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口译听力:国新办就中美贸易有关情况举行答记者问


来源:国新办    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2018-04-11 11:47   点击: 次  


 




主持人 胡凯红:

Hu Kaihong:

女士们、先生们,大家下午好,欢迎大家出席国务院新闻办今天举办的吹风会。最近一段时期,中美贸易很受大家关注。今天我们请来了财政部副部长朱光耀先生;商务部副部长兼国际贸易谈判副代表王受文先生,请他们介绍有关情况,并回答大家的提问。

Ladies and gentlemen, good afternoon. Welcome to this press conference. The issues related to Sino-U.S. trade have captured great public attention recently. Today, we invite Mr. Zhu Guangyao, vice minister of Finance, and Mr. Wang Shouwen, vice minister of Commerce and deputy China international trade representative, to introduce relevant issues, and answer some of your questions.

朱光耀:

Zhu Guangyao:

各位记者,下午好,我简单说一句话,4月4日,美国方面发布了加征关税的商品清单,要对我们输美的1333项500亿美元的商品加征25%的关税。今天下午3点30分,经国务院批准,国务院关税税则委员会决定,对原产于美国的大豆、汽车、化工品等14类106项商品加征25%的关税,这是一个基本情况。

Good afternoon, everyone. Please allow me to brief you on the latest developments first. On April 4, the U.S. announced a proposed list of products subject to additional tariffs. It covers 1,333 Chinese export items, which are worth US$50 billion. The additional tariff rate is 25 percent. At 3:30 p.m. today, upon the approval of the State Council, the Customs Tariff Commission of the State Council unveiled a list of U.S. imports that will be subject to higher tariffs. It was decided that an additional tariff of 25 percent will be imposed on 106 items of products under 14 categories, including soy beans, automobiles and chemical products.

主持人 胡凯红:

Hu Kaihong:

下面开始提问,提问之前请通报一下所代表的新闻机构。

Now the floor is open to questions. Please identify your media outlet before raising any questions.

华尔街日报记者:

The Wall Street Journal:

从表面上看来,现在中美贸易冲突确实有升级的趋势,我们就想问一下,现在中方和美方到底有没有还保持着沟通和对话?您觉得双方达成协议,避免贸易冲突进一步升级的可能性现在有多大?还有一个问题,随着冲突的升级,现在市场上非常关心,中方会不会以减持美国国债或者让人民币汇率贬值的方式来反击美国。请问朱部长有何回应?

Superficially, the trade conflict between China and the United States now seems to be escalating. We would like to know if the two countries are still keeping up any communication and dialogue. What do you think is the possibility that the two sides will reach an agreement to avoid further escalation of the trade conflict? One more question: With the escalation of the trade conflict, the market is very concerned about whether China will retaliate against the United States by reducing U.S. treasuries or devaluing the RMB exchange rate. How would you respond to this issue, Mr. Zhu?

朱光耀:

Zhu Guangyao:

谢谢华尔街日报的记者。首先,中方历来强调中美的经济关系是互利共赢的,这是中美经济关系的实质。在1979年,中美两国建交之初,中美贸易额只有25亿美元,到了2017年度,中美贸易额达到了5800亿美元,增长了232倍还多。这样快速的发展,反映的实质就是中美经济关系互利共赢,是中美两国人民意志的体现,造福于中美两国人民的福祉。

Thank you for your questions. First of all, China has always stressed that China-U.S. economic relations are based on the mutually beneficial win-win principle, which is the essence of China-U.S. economic relations.

At the beginning of the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1979, the trade volume between China and the United States was only US$2.5 billion. That number hit US$580 billion in 2017, an increase of more than 232 times. Such rapid development reflects the essence of China-U.S. economic relations, that is, mutual benefit or win-win. It is the common aspiration of the peoples of China and the United States and it has brought advantages to the peoples of the two countries.

这么快的经济关系的发展,这么大的贸易额度,难免有贸易摩擦。贸易摩擦,我们历来强调要本着相互尊重的原则,通过政策沟通磋商加以解决,要按照WTO的规则加以解决,这是作为WTO重要成员的中美两国都应该遵守的一个原则。在这个前提下,我们成功的合作,建设性的方式,解决了过去许多次贸易纠纷、贸易摩擦。坦率而言,今天我们面临的挑战确实是巨大的,因为这个额度大家都看到了。但是,中方的立场非常明确,我们不希望贸易战,因为结果只能是双输,损害中国的利益,损害美国的利益,也损害世界经济发展的前景。在这个特殊的关头,我们希望中美两国都要以建设性的方式,以智慧和相互尊重的态度,来解决好问题,处理好挑战,使中美经济关系回到健康稳定发展的轨道上来。

Such rapidly growing economic ties and such a large volume of trade inevitably result in trade frictions. Regarding trade frictions, we have always reiterated the principle of mutual respect and encouraged resolution through policy negotiations as well as the rules of the WTO, which is the principle that China and the U.S. should abide by as key members of the treaty. With this as the premise, our cooperation and constructive methods have successfully addressed many trade frictions in the past. Frankly speaking, the challenges facing us today are truly daunting, because we have seen such a large volume involved. Yet, China's position is very clear. We don't want a trade war, because it is doomed to produce a lose-lose outcome that will hurt both China's and the U.S.' interests, and also undermine the prospect of the world economy. In this crucial moment, we hope China and the U.S. can take a constructive, wise and mutually respectful approach to the issue and challenges, thus putting the Sino-U.S. economic relationship back on the right track.

