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刘晓明大使在2018年英联邦外交官年度培训会上的主旨演讲


来源:驻英使馆    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2018-09-28 07:29   点击: 次  

刘晓明大使在2018年英联邦外交官年度培训会上的主旨演讲:《中国将坚定不移走和平发展道路》

Keynote Speech by H.E. Ambassador Liu Xiaoming at the Annual Commonwealth Diplomats Induction Programme: China Stays Committed to Peaceful Development

(2018年9月19日,英联邦秘书处)

Commonwealth Secretariat, 19 September 2018

尊敬的英联邦秘书长斯科特兰女男爵,

尊敬的巴基斯坦前总理阿齐兹先生,

尊敬的澳大利亚前外长唐纳先生,

尊敬的各位使节,

女士们、先生们:

Baroness Scotland,

Mr. Shaukat Aziz,

Mr. Alexander Downer,

Your Excellencies,

Diplomatic Colleagues,

Ladies and Gentlemen:

很高兴出席2018年英联邦外交官年度培训会。

It is a real delight to join you at the annual Commonwealth Diplomats Induction Programme.

斯科特兰秘书长告诉我,今天在座不少是刚刚履新的英联邦国家使节和外交官。在此,我谨对各位同事表示热烈欢迎。英国文学巨匠塞缪尔·约翰逊曾说,“如果你厌倦了伦敦,你就厌倦了生活。”我在伦敦8年多的工作和生活充分证明了这一点。我祝愿大家在伦敦工作顺利、生活愉快、诸事顺遂。

Baroness Scotland told me that many of you present today have just arrived in London. I would like to extend my warmest welcome to you. Samuel Johnson said, "When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life." Having spent more than eight years in London, I know Johnson was right. I wish you a fantastic tour in London.

当前,我们生活在一个快速变化的时代。国际格局深刻演变,和平与发展仍是时代的主题,但逆全球化趋向愈演愈烈,保护主义、单边主义、民粹主义甚嚣尘上。人类社会正站在历史的十字路口,是开放还是封闭?是前进还是后退?是坚持多边主义还是搞单边主义?是坚持合作共赢还是搞“零和游戏”?

We are living in a time of rapid changes. Amid evolving international landscape, peace and development remain the theme of our times. At the same time, anti-globalisation is rising, and protectionism, unilateralism and populism are surging. The International community is standing at a historical crossroads. Should we stay open and move forward, or shut ourselves in and turn back? Should we uphold multilateralism and win-win cooperation, or choose unilateralism and "zero-sum game"?

这些问题,不仅考验世界各国领导人的胸襟、格局和气魄,也考验我们每位外交官的眼界、胆识和智慧。作为这个变化时代的外交官,我们面临前所未有的挑战,也面临前所未有的机遇。关键在于如何认清世界大势、把握历史潮流,抓住机遇、化解挑战。我认为,这是每一位外交官的职责。

These questions are not reserved for the leaders of our countries only. They are also tests for us, the diplomats. They test our vision, courage and wisdom. The fast changing time brings unprecedented challenges as well as opportunities. As diplomats, it is our duty to follow the overarching trend of the times, seize the opportunities and address the challenges.

美国前国务卿基辛格曾说,当今国际体系正在经历四百年来未有之大变局,中国是国际新秩序的最大变量。也有人说,中国的崛起是21世纪最伟大的奇迹。面对中国的崛起,有人认为是机遇,有人认为是挑战,甚至有人认为是威胁。那么,中国的发展对世界到底意味着什么?对于这个问题,中共十九大报告给出明确的回答,即中国坚持和平发展道路,推动构建新型国际关系、构建人类命运共同体;中国共产党始终把为人类作出新的更大的贡献作为自己的使命。这就意味着,中国的发展将使世界更加和平、更加美好。今天,我愿从五个方面阐释中国发展对世界的意义:

Henry Kissinger once said, the current international system is experiencing "the biggest change in 400 years", and China is the largest variable in the new international order. Others have referred to the rise of China as the greatest miracle in the 21st century. So what would you say? Is the rise of China an opportunity, a challenge, or a threat? What does China's development mean to the world?

