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中英双语:美对华贸易战既不公正也不公平


来源:驻美使馆    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2018-07-27 09:06   点击: 次  

崔天凯大使:美对华贸易战既不公正也不公平

Ambassador Cui Tiankai: Trade war against China is unjustified

当全世界都急切地想知道,中美贸易战争会不会进一步升级,将何去何从时,我们不妨先看看美国挑起贸易战是否站得住脚。

When the world is wondering where the trade war waged by the U.S. against China is heading to, let us pause and take a look at the underlying arguments of the U.S. to see whether they are justified.

对华巨大贸易赤字是美开打贸易战的最主要理由。赤字并非恶意的产物,也不一定对经济不利。总体上讲,赤字是经济全球化模式下市场资源配置的结果,是全球价值链的客观反映。与此同时,美国国内储备率过低而消费过高,以及美元作为国际主要储备货币的功能必然导致美贸易逆差。美长期出口管制限制了对华出口,也助长了对华贸易逆差。

The main criticism that the U.S. makes against China centers around the trade deficit America runs with China. Deficits are not products of ill-intention, nor are they necessarily bad for an economy. Generally, they result from how resources are allocated in a globalized economy and are natural reflections of the global value chain. Besides, some structural reasons, such as the low savings and high consumption rates America maintains, the role of the U.S. dollar as the international reserve currency inevitably leads to trade deficits. The fact that the U.S. government curbs high-tech exports to China makes the deficit even bigger.

中国从不刻意追求贸易顺差,贸易是否平衡完全是由市场决定的。贸易逆差也丝毫不意味着美国吃亏。得益于对华贸易,美国家庭长期享用到更多性价比高的产品,2015年对华贸易帮助美国降低消费物价水平近1.5%,为每个美国家庭平均节省850美元。

China has never deliberately sought a trade surplus as the flow of trade is determined by the market. Having a deficit does not mean the U.S. is "losing." On the contrary, thanks to the trade with China, American families have access to more, higher quality, lower cost products. In just 2015, trade with China lowered prices in the U.S. by up to 1.5 percent, saving each family $850 on average.

中国的经济结构性问题也备受美方指摘,相关批评并不公正,也不客观。

China's structural problems of its economy are also a source of American criticism. However, this is neither fair nor objective.

比如所谓“盗窃知识产权”问题。知识产权保护是一个需要持续努力的过程,我们态度坚决,做了许多工作,也取得了巨大进步。中国政府已经建立了相对完整的知识产权法律保护体系,推进设立知识产权法院和专门审判机构,不断发挥司法在保护知识产权上的主导作用。

Take the so-called theft of intellectual property, as an example: intellectual property rights (IPR) protection takes consistent efforts and China is, in fact, strategically committed to and has recently made demonstrably significant strides in this regard. We have codified a robust IPR protection legal system, including setting up IPR courts and dedicated tribunals that enhance the dominant role of the judiciary in IPR protection.

从2001年加入WTO起,中国对外支付知识产权费年均增长17%,2017年达到286亿美元,其中对美国支付的费用就达到71.3亿美元,约占总额的四分之一。完善知识产权保护也是中国自身发展,特别是创新发展的需要。中国的成功从来不是、今后也不会靠“偷”得来。

Since entering the World Trade Organization in 2001, intellectual property royalties paid by China to foreign right holders has registered an annual growth of 17 percent, reaching $28.6 billion in 2017. More than $7 billion (25 percent) went to the U.S. Indeed, improving IPR protect is crucial to China's own development, particularly technological innovation.

Chinese economic success has never been achieved by stealing from anyone, and never will be.

再比如所谓“强制技术转让”。中国政府从来没有对外资企业提出过此类要求。中外企业的技术合作和其他经贸合作完全是基于自愿原则实施的契约行为。多年来,许多外国企业都选择通过合资在中国实现了巨大利益。

Another accusation levied against China is the supposed "forced technology transfer." Let's be clear: the Chinese government has never made any such request to foreign companies. When it comes to technology or any other cooperation between Chinese and foreign companies, it is purely a matter of voluntary contracts. Indeed, many foreign companies have reaped huge benefits from setting up joint ventures in China over the years.