第二个问题,如果继续升级,记者朋友们回顾新中国成立以来的历史,中国从来没有对外部压力屈服,外部的压力只能使中国人民更加奋发图强,外部的压力只能使得我们更加聚精会神,促进经济的发展。外部的压力在另一个方面看是动力,来促进我们的创新,促进我们的发展。当然,我们希望,我们都能够从双方各自的利益出发,以建设性的方式,解决好我们面临的问题和挑战,不要用一种任性、冲动的行为举止来对待对中美两国人民福祉如此至关重要的中美经济关系。

As for the second question, if the conflict continues to escalate, you journalists can review Chinese history since the founding of People's Republic of China in 1949, and you will find that China never succumbs to any external pressure and the pressure will only make the Chinese people become more perseverant and focused on our own economic development. It can be a kind of impetus to promote innovation and progress.

However, we certainly hope that both sides can start from a foundation of bilateral interests and resolve problems and challenges in a constructive way, rather than treating China-U.S. economic ties, which is of vital importance to the interests of both people, in such a random and reckless way.

第三个问题,关于美国政府债券的问题。我知道,这个问题是国际社会普遍关心、国际资本市场高度关注,我特别提醒华尔街日报的记者注意,李克强总理在全国“两会”举办之后的记者招待会上,答记者问中,对这个问题作了权威的阐述。李克强总理强调,中国是按照市场的规律,进行多元化、市场化操作,来进行我们外汇储备的运作。中国是国际资本市场负责任的投资者。这是李克强总理在中国“两会”以后,在记者会上对世界的庄严宣告。

Your third question concerns the issue of U.S. government bonds. I know that this issue is a concern of the international community, and the international capital market is now paying close attention to it. Here I would like to remind the reporter with the Wall Street Journal that Chinese Premier Li Keqiang expounded on this issue at the press conference held after this year's National People's Congress session concluded. Premier Li Keqiang emphasized that China makes diversified investments of its foreign exchange reserves on the basis of market principles, and China will remain a responsible long-term investor. This is the solemn announcement made by Premier Li Keqiang at the press conference following China's "two sessions."

理解李克强总理讲的“负责任的投资者”,我想和大家一起来了解中国外汇储备运作的一个基本原则。首先,中国确实拥有超过3万亿美元的外汇储备,这是人民的财产。中国外汇储备运作的原则首先是安全性,要确保我们投资的安全性。第二是流动性,第三是适度的盈利性。多年来,中国正是根据这些指导原则来进行外汇储备的运作,保护人民财产的安全,这是从国内角度来看。从国际角度看,中国是国际资本市场负责任的投资者,就表现在我们对国际资本市场运作规律的尊重,我们是在这个原则下进行具体操作的。我想,李克强总理这个阐述就是对今天华尔街日报记者问题的一个非常明晰而且权威的回答。谢谢。

To understand Premier Li Keqiang's expression — "a responsible investor," I would like to share with you a basic principle of the operation of China's foreign exchange reserves. First, China does have more than US$3 trillion of foreign exchange reserves, which is the assets of the people. The primary principle of the operation of China's foreign exchange reserves is security, which means to ensure the safety of our investments. The second is liquidity, and the third is modest profitability. China has operated its foreign exchange reserves in accordance with these principles over the years to secure people's property, if we see it from a domestic perspective. As for the international perspective, China is a responsible investor in the international capital market, which is shown in our respect for the rules of operation of the international capital market. We have carried out precise operations under this principle as well. I think this expression of Premier Li Keqiang is a very clear and authoritative answer to the question of the Wall Street Journal today. Thank you.

中央人民广播电台记者:

China National Radio (CNR):

刚才朱部长说到中美目前的经贸问题时,用的形容词还是“贸易摩擦”。但是从4月2号中方宣布对30亿美元的自美进口产品实施加征关税措施,到美国时间4月3日,美贸易代表办公室宣布对中国约500亿美元的商品加征关税,再到刚刚中方宣布对美国约500亿美元的商品征税,这是否意味着中美之间已经进入了“贸易战”?双方是否还有进一步谈判解决的可能?双方谈判渠道目前是否畅通?还有下一步双方会怎么办?