The 19th Congress of the Communist Party of China gave a clear answer to this question:

•      China will stay committed to peaceful development. It will work with other countries to build a new type of international relations, and a community with a shared future for mankind.

•      The Communist Party of China regards as its mission to make new and greater contribution to mankind.

This means that China's development will make the world a more peaceful and better place. Let me elaborate on this from the following five aspects:

第一,中国始终坚持以“自身发展”促进和平。和平是人类的永恒追求。走和平发展道路,是对几千年来中华民族热爱和平传统的继承和发扬。在5千多年历史长河中,中华文明始终崇尚和平、和睦、和谐,这种追求已经深深植入中华民族的血脉之中。中国历史上曾经长期是世界上最强大的国家之一,但没有留下殖民和侵略他国的记录。中国人民近代曾历经苦难,因而更加珍惜今天和平安定的生活,求和平、促稳定、谋发展是人民的最大心愿。

First, China has promoted peace through its own development.

Peace is the ever-lasting pursuit of mankind. By keeping to the path of peaceful development, we have carried on the peace-loving tradition of the Chinese nation.

In its more than 5,000 years of history, China has always valued peace, good-neighborliness and harmony. This pursuit of peace runs deep in the DNA of the Chinese nation. Historically, China had been one of the most powerful nations in the world for a long time, but it had never colonised or invaded other countries.

The Chinese people experienced intense sufferings in modern times, and therefore value deeply the peace and tranquility we now enjoy. Peace, stability and development are the biggest aspirations of the Chinese people.

走和平发展道路也是中国自身发展的内在需求。没有和平,发展就无从谈起;没有发展,和平就无法持久。尽管经济总量上升到世界第二位,但中国是世界上最大发展中国家的定位没有变。目前,中国人均国内生产总值仅排在世界第71位,还有3000万贫困人口、8000多万残疾人,每年需要解决1500万人的就业。作为一个拥有13亿多人口的大国,我们对前进道路上的挑战和困难有清醒认识。我曾在中国最贫穷省份之一甘肃省担任省长助理,深刻体会到中国发展任务之艰巨、挑战之巨大。中国要聚精会神搞建设,既需要一个和谐稳定的国内环境,也需要一个和平安宁的国际环境。

Peaceful development meets the inherent need of China in its pursuit of own growth. Without peace, there could be no development, and without development, peace could not last.

Despite being the second largest economy, China is still the world's largest developing country.

•      Our per capita GDP ranks only the 71st in the world;

•      There are still 30 million people living in poverty and more than 80 million who are disabled;

•      And every year, 15 million people need to find a job.

As a big country with a population of over 1.3 billion, China has a clear idea of the kind of challenges and difficulties awaiting it down the road.

I had been Assistant Governor of Gansu Province, one of the poorest provinces in China. I know from personal experience how arduous the task is and how severe the challenges are for China to achieve development. To concentrate on development at home, China needs a harmonious and stable domestic environment, and China also needs a peaceful and tranquil international environment.

In its relations with other countries, China seeks dialogue and partnership rather than confrontation and alliance. China will never seek hegemony, expansion or sphere of influence even when it grows strong.

中国不会走国强必霸的老路,而是坚持走一条对话而不对抗、结伴而不结盟的国与国交往新路。无论中国发展到什么程度,中国都永不称霸、永不扩张、永不谋求势力范围。走和平发展道路,是中国根据时代发展潮流和本国根本利益作出的战略抉择,是中国向世界作出的庄严承诺。中国将始终是世界和平的建设者,既通过维护世界和平发展自己,又通过自身发展促进世界和平。

Staying committed to peaceful development is a strategic choice of China that is in accordance with the trend of the times and serves China's fundamental interests. It is China's solemn commitment to the world. China will always be a contributor to world peace. We maintain world peace in order to achieve development. We also promote world peace through our development.

