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中英双语:2017年美国的人权纪录


来源:国新办    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2018-05-08 22:25   点击: 次  

国务院新闻办公室24日发表《2017年美国的人权纪录》,全文如下:

China published a report on the United States' human rights situation on Tuesday. The report, titled "Human Rights Record of the United States in 2017," was released by the Information Office of the State Council. Following is the full text of the report:

2017年美国的人权纪录

中华人民共和国

国务院新闻办公室

2018年4月

Human Rights Record of the United States in 2017

State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China

April 2018

目录

Contents

导言

Foreword

一、公民权利遭受严重侵犯

I. Serious Infringement on Civil Rights

二、系统性种族歧视加剧社会撕裂

II. Systematic racial discrimination aggravates social split

三、美式民主存在严重弊端

III. Severe flaws in American-style democracy

四、贫富分化现象持续恶化

IV. Rich-Poor Divide Continues Widening

五、特定群体遭受歧视和人身侵犯

V. Special Groups Suffer Discrimination and Physical Assault

六、继续粗暴侵犯他国人权

VI. Continued Violations of Human Rights in Other Countries

导言

Foreword

当地时间4月20日,美国国务院发布《2017年国别人权报告》,继续扮演“人权卫士”,以道德裁判官自居,对他国国内事务和人权状况横加指责,妄言谬评,似乎在这个世界上只有美国的人权状况是最完美的。回顾2017年,稍有正义感的人们都会发现,美国自身的人权纪录依旧劣迹斑斑,并呈持续恶化的趋势。

On April 20 local time, the State Department of the United States released its country reports on human rights practices for 2017, posing once again as "the guardian of human rights" and a self-styled "human rights judge." It continued to point fingers and cast groundless blame on the domestic affairs and human rights situation of other countries as if it had the most perfect human rights condition in the world. However, looking back on the year of 2017, even those with the slightest sense of righteousness will find that the human rights record of the United States itself remained tarnished and showed a continued deterioration tendency.

——2017年10月1日晚,拉斯维加斯发生美国现代史上最为严重的枪击案,造成近60人死亡、800余人受伤。

-- On the evening of October 1, 2017, almost 60 people were killed and over 800 injured in a mass shooting in Las Vegas, the deadliest mass shooting in modern U.S. history.

——2017年8月,一些白人至上主义者聚集夏洛茨维尔市,高呼纳粹口号,举行被称为“几十年来最大的仇恨聚会”。

-- In August 2017, some white supremacists rallied in Charlottesville, chanting Nazi slogans in the "largest hate gathering in decades".

——美国《大西洋》月刊网站和《纽约时报》网站等报道,多项对美国学者的调查显示,大多数受访者认为近几十年来美国民主一直停滞不前,美国的民主正在被金钱淹没。

-- According to reports on The Atlantic website and New York Times website, several polls of American scholars revealed that most of the respondents believed that quality of democracy in the United States had been plateauing for decades, and that American democracy is drowning in money.

——普林斯顿大学政治学教授马丁·吉伦斯的研究表明,过去40年来美国的经济政策“强烈反映了最富有者的偏好,而与贫困人口和中等收入群体的偏好几乎没有任何关系”。

-- A research from Martin Gilens, a politics professor at Princeton University, showed that American economic policies over the last 40 years "strongly reflect the preferences of the most affluent, but bear virtually no relationship to the preferences of poor or middle-income Americans."

——美国全国免罪记录中心2017年3月7日发布的研究报告显示,非洲裔美国人被误判谋杀罪的可能性比白人高7倍,被误判毒品犯罪的可能性是白人的12倍。针对同样罪行,非洲裔男性罪犯的刑期比白人男性罪犯平均高19.1%。

-- A study from the U.S. National Registry of Exonerations released on March 7, 2017 showed that black Americans were about seven times more likely to be wrongfully convicted of murder than white Americans. When it comes to drug crimes, black Americans are about 12 times more likely to be wrongfully convicted than innocent white people. Black male offenders received sentences on average 19.1 percent longer than those of "similarly situated" white male offenders.

——美国经济政策研究所2017年2月13日发表的报告显示,白人家庭的平均财富比非洲裔家庭高7倍以上,白人家庭财富中位值比非洲裔家庭财富中位值高12倍以上,超过四分之一非洲裔家庭的净资产为零或负数。

-- The Economic Policy Institute released a report on February 13, 2017, saying that the average wealth for white families is seven times higher than average wealth for black families and that median white wealth is twelve times higher than median black wealth. More than one in four black households had zero or negative net worth.

——据英国《卫报》网站和联合国人权高专办网站2017年12月报道,美国有5230万人生活在“经济贫困社区”,约1850万人处于极度贫困状态。

--According to websites of The Guardian and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in December 2017, 52.3 million Americans lived in "economically distressed communities" and 18.5 million were living in deep poverty.

——英国广播公司网站2017年12月11日报道,美国有1330万贫困儿童,占儿童总人口的18%;美国城市研究所的数据显示,美国有近900万儿童在持续贫困的家庭中成长,占儿童总人口的11.8%。

-- A report of BBC on December 11, 2017 said that of those living in poverty in the United States, there were about 13.3 million children – 18 percent of those under the age of 18. The U.S. Urban Institute statistics revealed that nearly 9 million children in the United States (11.8 percent of American children) would grow up in persistently poor families.

一、公民权利遭受严重侵犯

I. Serious Infringement on Civil Rights

美国暴力犯罪攀升,枪支泛滥问题依然难解,枪击案件持续高发,警察暴力执法引发广泛抗议,政府肆意侵犯个人网络隐私权,人民的生命和自由受到严重威胁。

Violent crime was on the rise in the United States, the government exercised no effective control over guns which caused continuous growth of gun incidents, power abuse by American police sparked mass protests, and government surveillance infringed individual privacy. As a result, civil rights of the American people, especially the right to life and freedom, were seriously threatened.

暴力犯罪居高不下。美国联邦调查局2017年9月发布的《2016年美国犯罪报告》显示,2016年美国共发生暴力犯罪约120万起,较2015年增加4.1%;平均每十万居民中发生386.3起,较2015年增长3.4%。与2015年相比,严重暴力伤害案增加5.1%,谋杀案增加8.6%,强奸案增加4.9%。

Violent crime was on the rise in the United States. According to the FBI's annual report on national crime statistics released in September 2017, there were an estimated 1.2 million violent crimes in the United States in 2016, an increase of 4.1 percent from 2015. It showed the estimated rate of violent crime was 386.3 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants, up 3.4 percent compared with the 2015 rate. The estimated number of aggravated assaults, murders and rapes in the nation in 2016 increased 5.1 percent, 8.6 percent and 4.9 percent, respectively, when compared with the 2015 estimate (www.fbi.gov, ucr.fbi.gov, September 2017).