I noticed that Minister Zhu sill used the term "friction" to describe the current trade problem between China and the United States. But we know that China announced to impose tariffs on US$3 billion worth of US imports on April 2, and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) announced tariffs on about US$50 billion worth of Chinese goods on April 3 (EST), leading China to then unveil a list of products worth about US$50 billion imported from the U.S. that will be subject to higher tariffs today. With all those measures on both sides, does it mean that a trade war has already started between the two countries? Is it still possible to solve the problem through negotiation? Are the channels for negotiation still open? What measures do you think will be taken by both sides?

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

你对中美贸易摩擦跟踪得非常详细,谢谢你对中美贸易问题的关心。4月2日,中方公布了对进口美国的128项产品征收15%或者25%的关税,这是针对美方对中国的钢铁和铝产品采取进口限制措施而进行的。美国对232项下的中国钢铁和铝产品出口采取的措施,基于国家安全利益的理由,是站不住脚的,是没有根据的。而且,在采取限制措施的时候,只针对少数国家,排除了很多国家,所以可以看出来,他不是基于安全利益,而是采取一种歧视性的做法,这是对多边贸易体制的公然违背,损害了中国的利益,所以中国已经对232调查在WTO提起磋商。同时,为了捍卫我们正当的利益,我们也采取了你刚才所说的4月2日这30亿美元的措施。我们注意到,对美方的232措施,欧盟还有其他一些WTO的成员也在考虑采取措施。

You have followed the trade frictions between China and the United States in great detail. Thank you for your interests in the trade issues between China and the U.S. On April 2, China announced tariffs of 15 and 25 percent on 128 items of U.S. products. This was in response to the move by the U.S. to impose import restrictions on Chinese steel and aluminum products. The measures taken by the U.S. under Section 232, citing national security concerns, are untenable and unfounded. Moreover, the restrictive measures target only a few countries while many other countries are excluded. It can be seen, therefore, that the U.S. move is not based on security  concerns and is discriminatory. This is a flagrant violation of the multilateral trading system and hurts China's interests, so China has already filed a request for consultations on the Section 232 investigation at the WTO. Meanwhile, in order to safeguard our legitimate interests, we also adopted the US$3 billion worth of countermeasures that you just mentioned on April 2. We have noticed that, in response to the Section 232 measures, the EU and other members of the WTO are also considering taking measures.

对4月3日美国在301项下公布了对来自中国的近500亿美元的产品采取措施,我们认为它在根本上违背了美方的国际义务,没有任何的事实依据,美方的这些做法危害了中国的利益,威胁了中国的经济安全,也危及了全球经济的复苏和稳定。所以本着国际法的精神,按照中国的对外贸易法第7条要求,任何国家和地区如果在贸易方面对中国采取歧视性的禁止、限制或者类似的措施,我们必须要采用相应的措施予以应对。所以,正如光耀副部长提到的,刚刚也公布了我们的将近500亿的清单。必须说,我们的这个做法是被迫采取的,我们的做法是克制的。

The United States announced on April 3 a proposed list of products imported from China worth US$50 billion that will be subject to additional tariffs under Section 301. We believe the move fundamentally violates the international obligations of the United States and has no factual basis at all. The move has impaired China's interests, threatened China's economic security and jeopardized the recovery and stability of the global economy. Therefore, according to international law and the Article Seven of the foreign trade law of China, if any country or region adopts discriminatory measures or other similar measures to ban or limit China in trade, we must respond with corresponding measures. So, as just mentioned by Mr. Zhu, we released our list worth nearly US$50 billion. I have to say, we refrained but were forced to make such a move.

刚刚你还提到了贸易战的问题,中方是不愿意打“贸易战”,因为在“贸易战”中没有赢家。但是我们也不怕打“贸易战”,如果有人坚持要打“贸易战”,我们奉陪到底。你刚刚谈到,是不是有磋商沟通的渠道,中方一贯的立场是,谈判、磋商解决问题的大门始终是敞开的,如果美方愿意谈,我们愿意在平等磋商、相互尊重的基础上进行磋商,解决分歧。所以简单地说,如果有人坚持要打,我们奉陪到底,如果有人愿意谈,大门是敞开的。谢谢。

You also mentioned the question of a trade war. China has no intention for a "trade war," because there is no winner in a "trade war." However, we are not afraid of it. If there is someone who insists on a "trade war, " we will fight to the end. You asked if there was a channel for dialogue and communication. Our stance has always been that the door is open for resolving the problems through negotiation, dialogue and communication. If the U.S. side has the intention to hold talks, we will certainly agree to negotiate and resolve the differences on the basis of equal negotiation and mutual respect. To make it simple, if somebody wants to have a "trade war," we will not retreat, if they want to talk, the door is always open. Thank you.

