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驻立陶宛大使申知非在立主流媒体发表署名文章《告诉你一个真实的西藏》


来源:外交部    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2018-06-25 20:53   点击: 次  

驻立陶宛大使申知非在立主流媒体发表署名文章《告诉你一个真实的西藏》

Tibet----A True Reality

——By Chinese Ambassador Shen Zhifei

最近,达赖喇嘛窜访立陶宛,引发了不少立陶宛人对中国西藏的兴趣。我愿在此就中国西藏有关话题向立陶宛读者们进行系统地阐释,帮助一些人走出对中国西藏认知上的误区。

Recently, Dalai Lama came to Lithuania, which has aroused a lot of interest from Lithuanians in China’s Tibet. I would like to systematically tell readers the true story of Tibet, which is helpful to know the reality.

“西藏”与“立陶宛”历史属性存在本质区别

"Tibet" and "Lithuania"has substantial different historic status

在立陶宛有个别人认为,“立陶宛和西藏很像,都是或曾是独立国家”。这种观点非常荒谬,是对相关史实不了解的体现。

In Lithuania, some individuals think Tibet is similar to Lithuania, that was once an independent country in history. This view is ridiculous and shows the lack of understanding of related historical facts.

1240年,立陶宛大公国成立,从此,立陶宛人民有了属于自己的国家。在此后的数百年里,立人民既建立过横跨波海和黑海、幅员辽阔、经济发达的立陶宛—波兰联合王国,也遭遇过多次外来干涉,国家命运不由自主。1918年发表独立宣言后的立陶宛已是一个现代意义上的民族国家了。经过二战及之后错综复杂的沧桑变化,立陶宛于1990年宣布重获独立,并于1991年加入联合国。

In 1240, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was established. From then on, the Lithuanian people have their own country. In the next several centuries, the Dynastic union with Poland, across the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea and with the vast territory and the developed economy, was established by Lithuanian people. Because of many external interventions, the destiny of the nation was once not in your own hands. The Act of Independence in 1918 marks Lithuanian modern statehood of international recognition. After the World War II and the complicated changes that followed, Lithuania resumed its independence in 1990 and became a member of the United Nations in 1991. This is briefly the Lithuanian history.

1247年,西藏地方政权自主归顺中国中央王朝,正式纳入中国版图。在此后的700多年里,西藏地方政权首领始终接受中央政府的册封,执行中央政府的政令,承认西藏是中央政府管辖下的行政区域。中国历代中央政府直接掌管着确定西藏地方行政机构、任免西藏地方官吏、清查人口户籍、驻军戍边等权力,有效行使了对西藏的主权。西藏的藏传佛教格鲁派两大活佛达赖喇嘛和班禅喇嘛的封号都是中国清王朝政府分别于1653年和1713年册封的,其在西藏的宗教和政治地位也是由中央政府确定的。西藏从来就不是一个独立国家,世界上从未有任何一个国家的政府承认西藏是一个“独立国家”。中国是一个拥有56个民族的国家,藏族同胞是中华民族的一员,其荣辱兴衰也关乎到中华民族的整体命运,因为我们是同呼吸共命运的同胞。

Then let’s see Tibet history. In 1247, the local authorities of Tibet voluntarily subordinated to the Chinese central dynasty and officially incorporated itself into the Chinese territory. For more than 700 years since then, the Tibetan local regime had always been conferred by the Central Government, executed the Central Government's decree just as an administrative region under the jurisdiction of the Chinese dynasties. The Chinese Central Government had always effectively exercised sovereignty over Tibet by controlling and overseeing the local administrative organs, such as the appointments and dismissals of Tibetan local officials, the inventory of the residence of the population and the stationing of troops. The Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama, which were the titles of the two living Buddhas of the Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism, were all conferred by the Chinese Qing Dynasty Court respectively in 1653 and 1713. The religious and political status in Tibet of the Dailai Lama and the Panchen Lama were also determined by the Central Government. Tibet has never been an independent country and no government in the world has ever recognized Tibet as an "independent country". China is a country with 56 ethnic groups. Tibetan is a component of the Chinese nation. Their rise and fall is also related to the overall destiny of the Chinese nation because we are compatriots living in one big family.