枪支泛滥导致枪击事件持续高发。皮尤研究中心调查显示,至少三分之二的被调查者称他们的家庭有过枪支。美国联邦调查局《2016年美国犯罪报告》显示,2016年73%的凶杀案涉枪。美国枪支暴力档案室《2017年枪支暴力伤亡统计》显示,截至12月25日,2017年美国共发生枪击事件60091起,共造成15182人死亡、30619人受伤,其中大规模枪击事件338起。2017年10月1日晚,64岁的白人男子史蒂芬·帕多克在拉斯维加斯从曼德勒海湾宾馆32层的房间向楼下露天演唱会2万多名观众开枪扫射。枪击持续了10至15分钟,造成近60人死亡、500余人受伤。这是美国现代史上最为严重的枪击案。事后,警察在其酒店房间与家中共搜出42支枪、数千发子弹及爆炸物。11月5日,得克萨斯州萨瑟兰泉镇发生恶性枪击案,至少造成26人死亡、20人受伤,死伤者的年龄从5岁到72岁不等。

Ineffective gun control has caused continuous growth of gun violence in the United States. A Pew Research Center survey showed that at least two-thirds of the surveyed Americans had lived in a household with a gun at some point in their lives (www.pewsocialtrends.org, June 22, 2017). Seventy-three percent of the homicides for which the FBI received weapons data in 2016 involved the use of firearms, according to the FBI's annual report on national crime statistics released in September 2017 (www.ucr.fbi.gov, September 2017). According to the Gun Violence Archive of 2017, as of December 25, the total number of incidents in the United States was 60,091, which killed 15,182 and injured 30,619. Among the incidents, 338 were mass shooting (www.gunviolencearchive.org, December 25, 2017). On October 1, 2017, a gunman, named as 64-year-old Nevada resident Stephen Paddock, opened fire from the 32nd floor of the Mandalay Bay Hotel in Las Vegas towards an open-air music festival attended by 22,000. Nearly 60 people were killed and about 500 injured in the mass shooting, the deadliest in modern U.S. history (www.bbc.com, October 2, 2017). The police found 42 guns, thousands of bullets, and explosives in Paddock's hotel room and his home. On November 5, 2017, at least 26 were dead and 20 were injured after a man dressed in black entered First Baptist Church in Sutherland Springs, Texas armed with a rifle and opened fire on its congregation. Those shot ranged from 5 to 72 years old.

警察滥用执法权力。美国联邦调查局2017年发布的数据显示,2016年美国执法部门共实施10662252次逮捕(不包括违反交通规则的逮捕),平均每十万居民中有3298.5人被逮捕。据《华盛顿邮报》网站统计,2017年美国有987人被警察枪击致死。《华盛顿邮报》网站2017年7月26日报道,两名警察在执行逮捕令的过程中走错地址,枪杀了一名无辜者,而受害人并无任何犯罪记录。皮尤研究中心2017年1月11日披露,在过去两年中有近500名非洲裔美国人被警方枪杀。《赫芬顿邮报》网站2017年11月7日报道,纽约两名警员在搜查毒品的过程中,将一名藏有大麻的女子扣留在警车里并实施了轮奸。

U.S. police abused their law enforcement power. According to statistics released by the FBI, law enforcement made an estimated 10,662,252 arrests nationwide in 2016. (Note: the UCR Program does not collect data on citations for traffic violations.) The arrest rate for the United States in 2016 was 3,298.5 arrests per 100,000 inhabitants (ucr.fbi.gov, September 2017). According to The Washington Post's Fatal Force database, 987 people were shot by police in 2017. The Washington Post reported on July 26, 2017, that American police shot and killed a man while trying to serve a warrant at the wrong house. The man didn't have a warrant out for his arrest or a criminal record. Statistics released by Pew Research Center on January 11, 2017, showed that since 2015, almost 500 blacks had been fatally shot by police (www.pewsocialtrends.org, January 11, 2017). Huffington post reported on November 7, 2017, that two American detectives Eddie Martins, 37, and Richard Hall, 33, were arrested on charges including raping a woman in a police van in New York after finding her in possession of marijuana and anti-anxiety pills.

警察暴力执法引发广泛抗议。2017年2月22日晚,数百人走上加利福尼亚州阿纳海姆市街头,抗议一天前一名不当值的洛杉矶警员在与几名青少年的争执中开枪。警方逮捕了23名抗议者。9月15日晚,因枪杀非洲裔男性的前白人警察杰森·斯托克利当日被无罪释放,圣路易斯市发生了严重的暴力抗议事件,32名示威者被捕。抗议者表示,“一次又一次,非洲裔美国人被警察杀害,但没有人对此承担责任。”

Violent law enforcement by American police sparked mass protests in the United States. On February 22, 2017, hundreds of people took to the streets of Anaheim, Calif., for a sprawling protest that was sparked by video footage showing an off-duty Los Angeles police officer firing his gun during a confrontation with teenagers a day earlier. Police said they had arrested 23 people during the protests that followed (www.washingtonpost.com, February 23, 2017). Protesters in St. Louis on the night of September 15, 2017, blocked highways, damaged public and private property, broke windows, threw rocks at the mayor's house and threw bricks at police officers after a white former police officer earlier in the day was acquitted in the 2011 fatal shooting of a black man. Thirty-two protesters were arrested. "Time and time again, African-American men are killed by police, and nobody is held accountable," said one protester (abcnews.go.com, September 16, 2017).

网络监控侵犯个人隐私。英国《每日邮报》网站2017年4月6日报道,推特公司2017年3月收到行政命令,要求其提供反对美国总统强硬移民政策的账户使用者的信息,政府并未给出任何理由。该公司认为,政府是在滥用法律。《纽约时报》网站2017年9月13日报道,2016年10月至2017年3月,美国边检强制搜查手机和电脑近15000次,比2015年同期的8383次大幅提升。英国《独立报》网站2017年9月27日报道,美国政府宣布将继续收集移民的社交媒体信息。丹佛大学法学副教授塞萨尔·赫尔南德斯认为,监控社交媒体账户会对言论自由产生可怕的影响。美国司法部对发生在总统就职日的抗议活动展开调查,要求“梦的主人”公司交出负责协调抗议活动网站130万访问者的IP地址。

Online surveillance by the U.S. government infringed individual privacy. According to a report by Daily Mail on April 6, 2017, Twitter refused a government demand to reveal who was behind an account opposed to President Donald Trump's tough immigration policies. The company filed a federal lawsuit to block the order, citing freedom of speech as a basis for not turning over records about the account. The New York Times reported on September 13, 2017, that there were nearly 15,000 forced searches of phones and laptops in the United States from October 2016 to March 2017, compared with 8,383 in the same period a year before. According to a report by the Independent on September 27, 2017, the American government quietly announced that it was planning on continuing to collect social media information on immigrants in America, a policy that has experts worried about privacy abuses and inefficiency. César Cuauhtémoc García Hernández, an associate professor of law at the University of Denver's Sturm College of Law, said that monitoring social media accounts could have a chilling effect on free speech. The U.S. Department of Justice was investigating protesters who exercised their First Amendment rights of free assembly at Donald Trump's inauguration in January 2017. The Justice Department has demanded the company DreamHost turn over some 1.3 million IP addresses of people who visited a website coordinating Inauguration Day protests (edition.cnn.com, August 17, 2017).

二、系统性种族歧视加剧社会撕裂

II. Systematic racial discrimination aggravates social split

美国既有的种族歧视问题未见缓解,种族关系进一步恶化,社会对立加剧,种族冲突频发。

The existing problems of racial discrimination in the United States have not been eased, but racial relations continue to worsen. Social antagonism has been intensified and racial conflicts frequently occurred.