第二,中国始终坚持以“开放合作”引领和平。今年是中国改革开放40周年。40年的成功经验证明,只有改革开放,才能发展中国;只有开放合作,才能互利共赢,世界各国才能共享发展红利,共享持久和平。40年来,中国积极发展全球伙伴关系,扩大同世界各国的利益交汇点,不搞霸王条款,不图占别人便宜。我们不认同你输我赢、赢者通吃的旧逻辑,在自身富起来、强起来的同时,希望世界各国搭乘中国发展便车、分享中国发展红利。

This year marks the 40th anniversary of China's reform and opening up. Forty years of success taught us that reform and opening up are the only way to development. It also taught us that inclusive and win-win cooperation is the only way for countries of the world to share the benefits of development and enjoy lasting peace.

In the past 40 years, China has worked vigorously to build partnership around the globe.

•      We have expanded common interests with other countries.

•      We have never imposed unfair deals on others or taken advantage of others.

•      We do not agree with the old logic of "you lose, I win" or "the winner takes it all".

While we want China to become richer and stronger, we are also ready to help other countries board our fast train of development and benefit from China's growth.

2013年9月,习主席提出的“一带一路”倡议,是中国扩大对外开放与合作的重要举措,也是中国为国际社会提供的重大公共产品。5年来,“一带一路”建设已从理念转化为行动,从愿景转变为现实,从“大写意”走向“工笔画”。“一带一路”正推动中国开放空间从沿海、沿江向内陆、沿边延伸,形成陆海内外联动、东西双向互济的开放新格局。目前,已有103个国家和国际组织同中国签署了118份“一带一路”方面合作协议,其中就包括不少英联邦国家。5年来,中国与“一带一路”相关国家货物贸易额累计超过5万亿美元,对沿线国家直接投资超过600亿美元,建立了82个境外经贸合作区,上缴东道国税费22亿美元,为当地创造20多万个就业岗位。

In the past five years, the BRI has been translated from a concept into actions, from aspirations into reality. To borrow the terms of traditional Chinese painting, we have completed the sketch of the BRI with "freehand brushwork". It is now time to attend to the details with "fine brushwork".

The BRI will enable China to expand the scope of its opening up from regions along the coast and rivers to the hinterland and border areas. Through the BRI, China will open up on all fronts through links running eastward and westward, across land and over sea.

As of today, 103 countries and international organisations have signed 118 cooperation agreements with China on the BRI, including many Commonwealth countries.

In the past five years,

•      China's trade in goods with countries along the routes has exceeded $5 trillion;

•      China has invested over $60 billion in these countries;

China has also built 82 economic and trade cooperation zones along the routes. These zones have contributed $2.2 billion in tax and fees to the host countries, and created over 200,000 jobs locally.

上周,我出席了英国议会跨党派“一带一路”和中巴经济走廊小组成立仪式,着重介绍了中巴经济走廊项目。目前,走廊22个合作项目中有9个已完工,13个正在建设,每年可带动巴基斯坦经济增长1至2个百分点。

Last week, I attended the launch of the All Party Parliamentary Group for the Belt and Road Initiative and China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). Out of 22 CPEC projects, 9 have been completed and 13 are under construction. These projects will boost Pakistan's growth by 1 to 2 percentage points.

中国与斯里兰卡合作建设运营的汉班托塔港仅今年上半年就完成散货吞吐7.66万吨,未来有望成为印度洋的重要世界级大港;科伦坡国际集装箱码头全部完成“油改电”,二氧化碳排放减少95%,成为南亚地区规模最大的“绿色码头”。

BRI projects in other countries have also delivered tangible benefits. Here are some examples:

•      The Hambantota Port jointly built and operated by China and Sri Lanka handled 76,600 tons of freight in the first half of this year alone. It is expected to become an important world-class port in the Indian Ocean.

The Colombo International Container Terminal has completely converted from diesel to electricity, cutting CO2 emissions by 95%. It has become the largest "green port" in South Asia.