近代以来,中国人民饱经外来侵略与干涉,中华各族儿女历尽苦难与沧桑。19世纪中期开始,帝国主义国家分裂中国的企图公开化,炮制了所谓“西藏独立”。但这一阴谋从未得逞,西藏作为中国领土一部分的事实从未改变,西藏地区也从未脱离中国中央政府管辖而“独立”。1949年中华人民共和国成立,1951年,西藏和平解放,是新中国诞生的历史进程的组成部分。西藏历经民主改革,于1965年成立了以藏族民众为主、享有高度自治的西藏自治区。

In recent history, the Chinese nation had suffered from foreign aggression and interference, experienced untold suffering and vicissitudes. From the mid-19th century, the attempt of the imperialist and colonial powers to split China was made public, and then the so-called "Tibet independence" was concocted. However, this conspiracy never succeeded. The fact that Tibet is the part of the Chinese territory has never been changed and the Tibet region has never been "independent" from the jurisdiction of the Chinese Central Government. After the People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949, Tibet underwent the democratic reforms, which was part of the historical process of the birth of the New China. After the democratic reforms in Tibet, the Tibet Autonomous Region with high autonomy was established in 1965 with the Tibetans as the mainstay.

从历史角度看,西藏从来只是中国的一个地方行政区,是不能和立陶宛这样的独立国家相提并论的。

From the historical point of view, Tibet has always been a local administrative region of China and cannot be compared with an independent country like Lithuania.

必须认清达赖的真实面目

The true face of the Dalai Lama

对历史稍有了解的人都知道,达赖统治的旧西藏,实行的是上层僧侣和贵族专政的政教合一的封建农奴制。当时95%的西藏人是连人身自由都没有的奴隶,可以被任意买卖、转让,经常被处以各种严酷的私刑,其黑暗、残酷比中世纪西欧的农奴制度有过之而无不及,因此旧西藏被称为“二十世纪世界践踏人权最严重的地区之一”。达赖当时作为西藏地方最高统治者对此负有不可推卸的责任,他才是践踏西藏人权和自由的真正罪魁祸首。他从不敢谈及他在旧西藏的残酷统治,他也毫无悔过之意,反而自封为西藏自由的“代言人”,人权和人道的“维护者”,蒙骗国际社会。

Those who have some knowledge of history know that Tibet during the Dalai Lama period was under the feudal serfdom regime of the dictatorship of the monks and nobles of the upper class with the combination of politics and religion. At that time, 95% of the Tibetans were slaves who did not even have their personal freedom. They could be arbitrarily traded, trafficked and even often subjected to harsh lynching. Its darkness and cruelty were worse than the serfdom in medieval Europe. The old Tibet is known as "one of the areas of the most serious human rights abuses in the 20th century." The Dalai Lama, as the supreme ruler of Tibet, had an inescapable responsibility for this. He was the real culprit in trampling on human rights and freedom in Tibet. The Dalai Lama never dared to talk about his brutal rule in old Tibet with no intention of repentance. Instead, he proclaimed himself as the "spokesperson" for freedom of Tibet and the "defender" of human rights and humanity, attempting to deceive the international community.