执法司法领域存在系统性的种族歧视。《赫芬顿邮报》网站2017年11月18日报道,美国量刑委员会2017年11月的报告发现,针对同样罪行,非洲裔男性罪犯的刑期比白人男性罪犯平均高19.1%。据美国全国免罪记录中心2017年3月7日发布的研究报告,对1989年至2016年10月被改判无罪案例的分析发现,非洲裔美国人比白人更容易被误判犯有谋杀罪、性侵犯、非法毒品活动等罪行。在1900名被宣判有罪但后来改判无罪的被告人中,非洲裔占47%,是其人口比例的3倍。斯坦福大学“警务公开项目”2017年6月19日发布研究报告,对美国20个州6000万次警察交通拦截数据的分析显示,警察在执法中对非洲裔、拉美裔司机适用与白人不同的标准,对他们进行搜查所需要的怀疑理由要远少于白人。非洲裔、拉美裔司机被警察拦截检查的可能性是白人的两倍。一旦被拦截,他们更容易被罚款、搜查乃至逮捕。例如,当因超速行驶而被要求靠边停车后,他们被开罚单的可能性比白人分别高20%和30%。“警察暴力地图”网站2018年1月1日发布的统计数据显示,美国警察2017年共杀死1129人,其中非洲裔占25%,远高于其13%的人口比例。

Systematic racial discrimination exists in law enforcement and judicial organs. According to the website of the Huffingtong Post on November 18, 2017, a report of the U.S. Sentencing Commission released in November said that black male offenders received sentences on average of 19.1 percent longer than those of "similarly situated" white male offenders. According to the study from the National Registry of Exonerations, which was released on March 7, 2017, and examined cases from 1989 to October 2016, African Americans are far more likely to be wrongfully convicted of crimes such as murder, sexual assault and illegal drug activity than white people. Of the 1,900 defendants convicted of crimes and later exonerated, 47 percent were African Americans -- three times their representation in the population (www.aljazeera.com, March 8, 2017). According to a report by the Stanford Open Policing Project released on June 19, 2017, based on analysis of more than 60 million police stops in 20 states, black and Latino drivers face a double standard and police require far less suspicion to search them than their white counterparts. Black and Latino drivers are about twice as likely to be searched compared with whites. After being stopped, black and Latino drivers are ticketed, searched and arrested more often than whites. For example, when pulled over for speeding, black drivers are 20 percent more likely than whites and Latino drivers 30 percent more likely than whites to be ticketed (www.latimes.com, June 19, 2017). According to statistics by the Mapping Police Violence released at its website on January 1, 2018, the U.S. police have killed 1,129 people in 2017, of whom 25 percent were black people, much higher than their population distribution of 13 percent.

美国有线电视新闻网2017年9月1日报道,佐治亚州一名已有20年警龄的白人警官格雷格·阿伯特拦检一位白人女性司机,当被拦截的司机表示因担心警察开枪而不敢挪动双手时,阿伯特脱口而出:“你不是黑人。记住,我们只杀黑人。”美联社2017年9月8日报道,费城警察局6名非洲裔警察对上级警官提出涉及种族主义的投诉,称这些白人警官将非洲裔公民称为“人渣”,将杀害非洲裔公民称为“减少牲畜存栏数”。

According to a CNN report on September 1, 2017, a white police lieutenant Greg Abbott in the U.S. state of Georgia who has been an officer for more than 20 years stopped a white female driver. The woman said she was scared to move her hands and Abbott interrupted her and said, "You're not black. Remember, we only kill black people." On September 8, 2017, the AP reported that six black Philadelphia police officers filed complaints against their inspectors. Their complaints include referring to black civilians as "scum" and calling black civilian killings "thinning the herd."

种族仇恨犯罪创近年新高。美国联邦调查局2017年11月13日公布的统计数据显示,2016年美国共发生6121起仇恨犯罪,达到了近年来未曾有过的高点。2016年11月美国总统选举后,种族主义口号和信息明显增长,特别是在学校中。南方贫困法律中心在选举日后的10天里发现了867起仇恨骚扰或恐吓事件。半岛电视台网站2017年6月10日报道,52岁的白人男子亚当·普林顿在堪萨斯州一个酒吧内高喊“滚出我的国家”,并对两名印度裔男子开枪射击,致一死一伤。《纽约邮报》网站2017年10月31日报道,3名男子涉嫌于2016年夏天在纽约皇后区公墓毁损40余块墓碑,并在带有亚裔姓名的墓碑上喷涂不堪入目的种族攻击性话语。

Racist hate crimes hit record high in recent years. According to a new statistical report released by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) on November 13, 2017, a total of 6,121 hate crimes in the United States were reported to the FBI in 2016, to a point not seen in recent history. In the days after the November 2016 presidential election, an increase in racist slogans and hateful messages was reported, especially in schools. The Southern Poverty Law Center found 867 cases of hateful harassment or intimidation in the 10 days after the election (edition.cnn.com, November 13, 2017). According to a report by the website of Al Jazeera on June 10, 2017, white man Adam Purinton, 52, was accused of shouting "get out of my country" as he shot dead one Indian man and injured another at a bar in Kansas. According to the website of New York Post on October 31, 2017, in the summer of 2016, police arrested three men who smashed more than 40 headstones and spray-painted racial slurs and offensive phrases on many headstones that had Asian names on them at a Queens cemetery.

白人至上主义游行引发暴力冲突。2017年8月,一些白人种族主义者和右翼抗议者聚集在弗吉尼亚州的夏洛茨维尔市游行示威,高喊着“鲜血与土地”的纳粹战斗口号。20岁的白人至上主义者詹姆斯·菲尔茨驾驶汽车高速撞向抗议白人至上主义游行的人群,致使1人死亡、19人受伤。英国《每日电讯报》网站2017年8月13日报道,美国民权团体将这次白人至上主义游行描述为“几十年来最大的仇恨聚会”。针对这一事件,8月23日联合国消除种族歧视委员会主席阿纳斯塔西娅·克里科里指出:“我们对白人民族主义者、新纳粹和三K党以公开的种族主义口号和仪式进行的种族主义游行感到极度震惊,这种行为助长了白人至上主义并煽动种族歧视和仇恨。”她对美国政府未能明确反对种族暴力行径提出了批评,并呼吁美国的政治家和政府官员对发生在夏洛茨维尔和全美国的种族仇恨演讲及犯罪予以无条件的、明确的谴责与抵制。

White nationalist protesters sparked violent confrontations. In August 2017, some white nationalists and right-wing protesters converged on Charlottesville, Virginia, shouting "blood and soil," a phrase invoking the Nazi philosophy (edition.cnn.com, August 12, 2017). White nationalist James Alex Fields Jr., 20, drove a car plowing into a group of protesters against white nationalists, killing one person and injuring 19 others (www.cbsnews.com, August 12, 2017). According to a report by the Telegraph on August 13, 2017, U.S. civil rights groups described the riot as America's "largest hate gathering in decades." On August 23, Anastasia Crickley, Chairperson of UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD), said that "We are alarmed by the racist demonstrations, with overtly racist slogans, chants and salutes by white nationalists, neo-Nazis, and the Ku Klux Klan, promoting white supremacy and inciting racial discrimination and hatred." UN rights experts criticized U.S. government's failure to unequivocally reject racist violent events, and called on high-level politicians and public officials of the United States to unequivocally and unconditionally reject and condemn racist hate speech and crimes in Charlottesville and throughout the country (www.un.org, August 23, 2017).