中国公司承建的尼日利亚阿卡铁路(阿布贾至卡杜纳)通车运营两年来,已累计运送旅客近100万人,还在沿线建设了一批学校、道路、医疗设施等。中国公司在坦桑尼亚投建的国家光纤骨干传输网覆盖全国21个行政区,联通坦桑尼亚周边6国。中国在卢旺达首都基加利市投建的市政道路扩建工程将于明年竣工,建成后将有效缓解城市交通压力。

•      The Abuja-Kaduna railway has provided services to nearly one million passengers since its launch two years ago. China also helped build many schools, roads and health care facilities along the railway.

•      The National ICT Fiber Backbone network in Tanzania covers 21 administrative regions in the country and connects six neighbouring countries.

The road expansion project in Kigali, the capital of Rwanda, will be completed next year. This project will effectively alleviate the traffic congestion in the city.

当然,与任何新生事物一样,人们认识“一带一路”有一个过程,难免会出现这样或那样的误解甚至疑虑。我想强调的是,“一带一路”倡议虽源于中国,但机遇和成果属于世界。中国不打地缘政治的小算盘,不搞封闭排他的小圈子,不做凌驾于人的强买强卖。“一带一路”坚持共商共建共享,绝不是什么债务陷阱、资源掠夺,而是与世界各国共谋发展、共迎挑战、共享繁荣的合作平台。

Like all things new, BRI has met with its share of misunderstandings and even doubts. It takes some time for people to fully appreciate this initiative.

Here I want to stress that although the BRI was proposed by China, it creates opportunities and produces outcomes for the world. In this Initiative, China has no geopolitical calculations. China is not building an exclusive bloc. And China is not strong-arming anybody to do deals on our terms. Instead, the principles of BRI cooperation are extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits. This means that contrary to allegations of "debt trap" or "plundering resources", the BRI is a platform for countries to achieve common development, address challenges together, and share prosperity.

未来,中国改革的步伐会越走越实,开放的大门会越开越大。中国将于今年11月在上海举办首届国际进口博览会,这是世界上首个专门以进口为主题的博览会,充分展现了中国进一步扩大开放的决心。我们欢迎包括英联邦国家在内的各国企业积极参展,把优质产品和服务带给中国13亿人口的大市场。

Going forward, China will take solid steps to deepen reform and open its door wider to the world. As a show of determination, China will host the first-ever International Import Expo in Shanghai this coming November. This will be the world's first-ever import fair. Companies of all countries, including the Commonwealth countries, are welcome at the Import Expo to introduce their products and services to the Chinese 1.3 billion-strong market.

第三,中国始终坚持以“国际规则”支撑和平。在国与国交往中,存在差异和出现分歧在所难免,关键在于在相互尊重的基础上,按照公认的国际规则,以务实和建设性方式管控和化解分歧。中国始终做国际秩序的维护者,坚持多边主义,维护以联合国为核心的多边体制权威性和有效性,反对任何一方按照自己的意愿随意取舍或选择规则。

Third, China has supported peace through adhering to international rules.

In international relations, it is natural that countries may disagree with each other. What's important is to manage and bridge disagreements in a practical and constructive manner according to universally-accepted international rules and on the basis of mutual respect.

China has always upheld the international order and the authority and effectiveness of the multilateral system with the UN as its core. China opposes the practice of cherry-picking international rules to suit one's own selfish interests.

今年以来,有的国家执意奉行“本国优先”政策,大搞单边主义、保护主义,四处挥舞“关税大棒”,挑起“贸易战”,给世界经济秩序和多边贸易体系带来严峻挑战。昨天,美国政府不顾国际国内绝大多数意见反对,宣布自9月24日起对2000亿美元中国输美产品加征10%的关税,进而还要采取其他关税升级措施。中方将不得不进行反制,坚决捍卫自身正当合法权益,维护全球自由贸易秩序。

Some country, however, is bent on "putting itself first", advocating unilateralism and protectionism, wielding the "tariffs baton" and threatening other countries with "trade wars". This has posed severe challenges to the world economic order and the multilateral trade regime.