1951年西藏和平解放,包括解放军进驻西藏是受到达赖本人和广大西藏人民拥护和支持的。1954年达赖曾担任过中华人民共和国第一届全国人大副委员长职务。1959年,达赖背叛了对国家和人民的庄严承诺,辜负了中央人民政府的信任,勾结国外势力,在拉萨发动了一场旨在分裂中国的武装叛乱。在广大藏族僧俗同胞的支持和帮助下,叛乱被迅速平息。达赖也因叛乱失败而逃亡国外,从此踏上了一条与中央政府对抗的道路,从事了大量分裂祖国的活动。无论达赖身上有什么“光环”,他本质上都是一个彻头彻尾的“民族分裂分子”。

The democratic reforms of Tibet in 1951, including the stationing of the People's Liberation Army in Tibet for national defense, was welcomed and supported by the Dalai Lama himself and the vast majority of the Tibetan people. In 1954, the Dalai Lama served as Vice Chairman of the 1st National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, the supreme national body he swore to be loyal to. In 1959, the Dalai Lama betrayed his solemn promises made to the country and the people, failed the trust of the Central People's Government, and launched armed riots in Lhasa. He collaborated with foreign forces, aiming at splitting China. With the support and help of the Tibetan people, the riots were quickly settled. The Dalai Lama fled abroad after the failure of riots. From then on, he embarked on a path of confrontation with the Chinese Central Government and engaged in numerous activities to split his motherland. Regardless to whatever "halo" or "laurel" on him, the Dalai Lama is essentially a complete national separatist.

如果有人坚持要将达赖称之为一个“精神领袖”,他也只是西藏国家分裂分子们的精神领袖。作为“藏独”分子和分裂势力的“教父”,达赖常年打着“和平”、“友好”的幌子,四处宣扬所谓“中间道路”,实际上是希望通过煽动民族仇恨,进行国家分裂行为,寻求“西藏独立”,在西藏恢复政教合一的封建农奴制统治,使西藏重回农奴遍地、民不聊生,但上层统治阶级可以肆意妄为的“法外之地”。对此,中国中央政府不答应,广大西藏同胞们更不会答应。

If someone regards the Dalai Lama a "spiritual leader" , then he is only the spiritual leader of the Tibetan separatists. As the "godfather" of the Tibetan separatists and separatist forces, the Dalai Lama all the while disguises himself to be "peaceful" and "friendly", propagandizing the so-called "middle way". But his real intention is to carry out separatist actions of China by inciting ethnic hatred. The Central Government of China and the great majority of Tibetan people do not and will never agree to the so-called “Tibet independence” and the restoration of feudal serfdom regime in Tibet, because it will bring Tibet back to the time when serfs were everywhere and the people lived in hell, while the upper ruling class could arbitrarily do anything in their “lawless land”.

西藏的今昔变化

The Great Progress in Tibet

历史和事实都是不容歪曲的。1959年以后,特别是中国改革开放40年来,西藏地区在经济、社会、科教文化等方面取得了飞速发展,从黑暗走向光明、从专制走向民主、从落后走向进步、从贫穷走向富裕、从封闭走向开放,取得了短短几十年跨越上千年、翻天覆地的巨大变化。1951年,西藏生产总值仅有1.29亿元(按现行汇率不足2000万欧元),人口为115万人,平均期望寿命35.5岁。经过中央政府和西藏各族人民的不懈努力,2017年,西藏自治区GDP达到1310.6亿元(约合175亿欧元),人口314万,平均期望寿命也达到了67岁。仅2017年一年,中央财政向西藏自治区转移支付人民币494.47亿元(约合66.6亿欧元),助推西藏经济社会发展,延续和保护西藏原有的语言、文化和风俗。青藏铁路的通车,四通八达的公路和航空运输网,使雪域高原不再闭塞,为西藏带来了全新的发展机遇。中央人民政府和西藏自治区人民政府特别注意尊重和保护藏族文化的传承,尊重并保护人民的宗教信仰自由和正常的宗教活动。目前,西藏共有1700多座寺庙和各类宗教活动场所,注册僧尼46000多人,广大信众的各种宗教活动正常进行,每年都如期举行各种重大宗教节日或活动。布达拉宫、大昭寺、罗布林卡等古建筑和宗教文化圣地被列入世界文化遗产,《格萨尔史诗》、锅庄舞等文学、艺术作品被列入国家非物质文化遗产。西藏的生态环境修复与保护工作得到了中央政府高度重视并不断改善。西藏地区正一改贫穷落后的旧面貌,世界屋脊散发着蓬勃向上的朝气。