美国有线电视CNN记者:

CNN:

美方在公布这个清单的时候说到,要尽可使自己本国的企业和民众受到的影响最小化,中方公布的这个清单有什么考虑?您刚刚说到,这14项和100多项产品,第一第二项就是美国的大豆,这些农产品对一些美国中西部农业大州是非常重要的,同时这些州也是特朗普上次大选的票仓。所以我想问,中方在做这个考量的时候,是不是要打击特朗普总统的政治基础,做一些精确性的打击,来迫使他不进行“贸易战”或者返回谈判桌呢?

While publishing the list, the U.S. said it would minimize its influence on domestic enterprises and citizens. What are China's considerations on its list? As you said, among the more than 100 products of 14 categories, the first two are soybeans from the United States. These agricultural products are very important to the big agricultural states in the Midwest. These states are core supporters of Donald Trump in his presidential election. So my question is whether China intended to shake President Trump's political base and initiate a precise strike to force him not to start a "trade war," or to come back to the negotiation table?

朱光耀:

Zhu Guangyao:

CNN的记者要从政治的角度来分析目前中美经济关系面临的这种挑战,我想我们还是在商言商,从经济本身来分析我们面临的挑战和我们如何应对这种挑战。因为,我们中方再三强调,中美经济关系的本质是互利共赢,中美经济关系是整体关系的压舱石和推进器,习近平主席倾注大量的心血,维护中美经济关系的健康稳定向前发展。正是在这个前提下,我们同美方反复严正交涉,提请美方注意,用所谓“301条款”、“国家安全”理由,来处理经济问题,最后会损害美国自身,损害中国,也损害全世界的利益。在这种情况下,我们被迫作为反制行动提出了相关的产品目录,提出的这种目录和相关顺序是有依据的。坦率而言,美国的大豆对中国的出口占美国全部出口大豆的62%,我们知道,美国种植大豆的农民是希望中美经济关系友好发展的,因为他们可以从健康发展的中美经济关系中受益。美国2017年向中国出口的大豆是3285.4万吨,占中国整个进口的34.39%,出口量太大,中国种植大豆的农民向相关协会提出了诉求,美国政府方面的补贴已经影响到了中国种植大豆农民的利益,中国政府要尊重中国农民的要求,尊重中国大豆协会的政策诉求。所以在这方面,大豆就作为了这次我们反制的一个选项。但是目前这些产品目录都还没有生效,双方已经把问题摆到桌上,现在是谈判合作的时间了,谈判合作的前提,就是相互尊重,而不是一方向另一方妄加、强加条件。

The CNN reporter analyses challenges in the Sino-U.S. economic relations from the angle of politics. I think business is business, and we should analyze the challenges and how to respond to them from the economic perspective. Because, as China has reiterated, the essence of Sino-U.S. ties is mutual benefit and win-win results. And Sino-U.S. economic ties are the ballast and propeller for Sino-U.S. relations. President Xi Jinping has devoted tremendous energy to maintain the healthy and stable development of China-U.S. economic relations. It is under this precondition that we have lodged serious representations to the United States, reminding it that if it uses the so-called Section 301 and national interests as an excuse to solve economic issues, it will harm its national interests, China's interests, as well as the whole world's interests. Under these circumstances, we are compelled to take the countermeasures, publishing the product list, and its content and order are all well grounded.

Frankly speaking, China accounts for 62 percent of U.S. soybean exports. We all know that the U.S. soybean farmers hope China and the United States have sound economic ties, because they can benefit from the healthy development of the relations. The United States exported 32.854 million tons of soybeans to China last year, 34.39 percent of China's soybean imports. This size of imports is too big. Some Chinese soybean farmers have appealed to the relevant associations, saying that the U.S. government's subsidies have affected their interests. The Chinese government respects the farmers' requirements, and the policy appeals of the Chinese Soybean Association. Thus, soybean has become part of our countermeasures. But this goods list has not yet taken effect. The two sides have laid the problems open on the table. It is time for negotiation and cooperation. The precondition for negotiation and cooperation is mutual respect. No one side should enforce conditions on the other side at its will.

我们认为,这种任意妄为的行为解决不了问题,分歧只能通过建设性对话、务实协商加以解决。协商的前提要互谅互让,而不是漫天要价。中美在这方面长期的友好交往,坦率而言,我多年从事对美方面的工作,我和美国的同事也有很多争执。但是我们知道,什么是各自的国家利益,我们要回到谈判桌,按照两国元首海湖庄园和汉堡会晤、北京会晤达成的重要共识,以务实和建设性的态度解决好贸易分歧,并使得中美互利共赢的经济关系更加巩固,造福我们两国人民,其中就包括我们中美两国种植大豆的农民。我也非常感谢美国种植大豆的农民和美国大豆协会。我知道这两天他们通过各种形式,包括自费在美国的媒体发声,要求特朗普总统和美国行政当局,维护来之不易的美中经济关系。当然,他们是从中受益良多的。谢谢。