Yesterday, despite the opposition at home and abroad, the US government announced that it would impose 10% of additional tariffs on $200 billion worth of imported Chinese goods starting from 24 September, and that it was preparing for further tariff escalations. China is now forced to take counter-measures in order to safeguard its lawful rights and interests and uphold free trade in the world.

我要强调的是,中国改革开放以来取得的一切发展成就,都是中国人民用勤劳的双手干出来的,归根结底是因为中国走在了正确的发展道路上。中国的奇迹是中国人民创造出来的,不是靠“偷窃”谁的财富、“盗取”谁的技术,更不是被吓出来的。中国人民不信邪也不怕邪,不惹事也不怕事。所谓“极限施压”根本吓不倒中国人民。

I want to reiterate this: What China has achieved since the introduction of reform and opening up policies are attributable to the hard work of the Chinese people. The fundamental reason for China's success is that we have found the right path for development. The "China miracle" is created by the Chinese people. It is not a result of "stealing" others' wealth or technology. Nor is it a result of being bullied. We would not have come so far had we feared threats. We do not create trouble, but we are not afraid of it. The so-called "maximum pressure" will never intimidate the Chinese people into submission.

美国秉持的是“零和博弈”、“以邻为壑”的旧思维,反映出来的世界观、合作观、发展观、输赢观都与中国截然不同。今年以来,我就中美贸易争端在英国主流媒体发表了6篇文章,强调维护基于规则的国际秩序的重要性,指出合作是唯一正确的选择,共赢才能通向更好的未来。

The US actions are deeply rooted in the belief of "zero-sum game" and "beggar-thy-neighbour" which are completely out of dated. They are a far cry from China's world view, how China sees international cooperation and development, and how China defines winning and losing

Earlier this year I have published six articles in British media on the trade disputes between China and the US. In these articles, I have stressed the importance of upholding the rule-based international order; I have illustrated why win-win cooperation is the only right path toward a better future.

中国秉持共商共建共享的全球治理观,积极参与全球治理体系改革和建设,努力为改革和完善全球治理贡献中国智慧和力量。我们将推动构建新型国际关系,推动构建人类命运共同体,与各国共同建设持久和平、普遍安全、共同繁荣、开放包容、清洁美丽的世界。无论国际风云如何变化,中国始终是全球化和自由贸易的坚定捍卫者,主张开放、融通、互利、共赢的合作理念,维护世界贸易组织规则,支持多边贸易体制,推动国际治理体系朝着更加公正合理的方向发展,为构建开放型世界经济做出积极贡献。

China believes that in the global governance, all countries should follow the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits. China has taken an active part in the reform and development of the global governance system. China works to contribute its wisdom and efforts to the improvement of this system.

China is ready to work with other countries

•      to build a new type of international relations;

•      to build a community with a share future for mankind;

•      and to build an open, inclusive, clean and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security and common prosperity.

Regardless of the changing international landscape, China will

•      remain a firm defender of globalisation and free trade;

•      advocate open, inter-connected and mutually-beneficial cooperation;

•      uphold WTO rules;

•      support the multilateral trade regime;

•      endorse a fair and reasonable international governance system;

and contribute to building an open world economy.

第四,中国始终坚持以“义利兼顾”维护和平。“国不以利为利,以义为利也。”中国古人的义利观讲究“义中之利,君子所贵也”。在国际合作中,只有义利兼顾才能义利兼得,只有义利平衡才能义利共赢。当代中国外交政策充分吸收传统文化精髓。作为联合国安理会常任理事国和最大发展中国家,中国始终牢记自身特殊责任和重要使命,坚持在国际舞台上为发展中国家主持公道;在联合国、二十国集团等场合同发展中国家加强战略合作,密切协调配合,共同探索和拓展发展中国家走向现代化的有效途径,推动全球治理体系朝着更加公正、合理和平衡的方向发展和完善,旗帜鲜明地维护发展中国家的共同利益和集体诉求。

Fourth, China has maintained peace through pursuing the greater good and shared interests.