History and facts cannot be distorted. After 1959, especially in the last 40 years since China’s reform and opening up, Tibet has achieved rapid development in economy, society, education as well as culture and undergone tremendous changes from darkness to brightness, from autocracy to democracy, from backwardness to progress, from poverty to prosperity and from isolation to openness. In 1951, Tibet’s GDP was only 129 million yuan (less than 20 million euros at the current exchange rate), with a population of 1.15 million and an average life expectancy of 35.5 years. Through the unremitting efforts of the Central Government and people of all ethnic groups in Tibet, in 2017, the GDP of the Tibet Autonomous Region has reached 131.06 billion yuan (approximately 17.5 billion euros), with a population of 3.14 million and an average life expectancy of 67 years. In 2017, the central government transferred 49.5 billion yuan(approximately 6.66 billion euros) as budget subsidy to the Tibet Autonomous Region to support Tibet’s economic and social development, including the protection of its original language, culture and heritages. The construction of the Qinghai-Tibet railway, along with the highway and air transportation network to the world, makes the snow-covered plateau no longer remote and brings to Tibet new opportunities of development. The Central People's Government and the People's Government of the Tibet Autonomous Region pay particular attention to respecting and protecting the inheritance of Tibetan culture, the people's freedom of religious belief and legitimate religious activities. At present, there are more than 1,700 temples and venues for various religious activities in Tibet. More than 46,000 religious professionals have been registered and various religious activities of the general believers are conducted normally. Important religious festivals or events are celebrated every year as scheduled. The ancient buildings and religious temples and cultural sites, such as the Potala Palace, Jokhang Temple and Norbu Lingka, have been listed as World Heritage Sites. The literary and artistic works, such as Gesar Epic and Tibetan Dance, are included in list of the Chinese national intangible cultural heritage. The restoration and protection of the ecological environment in Tibet has been highly valued and continuously improved by the Central Government. The Tibetan region is changing the image of poverty and backwardness to vitality and prosperity.

旧西藏,不是一些人梦想中的“香格里拉”,而是百万农奴的“人间炼狱”。今日欧洲,不可能再回到500多年前的中世纪欧洲;同样,今日中国西藏,也不可能再回到达赖集团政教合一封建农奴制统治下的旧西藏。对西藏在中国改革开放的发展进程中所取得的翻天覆地的变化和历史性成就视而不见或一味否定的人,只能说他们怀有险恶的政治目的,恶意抹黑历史和现实,肆意践踏中国的核心利益,这绝不是对西藏人民真正的关心,对西藏发展的真心关注。

Old Tibet is not the "Shangri-La" that some people dream of, but rather "hell on earth" for millions of the serfs. Today, it is impossible to bring Europe back to the dark age of more than 500 years ago. Likewise, it is impossible either to bring Tibet back to the dark time of Dalai Lama feudal serfdom. We can only say that those, who have turned a blind eye to or denied Tibet’s drastic changes and historical achievements in the development process of China’s reform and opening up, maliciously discredit history and reality and wantonly trample on China’s core interests with their sinister political purposes. This is absolutely not a real concern to the Tibetan people and helpful to the development of Tibet.

读懂历史,才能看穿达赖的真实面目,才能了解西藏的过去和现在。欢迎立陶宛的朋友有机会到西藏实地走一走,看一看新时代的西藏,听一听西藏人民的心声。

Only by reading history can we see through the true face of the Dalai Lama and understand the past and present of Tibet. I welcome more Lithuanian friends to visit Tibet. You will see Tibet in the new era and hear the true voice of the Tibetan people.

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