We don't think that reckless and wild actions can resolve problems, and divergences can only be resolved through constructive talks and pragmatic negotiations. The preconditions for negotiation are mutual understanding and mutual accommodation, not pricing oneself out of the market. China has long-term friendly exchanges with the United States in this regard. Frankly speaking, I have engaged in works related to the United States for many years. I have had many quarrels with my U.S. colleagues. But we all know the national interests of our respective countries, and we will finally come back to the negotiation table. In accordance with the consensus reached in the two leaders' meeting in Mar-a-Lago, Hamburg and Beijing, we should resolve the trade disputes through pragmatic and constructive attitudes, and consolidate the mutual beneficial and win-win economic ties between the two countries to benefit our two peoples, including the soybean farmers in both countries. I appreciate that the U.S. soybean farmers and the American Soybean Association, for I know that they are pressing President Trump and the U.S. government to maintain the hard-won economic ties with China through various means, including paying out of their own pockets to air their voices in the U.S. media. Of course, they have benefited tremendously from the sound Sino-U.S. economic ties. Thanks.

中央电视台中国国际电视台CGTN记者:

CCTV/CGTN:

我的问题是,特朗普总统在推特中提出,希望中方每年减少一千亿美元的对美顺差,中方怎么看?

My question is, as President Trump said he hopes that China will reduce its annual trade surplus with the United States by US$100 billion. What's China's attitude on this issue?

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

谢谢你的提问,首先我们要了解一下贸易顺差是怎么形成的。贸易是两国企业、两国的消费者在自愿的基础上做出选择的结果。有时候,一个国家要买,另外一个国家要卖,所以出现顺差逆差,不是政府所能决定的,它是由两个国家的经济结构、产业竞争力等来决定的。

在我看来,中美贸易为什么会出现不平衡,首先是美国经济结构问题,美国储蓄不足、储蓄小于投资,消费比较多,这决定了它一定在全球贸易上有逆差,所以美国不只是和中国有贸易逆差,和其他许多国家都有贸易逆差。

Thank you for your question. First of all, we must understand how the trade surplus was formed. Trade happens between companies and consumers from two countries on a voluntary basis. Sometimes, a country wants to buy, and another country wants to sell. It is not decided by the governments, but by the economic structure and industrial competitiveness of the two countries.

Why does trade between China and the United States appear to be imbalanced? In my opinion, first of all, it is a problem with the structure of the U.S. economy. The U.S. economy is driven by over-consumption and under-saving. Its savings are less than its investments. This determines that it must have a deficit in global trade. The United States has a trade deficit not only with China but also with many other countries.

第二,美元作为国际支付货币,也决定了美国必须要保持比较大的贸易逆差,才能维持美元国际支付货币的地位。

Secondly, in order to maintain the status of the U.S. dollar as an international payment currency, the United States must maintain a relatively large trade deficit.

第三,中美贸易出现不平衡的一个重要原因是,美国有很多优势的行业,但是美国自我限制,不向中国出口,出口就少了,因此就有逆差。比如美国的高科技行业。美国很多产业都具有很强的竞争力,但是政府不让它出口,有能力的不卖给中国,当然出口就少,就会有逆差。

Third, an important cause of the Sino-U.S. trade imbalance is that although the United States has many advantageous industries, the U.S. government imposes many restrictions on U.S. companies, forbidding them to sell products to China. Therefore, the U.S. exports to China were affected, and the trade deficit emerged. The U.S. high-tech industry is a typical example. And there are many other U.S. industries that are highly competitive, but are not allowed to export to China. When those that can sell goods in China are not permitted to do so, it's natural that U.S. exports to China are low, and that the United States is seeing a trade deficit.

我们很高兴地看到,在能源产品、原油、液化天然气等方面,以前美国都不让向中国出口,特朗普总统上台之后,放宽了这方面的限制,我们从美国的石油天然气进口大大增加,这些都是非常积极的措施,有助于解决我们中美之间的贸易不平衡。、

We are delighted to see that after President Trump took office, the restrictions on energy products, crude oil, liquefied natural gas and some other goods were loosened. Previously, these products were totally forbidden to be sold to China. In response, we increased the import of U.S. oil and gas substantially. These are positive measures, and can help solve the problem.

再说到贸易不平衡的数字。如果我们深入分析中美贸易顺差或者逆差的数字,如果考虑统计的原因,考虑转口贸易的原因,考虑服务贸易的原因,中美贸易的顺差实际上只有美方公布逆差的三分之一,并不那么大。而且,就美国而言,最近几年,他们的经常项目贸易逆差占GDP的比重,在2007年全球金融危机的时候达到了4.9%,现在只有2.3%,就是说他的经常项目贸易逆差占GDP的比重已经大大减少了。就中国来说,2007年的时候,我们经常项目的贸易顺差占到GDP的比重9.9%,到去年只有百分之一点几。所以说我们两个国家在贸易平衡方面的发展都是取得成绩的,都是值得祝贺的。