当前,不管是在贸易不平衡还是结构性问题上,中方的确存在需要改进的地方,美方也有合理关切,但双方应在相互尊重和信任的基础上开展对话与合作。中方一直以最大诚意和耐心推动双方通过对话协商解决分歧。今年2月至6月,中方与美方进行了4轮高级别经贸磋商。双方于5月19日发表《中美联合声明》,就加强经贸合作、不打贸易战达成重要共识。但美方反复无常、出尔反尔,公然背弃双方共识开打贸易战,中国不得不被迫反制。

To be sure, there is room for China to improve its trade policy and address structural economic issues. We certainly are open to addressing reasonable American concerns. But the two sides should conduct dialogue and cooperation on the basis of mutual respect and trust. China's policy is, and always has been, to resolve differences through dialogue and consultation. From February to June of this year, China, with maximum sincerity and patience, engaged in four rounds of high-level economic talks with the U.S. As a result, the China-U.S. joint Statement has been announced with consensus reached on strengthening trade and economic cooperation, and avoiding a trade war. Unfortunately, the U.S. has betrayed its own words. It brazenly abandoned bilateral consensus and insisted on fighting a trade war with China, forcing us to take countermeasures.

荒唐的是,美方一些官员却反过头来指责中国的反制行动没有国际法律依据,这完全是“贼喊捉贼”的强盗逻辑。美国301调查既在国内法项下违反其总统向国会作出的行政声明,又在国际法项下违反其在1998年欧盟诉美世贸争端案中作出的承诺。到底谁在违反国际法,一目了然。

Ironically, some U.S. officials accuse China of taking counteractions with no international legal basis, which is tantamount to a thief crying "stop, thief." Domestically, the 301 investigation runs counter to the U.S. President's Statement of Administrative Action approved by Congress; internationally, it has violated its commitment made in the resolution of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade dispute with the European community in 1998. Any reasoned, objective observer can tell at a glance who is violating international law.

40年来,经贸关系一直是中美关系的压舱石。47年前,基辛格博士首次秘密访华时,中美之间几乎没有贸易。1979年两国建交之初,双边贸易额只有25亿美元,而2017年达到了5800亿美元。这一巨大发展背后是经济规律使然。遵循理性的思维,双方就能继续互利共赢。

For four decades, economic and trade relations have served as the bedrock of positive China-U.S. relations. When Henry Kissinger paid a secret visit to China 47 years ago, there was barely any bilateral trade. When the two countries established diplomatic ties in 1979, the volume of trade was merely $2.4 billion. This number then rocketed to $580 billion by 2017, thanks to the reality of free-market economics. If such rationality continues to prevail both sides will benefit.

现在的中国是世界最大的汽车销售市场、留学教育市场、出境游消费国、农产品和能源进口国以及世界第二大医疗、药品市场等,拥有4亿中等收入群体。习近平主席在今年博鳌亚洲论坛年会上宣布,中国还将继续深化改革、扩大开放。中国主动扩大开放的一系列重大举措已经或者即将落地。1500种消费品关税大幅下调,进口汽车关税已从25%降到15%。就在上月底,中国政府发布了外商投资准入新的负面清单,市场准入大幅放宽。11月我们还将在上海举办首届中国国际进口博览会。

Today's China, with a middle class of almost 400 million people, is the world's largest automobile market, largest source of international students and tourists, largest importer of agricultural products and energy, and the second largest medical care and pharmaceutical market. As President Xi Jinping announced at the Boao Forum for Asia this April, China will continue its reform and opening-up. Some of the major steps have already been delivered; the rest are in the pipeline. Tariffs on 1,500 types of consumer goods have been lowered considerably. The import tariff on automobiles has been cut from 25 percent to 15 percent. The revised negative list for foreign investment released late last month substantially eased market access restrictions for foreign investors. In November, China will host our first International Import Expo in Shanghai.

美国政府无视上述事实,选择开打贸易战,与中国对立,实在令人费解。他们不会以为这样做中国就会屈服,美方就能获利吧?只要回顾一下历史就会知道,“极限施压”对中国不起作用,霸凌讹诈只会适得其反。贸易战没有赢家,美方此举只会损人害己,并殃及世界。

With all of this as a backdrop, it is absolutely beyond our understanding that the U.S. government initiated the trade war with such determination. Does the U.S. government genuinely believe China would possibly yield to such unreasonable policy? Anyone familiar with Chinese history knows that "maximum pressure" doesn't work for our nation. Trade bullying will only backfire. There is no winner in a trade war. The U.S. will only end up hurting itself and the world.

中美这样的大国,彼此有竞争很正常,重要的是双方以有效、建设性方式管控竞争。

For great powers like China and the U.S., competition - even conflict - is natural. It is, however, vital for us to manage such competition in an effective and constructive way.

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