种族关系恶化。盖洛普网站2017年3月15日发布的民意测验数据显示,42%的美国民众表示对美国的种族关系感到极度担忧,比2016年高7个百分点。这是该数据连续第三年大幅增加,也是盖洛普调查17年来的最高纪录。皮尤研究中心2017年8月的调查结果显示,58%的受访者认为种族主义是美国社会的一个大问题,比两年前增加了8个百分点,比2011年大约翻了一番。英国广播公司网站2017年9月26日报道,2016年美国职业橄榄球联盟非洲裔球星凯珀尼克在比赛现场播放美国国歌时拒绝起立,并以半跪的方式面对国旗。他表示:“我不会站起来去给一个压迫非洲裔和其他有色人种的国家的国旗致敬。”此后,许多美国职业橄榄球联盟球员纷纷加入他的行列。

Racial relations worsened. According to a Gallup poll released on March 15 last year, 42 percent of Americans say they personally worry a "great deal" about race relations in the United States, up seven percentage points from 2016 and a record high in Gallup's 17-year trend. This is the third straight year worries about this issue have increased by a significant margin. A survey, conducted by Pew Research Center in August, 2017, showed that 58 percent of Americans say racism is a "big problem in our society," up 8 percentage points in the past two years and having roughly doubled since 2011 (www.pewresearch.org, August 29,2017). According to a report by BBC website on September 26, 2017, in 2016, National Football League (NFL) player Colin Kaepernick refused to stand up and kneeled during the national anthem. "I am not going to stand up to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses black people and people of color," he said. A number of players have joined Colin Kaepernick since his demonstrations began.

种族歧视事件频繁发生。英国广播公司网站2017年5月31日报道,美国篮球职业联赛巨星勒布朗·詹姆斯在洛杉矶的住所被人喷涂了表示“黑鬼”的字母。他指出,种族主义永远是美国的一部分,在美国现实中,对非洲裔美国人的仇恨天天存在。《纽约邮报》网站2017年9月15日报道,俄亥俄州一名志愿消防队员在社交平台上发表种族主义言论,声称“在发生火灾的房子里,我宁愿选择先救狗而不是黑鬼”,“那是因为一只狗比一百万个(黑鬼)更重要”。《纽约每日新闻》网站2017年11月3日报道,新泽西州爱迪生市两名亚裔学校委员会候选人遭遇种族主义攻击,市民们收到印着这两位亚裔候选人照片的明信片,脸上被打上了种族主义口号。皮尤研究中心的调查显示,少数族裔群体更加频繁地遭遇带有种族歧视色彩的网络骚扰。四分之一的非洲裔和十分之一的拉美裔美国人表示因为种族或族裔的原因而在网络上受到骚扰。

Racial discrimination occurred frequently. According to a report by BBC website on May 31, 2017, NBA superstar LeBron James said that the "N-word" was spray painted on to his Los Angeles home. He said that racism will always be a part of America, and hate in America - especially for African-Americans - is living every day. The New York Post reported on September 15, 2017 that a volunteer firefighter in Ohio has posted racist remarks on Facebook, saying he'd save a dog from a burning house before a black man. "That's because one dog is more important than a million n——," he said. According to a report by the website of New York Daily News on November 3, 2017, two Asian school board candidates in central New Jersey received a racist attack. Residents in Edison received postcards that had photos of the two with "deport" stamped over their faces. Pew Research Center survey showed that some minority groups more frequently encounter harassment that carries racial overtones. A quarter of black Americans and ten percent of Hispanic Americans say they have been targeted online due to their race or ethnicity (www.pewresearch.org, July 25, 2017).

少数族裔群体在就业、薪酬等方面处于全方位的劣势。《洛杉矶时报》网站2017年9月15日报道,从美国劳工部20世纪70年代开始记录失业率以来,非洲裔的失业率一直接近于白人的两倍。旧金山联邦储备银行2017年9月5日发布的研究报告显示,1979年非洲裔的时薪是白人的80%,到2016年已经下降到70%。《今日美国报》网站2017年12月16日报道,在全国范围内,典型的非洲裔家庭的收入仅为普通白人家庭收入的61%。在宾夕法尼亚州伊利市,白人失业率为4%,非洲裔却高达24.6%,非洲裔收入的中位值仅为白人的43.2%。《今日美国报》网站2017年10月3日报道,所有少数族裔群体在高科技行业从业人员的比重都在下降。旧金山一家人力资源技术公司2017年3月29日发布的研究报告显示,虽然非洲裔和拉美裔劳动人口占美国劳动人口的比例都超过12%,但非洲裔在白领劳动力中仅占2%-3%,拉美裔仅占5%。

Minority groups have lower employment rate and are paid less. According to a report by the website of Los Angeles Times on September 15, 2017, since the Labor Department began keeping track of unemployment by race in the early 1970s, the black unemployment rate is nearly double the white unemployment rate. In 1979, the average black man in America earned 80 percent as much per hour as the average white man. By 2016, that shortfall had worsened to 70 percent, according to research from the San Francisco Fed (www.washingtonpost.com, September 5, 2017). A report by the website of USA Today on December 16, 2017, said that nationwide, the typical black household earns just 61 percent of the money that the typical white household earns. In Erie, Pennsylvania, the unemployment rate for white people is four percent, while that for black people is up to 24.6 percent. The median income for black people is only 43.2 percent of that for white people. A report by the website of USA Today on October 3, 2017, said that representation of all minority groups is declining in technology companies. According to a report released on March 29, 2017, by a San Francisco-based HR tech company, black people make up only two to three percent of the white-collar workforce — significantly less than their total workforce participation rate of 12 percent. Only about 5 percent of Hispanic workforce contributes to white-collar jobs (www.ibtimes.com, March 31, 2017).

种族间财富差距日益扩大。美国联邦储备委员会2017年9月公布的数据显示,2013年至2016年,非洲裔和拉美裔与白人之间的贫富差距分别增长了16%和14%。2016年美国白人家庭净资产中位值为171000美元,而非洲裔仅为17600美元,拉美裔为20700美元,分别为白人家庭的10.29%和12.11%。美国经济政策研究所2017年2月13日发表的报告显示,超过四分之一非洲裔家庭的净资产为零或负数。美国人口普查局2017年9月公布的数据显示,2016年非洲裔美国家庭收入中位值是39490美元,比2000年还低1873美元,是唯一收入低于2000年水平的种族群体。

Racial wealth gap becomes larger. According to data released by the Federal Reserve in September last year, between 2013 and 2016, wealth gap between black and white families grew by 16 percent during that time, and by 14 percent between Hispanics and whites. In 2016, white families had a median net worth of 171,000 U.S. dollars, compared with 17,600 U.S. dollars for blacks and 20,700 U.S. dollars for Hispanics, accounting for 10.29 percent and 12.11 percent of that for white families respectively (www.washingtonpost, September 28, 2017). The report issued by the Economic Policy Institute on February 13, 2017, said that more than one in four black households have zero or negative net worth (www.epi.org, February 13, 2017). The median income for an African American household was 39,490 U.S. dollars in 2016, according to U.S. Census Bureau data released in September 2017, even 1,873 U.S. dollars less than that in 2000. African Americans are the only racial group the Census Bureau identifies that has been left behind than the year of 2000 (www.latimes.com, September 15, 2017).