In Chinese culture we believe that a gentleman should value the greater good and that a country should never sacrifice the greater good for material interests. In the international cooperation, pursuing the greater good and shared interests will lead to win-win results.

China's foreign policies fully reflect this spirit. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council and the largest developing country, China always keeps in mind its unique responsibilities and important mission.

China has spoken for developing countries on the international stage and has engaged in strategic cooperation and close coordination with them in the UN and the G20. China's goal is to work with partners of the developing world

•      to explore more effective ways to modernisation;

•      to improve the global governance system and make it fair, reasonable and balanced;

and to safeguard the common interests and aspirations of developing countries.

以非洲国家为例,在座的英联邦国家使节有不少来自非洲。中非是互帮互助的好伙伴,双方友好源远流长,特别是在争取民族独立解放、实现发展振兴的道路上,始终患难与共、相互支持,结下了深厚的兄弟情谊。我曾两度在非洲常驻,对非洲有深厚的感情。上世纪70年代,我在赞比亚工作期间曾有幸参加坦赞铁路的交接仪式,见证了这座中非友谊的历史丰碑。21世纪初,我出使埃及,见证了中埃关系在新世纪的蓬勃发展。

I know many of you are from Africa, so let me take China's relations with African countries as an example. China and Africa are close partners. Our friendship and brotherhood were forged and deepened in our common pursuit for national independence, development and revitalization. We supported and helped each other, and shared weal and woe.

I have been posted to Africa twice, and so I have deep emotional bonds with this continent. While working in Zambia in the 1970s, I had the honour to attend the handover ceremony of Tazara, a railway linking Tanzania and Zambia that was built by China. I witnessed the dedication of this historic monument of China-Africa friendship. While working in Egypt at the beginning of the new millennium, I saw with my own eyes a thriving China-Egypt relationship in the new century.

40多年过去了,世界形势风云变幻,但中非好友情谊不仅没有变,而且历久弥坚,更加牢不可破。今年9月3日至4日,中非合作论坛北京峰会成功召开,达成一系列重要成果。中非双方一致同意构建更加紧密的命运共同体。双方见证签署的各类合作协议近150份,特别是28个国家和非盟委员会同中方签署共建“一带一路”合作文件。非方高度赞赏中方为下阶段中非务实合作提出的“八大行动”。作为中非“十大合作计划”的升级版,“八大行动”规划了中非共同发展的具体路径,强调中方将致力于加强中非在产业产能、基础设施、贸易等领域合作,同时拓展双方在绿色发展、能力建设、健康卫生、人文交流、和平安全等领域合作潜能,特别是推动“一带一路”建设与非盟《2063年议程》、联合国2030年可持续发展议程和非洲各国发展战略深入对接,将极大促进中非合作更好更快发展,更多惠及非洲人民。

Over the past 40 years, despite changing international landscape, China-Africa friendship has remained stronger than ever.

On 3 to 4 September this year, the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation was a great success. China and Africa agreed to build a closer community with a shared future. A number of important outcomes were reached.

•      Nearly 150 cooperation agreements were signed.

•      In particular, 28 countries and the African Union Commission signed cooperation documents with China on jointly building the BRI.

The African side highly appreciated the "eight major initiatives" China proposed for China-Africa cooperation in the next stage. It is an upgraded version of the existing "ten cooperation plans". It draws a detailed roadmap for China and Africa to achieve common development.

According to the "eight major initiatives":

•      China and Africa will enhance cooperation on industrial capacity, infrastructure development and trade.

•      The two sides will tap cooperation potential in areas such as green development, capacity building, health care, cultural and people-to-people exchange, peace and security.

•      The two sides will also match the BRI with Agenda 2063 of the African Union, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and national development strategies of African countries.