具体你提到了一千亿美元的顺差让中国来减,这是绝对不能接受的,首先是因为办不到。贸易顺差逆差,我刚刚分析了原因,是市场力量决定的,是由美国整体经济政策、经济结构来决定的,中方一家是减不了顺差的。

Now, let's look at the specific figures. If we take a closer look at the surplus and deficit figures, we will find the gap is not very large in actuality. Taking into account statistical variations, and the impacts of entrepot trade and service trade, China's trade surplus is only one third of the trade deficit announced by Washington. In the United States, the current account deficit was 4.9 percent of GDP during the financial crisis in 2007. Now, the figure is 2.3 percent. This means the proportion is declining. In China, the current account surplus was 9.9 percent of GDP in 2007, and the figure dropped to less than 2 percent today. Therefore, China and the United States both achieved progress in maintaining trade balance. This is a result that we are all glad to see.

You mentioned that China should reduce the US$100 billion surplus, which is absolutely unacceptable. The first reason is that we are unable to do it. As I analyzed just now, the trade surplus and deficit is determined by market forces as well as the overall economic policies and structure of the U.S., so China cannot reduce the surplus on its own.

第二,我们不能接受,是因为减顺差是需要双方的努力,不是一家就能够减顺差的。我想买他的东西,他不卖,他继续限制自己的出口,那怎么能够减顺差呢?所以,希望美方能够放松高科技产品对中国的出口管制。我们希望美方能够增加国内的储蓄率,也希望美方能够积极响应中国政府扩大进口的一些措施。比如说今年11月5日到10日,我们在上海举办中国国际进口博览会,我们希望美国的业界能够利用这个机会,向中国的消费者、中国的进口商来展示他们的产品和服务。我们相信,贸易顺差或者逆差只有经过双方的共同努力,才有可能逐步缓解,确定任何一个绝对的数字,人为的政府干预,实践中行不通,理论上也不可行。谢谢。

Second, we cannot accept it, because it requires efforts of both sides to reduce the surplus, and no one can reduce the surplus on its own. China wants to buy U.S. products, but the U.S. does not sell and even continues to restrict its exports, then how can the surplus be reduced? Therefore, we hope that the U.S. can relax its export controls of high-tech products to China, increase its domestic saving rate, and actively respond to the measures taken by the Chinese government to expand our import. For example, China will hold the China International Import Expo in Shanghai from November 5 to 10 this year, and we hope that U.S. industries and businesses can take this opportunity to display their products and services to Chinese consumers and importers. We believe that only through the joint efforts of both sides can the trade surplus or deficit be eased gradually. It is not feasible in both theory and practice to set a number and work for it through government intervention. Thank you.

美国全国公共广播电台NPR记者:

NPR:

美国贸易代表办公室的“301”调查报告中,好像对“中国制造2025”颇有微辞,他提出了几方面的担忧,一是先进的技术中国如何获得,是否通过正当途径?还有让中国企业占一定的市场份额,有没有排他性?最后是政府大量资助国内公司,是否符合国际经济规则?您对这些看法有什么评论?“中国制造2025”会不会调整它的做法,让它更符合国际经济规则?

In the investigation report of Section 301 made by the United States Trade Representative, the "Made in China 2025" program seemed to be riddled with criticism. It put forward the following concerns: First, how can China acquire advanced technologies? Is it through appropriate channels? Second, "Made in China 2025" clarified that Chinese enterprises will account for a certain market share. Will excludability exist? Finally, does the fact that domestic enterprises receive a lot of funding from the government conform to international economic rules? What are your comments on these points? Will "Made in China 2025" adjust itself to conform to international economic rules more strictly?

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

谢谢你的提问,你的普通话比我的还好。我想说,对“中国制造2025”,中国是本着一个开放发展、合作共赢的理念提出来的,你了解得非常清楚,说明“中国制造2025”的倡议是公开透明的。它的目的是为中国制造业的升级提供一些战略指引,提供一些信息指导,“2025”是透明的,是开放的,也是非歧视的,不仅仅中国的企业可以参加,外国的企业也可以参加,不只是国有企业可以参加,民营企业也可以参加,所以也欢迎美资企业参加“中国制造2025”的计划。“中国制造2025”在出台过程中,我们做了严格的合规审查,商务部根据我们入世的承诺,履行合规的职责,就是查查是否符合我们加入世贸组织的义务。我们认为,“中国制造2025”符合在世贸框架下的义务。

Thank you for your question. You speak better Mandarin than I do. As for "Made in China 2025," China proposed it on the basis of open development and win-win cooperation. You have a clear understanding of it, as the initiative itself is open and transparent. It aims to offer some strategic guidance and information for the upgrading of Chinese manufacturing sector. It is transparent, open and does not discriminate. Both Chinese and foreign enterprises, state-owned and private ones, can all take part in it. So we welcome U.S.-funded enterprises to join it, too. In its roll out process, we made stringent examinations to guarantee that it conforms to WTO rules. The Ministry of Commerce fulfilled the duty on the basis of our commitment to the WTO to ensure that we perform our duties as a WTO member. So we maintain that "Made in China 2025" meets the obligations of the WTO framework.