穆斯林遭受歧视与攻击。2017年1月27日,美国政府发布一项行政命令,禁止伊朗、伊拉克、利比亚、索马里、苏丹、叙利亚和也门等7个国家的公民进入美国。由于禁令所涉国家均以穆斯林人口为主,因此该行政令也被普遍解读为“穆斯林禁令”。这一禁令在美国国内和世界各地都引发了广泛抗议。皮尤研究中心2017年初的一项调查显示,75%的美国成年穆斯林表示美国社会存在大量对穆斯林的歧视,69%的普通公众也持相同观点。50%的穆斯林表示,近年来在美国做一名穆斯林变得更加困难。皮尤研究中心对美国联邦调查局仇恨犯罪统计数据的分析显示,2015年至2016年,在美国针对穆斯林的攻击事件数量显著增长,超过了2001年“9·11”事件后的峰值。

Muslims suffered from discrimination and assaults. On January 27, 2017, the U.S. government issued an order to ban on the entry of citizens from seven Muslim-majority countries: Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen. The order was labeled as "Muslim ban" as countries involved were mainly Muslim population, and aroused protests in the United States and the world. In a Pew Research Center survey conducted in early 2017, three-quarters of Muslim American adults say there is "a lot" of discrimination against Muslims in the United States, a view shared by 69 percent adults in the general public. In addition, half of U.S. Muslim adults say that in recent years it has become more difficult to be a Muslim in the United States. According to a Pew Research Center analysis of hate crimes statistics from the FBI, the number of assaults against Muslims in the United States rose significantly between 2015 and 2016, surpassing the modern peak reached in 2001, the year of the September 11 terrorist attacks (www.pewresearch.org, November 15, 2017).

三、美式民主存在严重弊端

III. Severe flaws in American-style democracy

美国金钱政治持续发酵,富人主导政治走向,弱势群体行使投票权面临更严苛的限制,政治人物丑闻频发。

Money politics in United States has gone further in 2017, as the wealthy groups controlled the political development; the disadvantaged groups faced more barriers in voting; and continuous scandals of political figures happened.

金钱政治加剧不平等。英国《金融时报》网站2017年7月15日指出,“美国的政治体系已经被巨额资金所扭曲。”美国联邦选举委员会的数据显示,数十个政治行动委员会在2017年第一季度共筹集数千万美元的资金。个人捐助者向政治行动委员会和有关政治实体捐助了2.364亿美元,与2013年第一季度相比增加了约30%。美国政治响应中心网站12月27日的数据显示,美国2017年的政治游说支出达到近五年来的最高值。《纽约时报》网站2017年9月20日的评论称,“美国的民主正在被金钱淹没。”金钱政治使得美国过去40年的经济政策“强烈反映了最富有者的偏好,而与贫困人口和中等收入美国人的偏好几乎没有任何关系”。

Money politics made inequality worse. The Financial Times website said on July 15, 2017 that the U.S. political system has been so warped by big money. According to Federal Election Commission data, dozens of political action committees collected tens of millions of dollars in the first season of 2017. Individual donors contributed 236.4 million U.S. dollars to political action committees and related political entities, roughly 30 percent more than the recorded contribution during the same span following the 2012 presidential election (www.bizjournals.com, May 8, 2017). The website of the Center for Responsive Politics on December 27, 2017, presented data which showed the lobbying spending in 2017 was the highest in the past five years (www.opensecrets.org, December 27, 2017). The New York Times website said in its commentary on September 20, 2017 that "American democracy is drowning in money". The money politics has made American economic policies over the last 40 years "strongly reflect the preferences of the most affluent, but bear virtually no relationship to the preferences of poor or middle-income Americans."

民主政治走向衰退。一项对专家的调查显示,89%的受访者认为过去10年来美国民主质量一直在下降。美国《大西洋》月刊网站2017年6月21日报道,一项关于美国民主状况的调查显示,大多数受访者认为,在给予公民平等的投票机会、阻止官员利用公职谋取私利以及民主决策等方面,美国政府是失败的。

Democratic politics went weakening. An expert survey on American democracy showed that 89 percent of respondents believed the democratic quality in the United States had declined over the last 10 years (www.authwarningsurvey.com, June 28, 2017). The Atlantic website reported on June 21, 2017 that most interviewees of a survey on U.S. democracy disagreed that the U.S. met standards for granting citizens an equal opportunity to vote, stopping officials from exploiting their public office for private gain, and conducting politics and formulating policy.

低收入者的投票权受到更严苛的限制。美国《新闻周刊》网站2017年11月21日报道,成千上万的美国人因贫穷而被剥夺了投票权。已有9个州通过立法,剥夺任何未付律师费或法院罚款者的投票权。仅在亚拉巴马州,就有超过10万名欠费者被剔除出选民名单,约占该州选民人口的3%。文章评论道,“我们国家正处于有史以来富人比以往任何时候都更有政治权力的时代,不让欠律师费或法庭罚款的人投票,更是封住了低收入群体的口。”

Low-income voters faced more severe barriers. A report on November 21, 2017 from the website of Newsweek magazine said that hundreds of thousands of Americans were being denied the right to vote because they are poor. In nine states, legislators have enacted laws that disenfranchise anyone with outstanding legal fees or court fines. In Alabama, more than 100,000 people who owe money – roughly 3 percent of the state's voting-age population – have been struck from voting rolls. The report commented that preventing people from voting because they owe legal fees or court fines muzzle low-income Americans at a time in the nation's history when the rich have more political power than ever.

老年人、残疾人行使投票权面临更多障碍。《纽约时报》网站2017年11月24日报道,美国投票站设置的投票机器很难被老年人或残疾人使用。一项针对178个投票站使用情况的调查显示,绝大多数投票站内外都存在通行障碍,如坡道过陡或车位不足,使残疾选民无法参与投票。

Older and physically challenged voters encountered more barriers. The New York Times website reported on November 24, 2017 that voting machines at polling places made it difficult for the elderly and disabled citizens of any age to vote. A survey of 178 polling places showed that the great majority still had impediments outside -- like steep ramps or inadequate parking -- or inside that could discourage or exclude disabled voters.

新闻媒体受到压制。2017年,多家媒体在参加政府新闻发布和官方活动报道时受到政府排斥,美国有线电视新闻网和《纽约时报》等一些媒体甚至被禁止参加白宫新闻发布会。2017年的一项调查报告显示,美国的新闻自由度跌至13年来最低点。皮尤研究中心2017年4月4日调查显示,73%的成年受访者认为美国现任政府与新闻媒体之间的紧张关系阻碍了他们获取国家的政治新闻和信息。

The media was suppressed. In 2017, a number of news organizations were rejected by the U.S. government in press conferences and other official activities and the CNN, New York Times, and other media organizations were barred from White House briefings. Press freedom in the United States is at its lowest point in 13 years, according to a report in 2017 (www.cnn.com, April 28, 2017). Another survey from the Pew Research Center on April 4, 2017 showed that 73 percent of adult respondents believed the tensions between the government and the news media were getting in the way of access to important national political news and information (www.journalism.org, April 4, 2017).

腐败丑闻爆发。2017年的一项调查显示,近六成美国人认为美国政府的腐败水平上升了,近七成受访者认为政府在反腐败方面是失败的。哥伦比亚广播公司新闻网站2017年3月14日报道,有9名军官因涉嫌卷入贿赂丑闻而受到起诉,其中包括已经退休的布鲁斯·拉夫莱斯上将。作为利益交换,他们接受了一名承包商提供的贿赂,包括妓女服务、奢华宴席和豪华旅游。该贿赂案目前已有超过20名前任或现任海军军官面临指控。

Corruption scandals broke out. A survey in 2017 showed that nearly six in 10 Americans believed the level of government corruption has risen in 2017, and nearly seven in 10 people said the government was doing a bad job at combating corruption. The website of CBS News reported on March 14, 2017 that nine military officers including the retired Navy admiral Bruce Loveless were indicted in a bribery scandal as they accepted the services of prostitutes, lavish meals and fancy trips from a defense contractor. The case has charged more than 20 former or current Navy officials.