These initiatives will facilitate fast-growing and better cooperation between China and Africa and deliver more benefits to the African people.

这次峰会进一步凝聚了中非合作论坛框架下55方、26亿人民团结合作的意愿和共识,是中非友好大家庭的一次历史性聚会,也是中非促进共同发展的一座新的历史丰碑。X1主席在峰会讲话中强调,中国在对非合作中坚持做到“五不”,即:不干预非洲国家探索符合国情的发展道路,不干涉非洲内政,不把自己的意志强加于人,不在对非援助中附加任何政治条件,不在对非投资融资中谋取政治私利。这是中非关系不惧风雨、历久弥坚的根本原因,也是中非合作欣欣向荣、长盛不衰的“独家秘籍”。任何人都无法阻挡中非合作和非洲发展的大势。

The big family of China and Africa includes 55 parties and 2.6 billion people. The historic gathering in Beijing of this big family strengthened our consensus on further cooperation. It was a new historic monument to the common development of China and Africa.

In his speech at the Summit, X1 said that China will take a "five-no" approach in its relations with Africa, namely:

•      No interference in African countries' pursuit of development paths that fit their national conditions;

•      No interference in African countries' internal affairs;

•      No imposition of our will on African countries;

•      No political strings attached to assistance to Africa;

•      And no selfish political interests in investment and financing cooperation in Africa.

This "five-no" approach is the fundamental reason why China-Africa relations have been able to withstand the test of time and hardship. It is the secret to the thriving China-Africa cooperation. No one could reverse the trend of China-Africa cooperation and Africa's development.

第五,中国始终坚持以“严守底线”捍卫和平。中国坚持走和平发展道路,其他国家也要走和平发展道路,这样世界和平才有保障。中国决不会以牺牲别国利益为代价来发展自己,同时也决不会允许别国损害中国的核心利益,决不会放弃自己的正当权益。我们将坚持以国家核心利益为底线维护国家主权、安全和发展利益,坚定捍卫国家领土主权,维护国家统一,这本身也是维护和平、捍卫和平之举。

Fifth, China has safeguarded peace through holding the bottom line.

China will stay committed to peaceful development. Other countries should do the same. World peace could be ensured only if everyone adheres to peaceful development. China will never seek development at the expense of others. At the same time, China will never allow its core interests be undermined, or give up its legitimate rights and interests.

Our bottom line is the core interests of our country. We will stay firm in safeguarding our national sovereignty, unity, security and development interests. This in itself maintains and safeguards peace.

近来,南海问题被炒得沸沸扬扬。实际情况怎样呢?事实胜于雄辩。在中国和东盟各国共同努力下,南海形势持续向好,各方重回谈判磋商解决有关争议的正轨,中国同有关国家之间关系健康稳定发展。中国与东盟各国正在全面有效落实《南海各方行为宣言》,积极推进“南海行为准则”磋商。最近,中国与东盟各国已就“南海行为准则”单一磋商文本草案达成一致。这充分说明,地区国家有信心、有能力、有智慧妥善处理好南海问题,实现本地区长久稳定、发展与繁荣。

Take the South China Sea as an example. Despite all the recent hyping-up, the facts speak for themselves: Thanks to the concerted efforts of China and ASEAN countries, the situation in the South China Sea is improving; relevant parties have returned to the right track of addressing disputes through negotiation and consultation; the relations between China and relevant countries have been sound and stable.

China and ASEAN countries are working on the full and effective implementation of the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea. We are actively advancing the consultation on the Code of Conduct in the South China Sea (COC). Agreement was reached between China and ASEAN countries recently on a single draft negotiating text of the COC. This has fully demonstrated that countries in the region have the confidence, capability and wisdom to deal with the South China Sea issue properly and achieve enduring stability, development and prosperity.

