平均报告时间缩短到4小时。全民健身运动蓬勃发展,全国体育场地总数超过170万个,人均体育场地面积超过1.6平方米。

Better protection of the rights to life and health. Since reform and opening-up, and especially since the 18th CPC National Congress, the country has increased public access to health services throughout the life cycle, to quicken its pace toward a healthy China. Life expectancy in China rose from 67.8 in 1981 to 76.7 in 2017, higher than the world average of 72. The maternal mortality rate decreased from 94.7 per 100,000 in 1989 to 19.6 per 100,000 in 2017, and the infant mortality rate dropped from 50.2 per 1,000 in 1991 to 6.8 per 1,000 in 2017, both meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals ahead of schedule.

A community-level health service system covering urban and rural areas is in place. The number of health service institutions increased to 987,000 in 2017, up by 480 percent from 1978, with health professionals growing by 260 percent to 8.98 million in 2017. Basic public health services have improved, with national vaccination coverage among children topping 90 percent, and the prevalence of HBsAg in children under five decreasing to 1 percent. China has set up the world’s largest online direct reporting system of notifiable epidemics and public health emergencies, and the average reporting time has been shortened to four hours. The national fitness program has thrived, with more than 1.7 million sports venues across the country.

社会救助力度不断加大。经过多年发展,中国的社会救助形成了以最低生活保障、特困人员救助供养、灾害救助、医疗救助、住房救助、教育救助、就业救助以及临时救助为主体,以社会力量参与为补充的制度体系。在全国范围内建立最低生活保障制度,颁布《城市居民最低生活保障条例》《社会救助暂行办法》等。国务院出台关于进一步健全特困人员救助供养制度的意见,将城市“三无”人员救助和农村“五保”供养统一为特困人员救助供养,保障城乡特困人员基本生活。截至2017年,全国共有37494个乡镇(街道)设立经办社会救助事务的机构,从事社会救助的专(兼)职工作人员为104673名,平均每个乡镇(街道)2.6人。截至2018年9月,全国共有城乡低保对象4619.9万人,其中,城市低保对象1068.8万人,平均城市低保标准为每人每月575元,农村低保对象3551.1万人,平均农村低保标准为每人每年4754元,所有县(市、区)的农村低保标准全部达到或超过国家扶贫标准。2017年,全国共实施医疗救助9138.1万人次,其中,直接救助3517.1万人次,资助困难群众参加基本医疗保险5621万人。2018年1月至9月,全国共实施临时救助565.8万人次,平均救助水平1069.4元/人次。

Expanded social assistance. Through years of effort, China has formed a social assistance system with subsistence allowances, assistance and support for people in extreme difficulty, disaster relief, medical assistance, housing assistance, education assistance, employment assistance, and temporary assistance as the main forms, supplemented by public participation. A subsistence security system has been set up nationwide. Regulations on Subsistence Security for Urban Residents and Interim Measures for Social Assistance have been enacted. Decisions on Improving the Assistance and Support System for People in Extreme Difficulty provide assistance to two groups of people – urban residents without income, the ability to work, or support by family, and rural people eligible for the “Five Guarantees”: those who are unable to work and have no source of income, including the elderly, the disabled and minors who have no legal guardians to support them.

By the end of 2017, 37,494 towns, townships and neighborhoods had set up social assistance agencies, staffed by 104,673 full-time and part-time personnel – an average of 2.6 per unit. As of September 2018, there were 46,199,000 people living on subsistence allowances, consisting of 10,688,000 urban residents receiving an average of RMB575 per month, and 35,511,000 rural residents receiving an average of RMB4,754 per annum. All rural subsistence allowance standards at the county level meet or exceed the national poverty line.

In 2017, medical assistance was granted to 91,381,000 application