议员和政府官员不断曝出性骚扰丑闻。《今日美国报》网站2017年11月20日报道,自2016年以来,美国20个州中至少有40名议员被100多人公开指控有某种形式的性行为不端或性骚扰。半岛电视台网站2017年12月12日报道,民主党议员阿尔·弗兰肯等人受到有关性骚扰的指控。《华盛顿邮报》网站2017年12月21日报道,参议员办公室用财政资金来解决性骚扰或性歧视的指控,众议员办公室自2008年以来也至少参与处理了10起涉及性骚扰或性歧视的投诉。《华盛顿邮报》网站2017年12月1日发表评论文章称,多名政要被指控性骚扰却受到所属政党包庇,展示了美国政界的丑陋形象。

Sexual scandals of congressmen continue to happen. The USA Today website said on November 20, 2017 that since 2016 at least 40 lawmakers in 20 states have been publicly accused by more than 100 people of some form of sexual misconduct or harassment. The website of Al Jazeera reported on December 12, 2017 that Democratic Congressman Al Franken, and others have faced the allegations of sexual harassment. According to a report on the Washington Post website on December 21, 2017, a senator's office used Treasury Department fund to settle a claim of sex discrimination or harassment, and the House of Representatives said its member-led offices were involved in settlements of at least 10 allegations of sexual harassment or sex discrimination since 2008. Another report also from the Washington Post website on December 1, 2017 said that the allegations against several political figures were being shielded by their parties, showing an ugly portrait of American politics.

四、贫富分化现象持续恶化

IV. Rich-Poor Divide Continues Widening

美国贫富分化加剧,无家可归者人数增长,毒品和违禁药物泛滥,“医疗荒漠”地带蔓延,贫困人口生活悲惨。联合国人权理事会极端贫困和人权问题特别报告员菲利普·奥尔斯顿一针见血地指出:“美国梦正在迅速蜕变成美国幻想。”

The rich-poor divide expanded in the United States, reporting an increasing number of homeless people. Drugs and banned substances were abused, and people in poverty lived in miserable conditions. "The American Dream is rapidly becoming the American Illusion," said the independent human rights expert appointed by the UN Human Rights Council to look at poverty and human rights in countries around the world (www.theguardian.com, December 15, 2017).

贫困人口生活状况堪忧。英国《卫报》网站2017年12月8日报道,有5230万美国人生活在“经济贫困社区”,约占美国总人口的17%。美国人口普查局的统计数据显示,超过4000万美国人生活在贫困中,其中约1850万人处于极度贫困状态,其家庭收入低于贫困线的一半。(注32)斯坦福大学贫困与不平等问题研究中心2017年发布的报告显示,美国南部农村的整体贫困率为20%,其中非洲裔美国人的贫困率是33%,非洲裔妇女的贫困率高达37%。在美国西部农村,原住民的贫困率高达32%。联合国人权理事会极端贫困和人权问题特别报告员菲利普·奥尔斯顿在美国进行为期两周的实地考察后指出,美国是世界上最富有、最强大和最具科技创新能力的国家之一,但无论是财富、权力还是技术都没有被用来解决4000万人持续贫困的局面。他的结论是:“极端贫困的持续存在是当权者作出的政治选择。”

The conditions remained precarious for people living in poverty. The Guardian news website reported on December 8, 2017 that 52.3 million Americans lived in "economically distressed communities," representing 17 percent of the U.S. population (www.theguardian.com, December 8, 2017). The most recent official statistics from the US Census Bureau indicated that more than 40 million people were living in poverty. Almost half of those, 18.5 million, were living in deep poverty, with reported family income below half of the poverty threshold (www.ohchr.org, December 15, 2017). According to a 2017 report issued by Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality, the overall poverty rate in the United States' rural South stood at 20 percent, with blacks and black women in the rural South facing poverty rates of 33 percent and 37 percent, respectively. Native Americans in the rural West had the poverty rate as high as 32 percent (inequality.stanford.edu). After his two-week visit in the United States, Philip Alston, the United Nation's special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights stated that the United States is one of the word's richest and most powerful and technologically innovative countries; but neither its wealth nor its power nor its technology is being harnessed to address the situation in which 40 million people continue to live in poverty. The conclusion he drew was that "the persistence of extreme poverty is a political choice made by those in power" (www.theguardian.com, December 15, 2017).

不平等程度持续恶化。美国贫富分化的程度在不断加大。世界收入不平等数据库的数据显示,美国的基尼系数在西方国家中是最高的。在经济合作与发展组织37个成员国中,美国的贫困和不平等程度排第35位。德意志银行首席国际经济学家托斯坦·斯洛克以收入水平来计算美国家庭财富的报告显示,美国0.1%最富有家庭的财富相当于最底层90%家庭所拥有财富的总和。《波士顿评论》网站2017年9月1日报道,在过去40年,80%中低收入人口的收入仅增长了约25%,而20%高收入人口的收入却几乎翻了一番。联合国贫困和人权监测机构指责美国领导人试图把这个国家变成“极端不平等的世界冠军”。

Inequality deteriorated. The wealth gap continued to widen in the United States. According to the World Income Inequality Database, the United States has the highest Gini coefficient (measuring inequality) of all Western Countries. In the OECD, the United States ranks 35th out of 37 in terms of poverty and inequality (www.theguardian.com, December 15, 2017). In a report showing the share of U.S. household wealth by income level, Deutsche Bank's chief international economist Torsten Slok said the top 0.1 percent of American households hold about the same amount of wealth as the bottom 90 percent (www.businessinsider.com, January 25, 2017). Boston Review's website reported on Sept. 1, 2017 that while the income of those in the bottom 80 percent of America has grown only by about 25 percent in the last four decades, it has almost doubled for the top 20 percent. The United Nations monitor on poverty and human rights accused the U.S. leadership of attempting to turn the country into the "world champion of extreme inequality" (www.theguardian.com, December 15, 2017).

无家可归者生活悲惨。英国《卫报》网站2017年12月6日报道,美国有多达553742人至少有一夜无家可归,纽约无家可归者增长率高达4.1%。在洛杉矶县无家可归者的露营地,大约1800个露宿“穷街”街头的无家可归者晚上只能共用9个没有门的卫生间。马修·德斯蒙德在《被驱逐者》一书中指出,美国每年都有数百万人因交不起房租而被房东赶走,他们是真正被遗忘的贫困人口。

The life of the homeless was miserable. The Guardian's website reported on December 6, 2017 that 553,742 people were homeless on a single night in the United States last year, with an increase of 4.1 percent in New York. In a homeless encampment in Los Angeles, approximately 1,800 homeless people shared just nine toilets located in stalls without doors at night (www.theguardian.com, June 30, 2017). Matthew Desmond's book Evicted said millions of Americans were evicted each year as they struggled to make rent: these people were the true forgotten poor (www.theguardian.com, February 24, 2017).