令人不解的是,一些域外大国似乎并不想看到南海风平浪静,他们派军舰和飞机不远万里来南海制造事端,放着广阔宽敞的南海航道不走,偏要打着“航行自由”旗号非法进入中国岛礁临近海域“耍枪弄棒”,侵犯中国主权,威胁中国安全,破坏地区和平稳定。事实上,南海航行自由从来不存在任何问题。南海每年十几万艘商船安全顺利通行,从没有哪艘遇到过所谓航行自由问题。中国对外贸易和能源运输60%以上通过南海,没有任何国家比中国更关心南海航行和飞越自由。中方一贯尊重和维护各国依据《联合国海洋法公约》在内的国际法,在南海享有航行和飞越自由,但前提是要尊重沿岸国的主权和安全。航行自由绝不是“横行自由”,绝不是乱闯别国领海、侵犯别国主权的自由。这样的“自由”必须制止,否则南海将无宁日。任何人都不要低估中国维护国家主权、安全和发展利益的意志,任何人都不要低估中国维护南海和平稳定的决心。

Yet to everyone's confusion, some big countries outside the region did not seem to appreciate the peace and tranquility in the South China Sea. They sent warships and aircraft all the way to the South China Sea to create trouble. Under the excuse of so-called "freedom of navigation", they ignored the vast sea lane and chose to sail into the adjacent waters of China's islands and reefs to show off their military might. This was a serious infringement upon China's sovereignty. It threatened China's security and put regional peace and stability in jeopardy.

The truth is the freedom of navigation in the South China Sea has never been a problem. Every year, hundreds of thousands of merchant vessels pass through the South China Sea safely and unimpeded. Never has there been a single case of navigation freedom being affected. With over 60% of its foreign trade and transport of energy passing through the South China Sea, China, more than any other countries, cherishes the freedom of navigation and over-flight in the South China Sea.

China has all-along respected and upheld the freedom of navigation and over-flight in the South China Sea in accordance with international law, including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. But the precondition for such freedom is respect for the sovereignty and security of the littoral states. Freedom of navigation is not a license to do whatever one wishes. Freedom of navigation is not freedom to invade in other country's territorial waters and infringe upon other country's sovereignty. Such "freedom" must be stopped. Otherwise the South China Sea will never be tranquil.

No one should underestimate China's will to safeguard its national sovereignty, security and development interests. No one should underestimate China's determination to uphold peace and stability in the South China Sea.

女士们、先生们,

Ladies and Gentlemen:

英联邦有53个国家,绝大多数成员国都与中国建立了外交关系。我们愿在“一个中国”原则基础上与所有国家发展互利合作关系,不断增进互信、深化友谊、扩大合作,特别是在减贫、卫生、气候变化、可持续发展以及全球治理等领域深化务实合作,成为携手同行、合作共赢的好朋友、好伙伴。

The majority of the 53 Commonwealth countries have diplomatic relationship with China. China stands ready to develop mutually-beneficial cooperation with all the countries on the basis of the one-China principle. We want stronger mutual trust. We want deeper friendship. We want broader cooperation, particularly on poverty alleviation, health care, climate change, sustainable development and global governance. I am sure that by working together and pursuing win-win results, we will become good friends and good partners.

习主席指出,“世界繁荣稳定是中国的机遇,中国发展也是世界的机遇。和平发展道路能不能走得通,很大程度上要看我们能不能把世界的机遇转变为中国的机遇,把中国的机遇转变为世界的机遇”。让我们共同努力,变世界机遇为中国机遇,变中国机遇为世界机遇,共享机遇、共促和平、共谋发展,为构建新型国际关系,为构建人类命运共同体做出贡献!

As XI said,

"A prosperous and stable world provides China with opportunities, and China's development also offers an opportunity for the world as a whole. Whether we will succeed in our pursuit of peaceful development to a large extent hinges on whether we can turn opportunities in the rest of the world into China's opportunities and China's opportunities into those for the rest of the world."

Let us join hands to share opportunities and turn opportunities into success. Let us join hands to promote peace and achieve development. Together we will contribute to the building of a new type of international relations and a community with a shared future for mankind! 

谢谢大家!

Thank you!

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