如果你认为“中国制造2025”哪些方面不符合WTO的义务,违背了中国的承诺,我们可以到WTO进行磋商,可以提起起诉,我们不希望人为地制造借口,然后实施单方面的措施。也许我们有不同的看法,但是我们希望在WTO国际规则的框架下解决问题。“中国制造2025”有一些指标,这些指标是预测性的,是指导性的,并不是强制性的任务。实际上,很多国家也有类似的指导性指标、指导性的规划,如果我说得不对,你可以指正。美国克林顿政府时期,曾制定了一个国家基础设施计划,将信息高速公路作为振兴美国经济的一项重要措施,我们认为我们的“中国制造2025”和这些相类似。在奥巴马政府期间,奥巴马政府也制定了一个“出口倍增”计划,宣布在五年之内出口翻番,这都是指导性的目标。欧盟也有“工业复兴”计划。所以我觉得,对“2025”,可能大家需要再去仔细地阅读,不要把它当成可怕的事。我想强调,它是透明的,是开放的,是非歧视的,它制定的一些目标也是指导性的、指引性的,只提供一些信息引导,而不是强制的任务。这一做法,是包括美国在内的很多国家都采取的。

If you think that "Made in China 2025" is inconsistent with WTO obligations and goes against China's commitment in any respect, we can come together to negotiate with the WTO, or we can further bring a lawsuit. But we don't want anyone to artificially create excuses and then unilaterally take steps. Perhaps we have different opinions, but we hope to solve problems in the framework of WTO international rules.

"Made in China 2025" does have some targets, and these goals are predictive, directive and not mandatory. In fact, many countries have also made similar guidance targets and guidance plans. If you don't agree with me, I look forward to receiving your comments and criticism.

The Clinton administration developed a national infrastructure plan which took the information superhighway as an important approach to revitalizing the U.S. economy. We believe that our "Made in China 2025" is similar to that. The Obama administration also launched a national plan aimed at doubling the U.S. exports in five years. That was a guidance plan, too. The European Union also made its "industrial revival" program.

So, I suggest you read the "Made in China 2025" carefully again and don't take it as a terrible thing. I would like to emphasize that it is transparent, open and non-discriminatory. Some of the targets it sets are guiding and leading ones, which only provide some guidance information rather than mandatory tasks. And this practice has been adopted by many countries, including the United States.

朱光耀:

Zhu Guangyao:

受文部长对这位记者问题的回答,是从历史、从国际的角度进行比较,是非常客观性地回答。但是对这个问题,我认为,美方USTR用这个方法来指责“中国制造2025”,虽然也很坦诚、很直率,就是中国侵犯了发达国家美国的知识产权,或者说偷窃了美国的知识产权,原因就是中国为什么有这么快的发展。确实,1980年中国人均国民生产总值每人220美元,而2017年最新的统计数据,中国人均国民生产总值超过了8820美元,这是翻天覆地的变化,中国的综合国力空前提高,是怎么样实现的?我想,最根本的,就是在中国共产党领导下,坚持改革开放。习近平主席强调,改革开放是决定当代中国命运的关键一招。在知识产权方面,中国如何实现了这么快的飞跃?我也可以坦白地告诉记者先生,我们有我们的秘诀。首先,坚持发展是第一要务。我们在坚持发展是第一要务的同时,坚持人才是第一资源,坚持创新是第一动力,这就是中国发展的秘诀,也就是习近平主席所总结的,发展是第一要务、人才是第一资源、创新是第一动力。我们坚持新发展观,创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享,我们要实现国民经济的不断向前发展,不断改善中国人民的生活。与此同时,在处理国际关系方面,我们要坚持相互尊重、公平正义、合作共赢的原则,在这方面处理好中美经济关系是至关重要的。

Shouwen's response to this journalist's question is put in a historical and global perspective and is very objective. The USTR criticised "Made in China 2025," accusing China of infringing on or stealing U.S. intellectual property rights, and saying that is why China boasts such rapid growth.

Indeed, China's per capita GNP was US$220 in 1980, and the figure surpassed US$8,820 in 2017, according to the latest statistics. This is a tremendous change. How has the unprecedented rise in China's comprehensive strength come about? I think, the underlying reason lies in reform and opening-up under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. President Xi Jinping stressed that reform and opening-up plays the decisive role in determining the destiny of contemporary China.  

As for intellectual property rights, how has China realized such fast growth? We have our recipe for success. We prioritize development, regard talent as the top resource and  see innovation as the most powerful driving force. We adopt the new concept of innovative, coordinated, green and open development that is for everyone to realize sustained growth of the national economy and continuous improvement of people's lives. At the same time, we follow the principle of mutual respect, fairness and justice, cooperation and win-win results to positively handle international relations, in which the Sino-U.S. economic relationship comes to the fore.