毒品及成瘾性药物管控不力。《医学报刊》新闻网站2017年6月13日报道,美国有770万人滥用违禁药物。美国有线电视新闻网2017年12月14日报道,40%的12年级学生、28%的10年级学生和12.9%的8年级学生在过去一年里使用过某种违禁药物。哥伦比亚广播公司网站2017年6月6日报道,2011年至2015年,仅在俄亥俄州就以处方的形式开出了约40亿颗阿片类药物,过量用药成为当今50岁以下美国人死亡的首要原因。据美国疾病控制和预防中心2017年12月发布的报告,2016年美国有超过63600人因用药过量而死亡。美国广播公司网站2017年12月12日报道,阿片类药物使用量剧增已迫使成千上万的儿童离开他们的家庭,2012年至2016年因毒品导致的寄养案件增加了32%。

The U.S. government failed in controlling drug and addictive medicine. The website of Medical Press reported on June 13, 2017 that 7.7 million Americans abused illicit drugs. On December 14, 2017, CNN said nearly 40 percent of 12th-graders, 28 percent of 10th-graders and 12.9 percent of eighth-graders had used some sort of illicit drugs in the past year. CBS News reported on June 6, 2017 on its website that between 2011 and 2015, nearly four billion opioid pills were prescribed in the state of Ohio alone. Overdoses are now the leading cause of death of Americans under the age of 50. According to a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in December, 2017, in 2016, there were more than 63,600 drug overdose deaths in the United States. On December 12, 2017, ABC News reported that soaring use of opioids had forced tens of thousands of children to leave their homes across the United States, citing a 32 percent spike in drug-related foster care cases from 2012 to 2016.

医疗保障问题重重。联合国人权理事会极端贫困和人权问题特别报告员菲利普·奥尔斯顿在其报告中指出,美国与同等发展水平国家之间的“健康差距”继续拉大,其国民预期寿命更短,更容易得病身亡。英国《卫报》网站2017年12月15日报道,美国的医疗费用和医疗保险越来越贵,尤其是慢性疾病的治疗费用,从哮喘到癌症的药物价格不断创出历史新高。皮尤研究中心2017年12月14日发布的调查报告显示,自2015年以来,对政府保障医疗服务的正面评价下降了20%。

The health care system was deeply flawed. Philip Alston, the UN's special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, observed in a report that the "health gap" between the United States and its peer countries continued to grow and that Americans could expect to live shorter and sicker lives. Medical expenses and health insurance costs kept rising, with drug prices for chronic illnesses from asthma to cancer hitting record highs in the United States, The Guardian reported on its website on December 15, 2017 (www.theguardian.com, December 15, 2017). Results of a survey released by Pew Research Center on December 14, 2017 showed positive ratings for the government's handling of ensuring access to health care had declined 20 percentage points since 2015 (www.people-press.org, December 14, 2017).

五、特定群体遭受歧视和人身侵犯

V. Special Groups Suffer Discrimination and Physical Assault

美国女性面临着明显的就业和职场歧视,儿童的贫困、健康和人身安全问题引人担忧,残疾人遭遇暴力侵害,广泛存在的性骚扰和性侵犯引发轰轰烈烈的抗议浪潮。

American women faced obvious discrimination on employment and career development. The poverty, health and safety problems of children were worrisome. Persons with disabilities suffered from violent victimization. Rampant sex harassment and infringement contributed to a swarm of protests.

女性遭受性骚扰、性侵犯严重威胁。2017年10月,针对美国影视制作人哈维·温斯坦性侵多名女明星的丑闻,美国各界在社交媒体上发起名为“我也是(受害者)”的社会运动,鼓励受害者用这种方式抗议美国广泛存在的性骚扰和性侵犯,得到了百万余人响应。美国平等就业机会委员会发布的报告称,60%的女性在工作中遭受过性骚扰。英国广播公司网站2017年11月22日报道,前美国奥林匹克体操运动队医生拉里·纳萨尔被指控性侵接受其治疗的女运动员,受害者多达130多名,其中包括多名奥运金牌得主。《赫芬顿邮报》网站2017年12月18日报道,联邦上诉法院法官亚历克斯·科津斯基受到多名前女性职员对其不正当性行为的指控。美国国防部2017年5月发布的年度性侵犯报告显示,2016年军队中发生的性侵犯案件达14900件。《赫芬顿邮报》网站2017年12月15日报道,受害女性在提出指控后,其隐私得不到保证,生活在被认出的恐惧之中,这对受害人提出性侵犯指控产生了负面影响。

-- Women suffered from serious threats of sex harassment and infringement. In October 2017, the scandal of American film producer Harvey Weinstein who sexually harassed a number of female stars broke out. Many Americans from all walks of life initiated a "#MeToo(Victim)" campaign on social media platforms to encourage the victims to protest against the widespread sex harassment and infringement, receiving active responses from about a million people. According to a report from the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 60 percent of women experienced harassment at work (https://www.usatoday.com, December 8, 2017). According to a report published on November 22 in 2017 on BBC website, former USA Olympic gymnastics sports doctor Larry Nassar was charged with sexual assault against more than 130 women in his care, including a number of Olympic gold medalists. According to a report published on December 18 in 2017 on the website of Huffington Post, Alex Kozinski, a federal appeals court judge, received accusations from multiple former female clerks of inappropriate sexual behavior. According to the annual sex harassment report published in May 2017 by the U.S. Department of Defense, 14,900 cases of sex harassment happened in 2016 in the army (http://abc7ny.com, December 13, 2017). According to a report published on December 15 in 2017 on the website of Huffington Post, the privacy of the female victims could not be guaranteed and they lived in fear that people were going to track them down and figured out who they were, which inflicted negative impact on the victims to lodge a sex harassment accusation.

就业、职场性别歧视严重。美国劳工统计局发布的就业报告显示,2016年10月至2017年10月,美国零售业岗位共减少54300个,但男性和女性的遭遇却截然不同:女性失去了超过16万个职位,而男性却增加了10.6万个职位。皮尤研究中心的调查显示,57%的女性表示国家在保障男女平等权利方面做得不够,38%的女性列举了自己在雇佣、薪酬和晋升方面遭遇性别歧视的经历。

-- Serious gender discrimination on employment and career development.  According to an employment report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the retail trade lost 54,300 jobs between October 2016 and October 2017, but the experiences between men and women were starkly different: women lost 160,300 jobs, while men gained 106,000 jobs (http://iwpr.org). According to a Pew Research Center survey, 57 percent of women say the country hasn't done enough to give women equal rights with men and 38 percent of women cite gender discrimination experiences related to hiring, pay or promotion (http://www.pewsocialtrends.org).

儿童人身权利面临严重威胁。美国联邦调查局2017年7月发布的统计数据显示,2016年度美国发生的针对10岁及以下儿童的人身伤害案件达68068起,针对11岁至15岁儿童的人身伤害案件达97588起,针对16岁至20岁青少年的人身伤害案件达159963起。其中涉及性侵犯罪案件共发生83611起。美国妇女政策研究所网站2017年11月28日披露,在夏威夷,近五分之一的高中女生遭受过校园欺凌,超过四分之一的女生报告称曾遭受过非自愿的性接触。

-- Children's personal rights faced serious threats. According to statistics released in July 2017 by the FBI, 68,068 cases of physical assault against children aged less than 10 years old were reported in the United States in 2016, 97,588 such cases against children aged between 11 and 15 years old and 159,963 such cases against youths aged between 16 and 20 years old. Among all the cases, 83,611 are sex offense cases (http://ucr.fbi.gov). According to a report released on November 28 in 2017 by the U.S. Institute for Women's Policy Research, nearly one in five high school girls experienced bullying while over a quarter of Hawaii women reported unwanted sexual contact in their lifetime.

贫困儿童的健康状况令人担忧。英国广播公司网站2017年12月11日报道,美国贫困人口中约有1330万儿童,占儿童总人口的18%。美国有将近900万儿童在长期贫困的家庭中成长,占美国儿童总人口的11.8%。在哥伦比亚特区的一项公房居住者健康状况调查中,33%的成年受访者反映家中有一个孩子患有哮喘,21%反映有一个孩子超重,14%反映有一个孩子患有慢性病。

-- The health condition of poor children was worrisome. According to a BBC report on December 11 in 2017, there were 13.3 million poor children out of the U.S. poverty-stricken population, accounting for 18 percent of U.S. children. Nearly 9 million children in the United States (11.8 percent) were grown up in persistently poor families, accounting for 11.8 percent of the U.S. children (http://www.mobilitypartnership.org, May 18, 2017). According to a survey on the health condition of the public housing residents in the District of Columbia, 33 percent of adult interviewees reported having a child with asthma, 21 percent of them reported having an overweight child and 14 percent of them reported having a child with a chronic disease (http://www.mobilitypartnership.org, March 6, 2017).

残疾人遭遇暴力侵害。美国司法统计局2017年7月发布的数据显示,2009年至2015年,12岁以上残疾人的暴力受害率至少是非残疾人的两倍,其中2015年超过2.5倍。残疾人遭受严重暴力犯罪的比率是非残疾人的三倍以上。根据美国联邦调查局2017年发布的2016年仇恨犯罪统计数据,对2016年报告的6063起单一偏见案件的分析显示,1.2%的人受到残疾偏见的驱使。

-- Violent victimization against persons with disabilities. According to statistics released in July 2017 by the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, the rate of violent victimization against persons with disabilities was 2.5 times higher than that for persons without disabilities above 12 years old between 2009 and 2015. The rate of violent crimes against persons with disabilities tripled that for persons without disabilities (http://www.bjs.gov). According to statistics from the 2016 FBI Hate Crime Statistics Program released in 2017, out of the 6,063 single-bias incidents reported in 2016, 1.2 percent of them were prompted by disability bias (http://ucr.fbi.gov).

六、继续粗暴侵犯他国人权

VI. Continued Violations of Human Rights in Other Countries

美国主导的军事行动造成他国大量平民伤亡,关塔那摩监狱依然非法监禁他国公民并实施酷刑。美国还制造网络战争工具,肆意侵入他国网络实施监控。

The US-led military operations in other countries have caused heavy civilian casualties. The Guantanamo Bay detention camp continued to detain and torture foreigners. The United States also made cyber warfare tools, hacking and spying foreign networks.

在叙利亚的军事行动造成大量平民伤亡。《纽约时报》网站2017年6月19日报道,美国政府“全面授权”在伊拉克和叙利亚的美军自主决定如何使用和使用多少武力,却放松对平民伤亡的监督、调查和问责,导致平民死亡人数不断攀升。《琼斯夫人》杂志网站2017年8月6日报道,美国领导的联军和美国海军陆战队几个月来在叙利亚各地轰炸了至少12所学校、15座清真寺、15座桥梁以及多处民用设施、医疗机构、文物古迹和难民营。联军战机还对等待过河以躲避战祸的家庭所乘坐的船只发动了一系列空袭,21名平民被屠杀。哥伦比亚《穆斯林时报》网站2017年6月24日报道,美国军方在上半年至少四次袭击了叙利亚政府军,其中包括4月对叙利亚机场的一次导弹袭击。美国政治分析家迈尔斯·赫尼希表示,美国对叙利亚发动的军事行动违反了《联合国宪章》。

War of aggression on Syria caused a large number of civilian casualties. On June 19, 2017, The New York Times website reported that the U.S. administration had given the military "total authorization" to decide how, and how much, force would be used, while the American military had relaxed the oversight, investigation and accountability on civilian casualties, resulting in the civilian death toll ticking upward. The US-led coalition and Marines had bombed or shelled at least 12 schools, 15 mosques, 15 bridges as well as residential neighborhoods, hospitals, cultural relics and refugee camp. The coalition warplanes also launched a barrage of airstrikes targeting the boats, on which many families waited to cross a river to escape, reportedly massacring as many as 21 civilians (www.motherjones.com, August 6, 2017). The Muslim Times website reported on June 24, 2017 that the US military had attacked Syrian government forces "at least four times in recent months", including a missile strike in April against a Syrian airfield. Myles Hoenig, an American political analyst, said the United States was violating the UN Charter by conducting a war of aggression against Syria (muslimtimes.co, June 24, 2017).

关塔那摩监狱长期非法关押外国人并实施酷刑。美国广播公司新闻网站2017年12月13日报道,美国新一届政府并没有释放关塔那摩监狱的囚犯,也没有公开任何获释人员或者无罪人员的名单。半岛电视台网站2017年9月22日报道,在美洲人权委员会的听证会上,前关塔那摩被羁押者杰蒙·阿姆基恩表示,他在关塔那摩监狱被关押了11年,被长期单独监禁并经受多种形式的酷刑,却从未收到过任何关于其拘禁合法性的司法裁决。《今日美国报》网站2017年12月13日报道,联合国和国际人权组织批评美国在关塔那摩创造了一个“合法黑洞”,允许自己在那里无限期拘禁嫌疑人却不提起诉讼,甚至将很多未经审判的被羁押者长期羁押达十年以上。联合国人权理事会酷刑问题特别报告员尼尔斯·梅尔泽2017年12月13日敦促美国停止对关塔那摩监狱内被拘禁者施行酷刑。

Foreigners have long been tortured and detained at the Guantanamo Bay. On December 13, 2017, The American Broadcasting Company website reported that the new U.S. administration had not released any prisoners from the Guantanamo Bay and not added any to the list of cleared men who can go home, or to a third country, for resettlement. The Al Jazeera website reported on September 22, 2017, that in a hearing of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (the Commission), former Guantanamo detainee Djamel Ameziane prepared a written statement saying he was detained for 11 years, faced prolonged incommunicado detention, multiple forms of torture, and never received a judicial determination regarding the legality of his detention. According to a report of The USA Today website on December 13, 2017, the U.N. and human rights organizations had criticized U.S. authorities for creating a "legal black hole" allowing for the infinite detention of suspects without charge, and for holding many of the detainees for more than a decade. Nils Melzer, the United Nations Human Rights Council special rapporteur on torture, on December 13, 2017, urged the United States to end its torture of detainees held at the controversial Guantanamo Bay detention facility (www.usatoday.com, December 13, 2017).

制造网络战争武器。维基解密网站称,美国国家安全局已经侵入巴基斯坦的移动网络,并一直在监视该国数百个IP地址。(注55)“零对冲”网站2017年5月14日披露,美国国家安全局创建了一个被称为“绝命武器”的网络战争工具,它可以使任何人从后门溜入任何计算机系统。这一工具被黑客组织利用制作勒索病毒,发动了一场全球性的恶意网络攻击,劫持了全球20万个计算机系统。

Making cyber warfare tools. The US National Security Agency (NSA) operators had hacked into Pakistani mobile networks and had been spying on hundreds of IP addresses in the country, WikiLeaks claimed (economictimes.indiatimes.com, April 11, 2017). On May 14, 2017, the Zero Hedge website revealed that NSA created "Top Secret Arsenal" of tools that allowed anyone to "back door" into virtually any computer system. An unknown group of hackers used the same set of NSA-created tools to launch a global malware cyber attack by using ransomeware virus, holding at least 200,000 computer systems around the globe hostage (www.zerohedge.com, May 14, 2017).

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