在中美经济关系面临挑战的关键时刻,我想,我们双方都应该设身处地,要在尊重事实、相互理解、相互尊重的前提下,平心静气地来进行磋商。谁的问题,谁做检讨,不要相互指责,不要相互把对方的发展认为是自己付出的代价,这是错误的观点。当今世界是个多元化的世界,在这种情况下,中美两国的合作对于世界的和平发展是至关重要的,对中美两国人民的福祉是至关重要的。所以我知道,不仅是中美两国人民,而且全世界人民都真正的期待中美两国能够妥善地处理好当前我们面临的贸易摩擦。尽管那位记者问到“贸易摩擦”和“贸易战”,因为我们现在都是在相互“亮剑",提出条件,我们是在双方提出条件的基础上,通过平等协商,妥善解决贸易争端。这里面也包括知识产权保护。可以说,中国发展创新社会,知识产权保护是我们工作的重中之重。谢谢。

At this critical moment for China-U.S. economic ties, I think the two sides should calm down and engage in consultation based on facts and in the spirit of mutual understanding and mutual respect. The at-fault party should examine its mistakes. The two countries should not criticize each other. We should not consider that the other country is developing at the expense of our own development. In a pluralistic world, the cooperation between China and the United States is crucial to world peace and development as well as the interests of the two peoples. Therefore, it is the expectation of all people around the world, not just the people of our two countries, that we can properly manage the trade friction between us. A reporter asked a question about "trade friction" and "trade war" just now. I think the two countries are putting forward requirements for each other. Based on the requirements, we'll properly settle relevant disputes through consultation on an equal footing. We'll also pay attention to the protection of intellectual property rights, which is a top priority for making China a country of innovators. Thank you.

中央电视台记者:

CCTV:

此次面对美国这么大的贸易挑战,我们中方是否有能力应对?如果持续下去爆发贸易战的话,中方是否能够打得起、打得赢?

In the face of such an immense trade challenge from the United States, will China have the ability to deal with it? If this continues and evolves into a trade war, will China be able to afford it, and win it?

朱光耀:

Zhu Guangyao:

我想这是如何面对和应对挑战的问题。关于中国和世界的关系,特别是经济关系,习近平主席在十九大报告中作了非常明确的阐述。习近平主席强调,中国从来以不牺牲别国的利益为代价实现自己的发展,中国也从不放弃自己的合法权益,任何人不要期望中国吞下损害自身发展的“苦果”。习近平主席的论述,就是对我们处理好中美贸易争端甚至是剧烈的贸易摩擦的指导原则。我们根据习主席的指示来处理这个关系。我们反复沟通,但美方仍旧一意孤行,出台500亿美元高关税清单的情况下,我们必须做出捍卫中国自身利益的行动。在双方都摆明条件的情况下,我们希望双方能够坦诚相待、相互尊重,本着合作共赢的原则进行磋商。如果美方仍旧一意孤行,我刚才说了,自新中国建立以来,中国从来没有在外部压力下屈服过,这是新中国的发展史,也是中国人民的奋斗史,中国不会向任何外部压力屈服。反之,我们坚持习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,通过创新发展,中国经济会迈上更高的台阶,中国的人均国民生产总值在目前8820美元的基础上会不断提高,中国的市场会更加广阔、更加有吸引力。我们向全世界开放,希望每个外国的投资者都能够在中国获益。大家都知道,王毅国务委员兼外长已经宣布,习近平主席将出席博鳌论坛会议,并发表重要讲话,阐述中国改革开放的大政方针。我们期待着在习近平主席的领导下,中国能够走上更加宽广、更加宏伟的道路,不仅造福中国人民,也为世界的和平发展做出我们的贡献。

Your questions are on how to face and deal with the challenges. Regarding relations between China and the world, especially economic relations, President Xi Jinping made a very clear statement in the report at the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC). President Xi emphasized that China will never pursue development at the expense of others' interests, but nor will China ever give up its legitimate rights and interests. No one should expect China to swallow anything that undermines its interests. President Xi's words are a guideline for us to handle China-U.S. trade disputes and even severe trade frictions. We deal with this relationship according to President Xi's instructions. We have repeatedly communicated with them, but the U.S. side is still obstinately walking on its own path alone and has introduced a high-tariff list of items worth US$50 billion. We must act in defense of China's own interests.

Under the circumstance that both sides have laid out their conditions, we hope that both sides can treat each other candidly and with mutual respect and conduct consultations based on the principle of cooperation and win-win. As I just said, China has never given in to external pressure since the founding of the People's Republic of China. This is the history of the development of our country and the history of the Chinese people's struggle. China will not yield to any external pressure. On the contrary, under the guidance of the Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, through innovation and development, the Chinese economy will rise to a higher level, China's per capita GNP will continue increasing from the current US$8,820, and China's market will become broader and more attractive. We open up to the whole world and hope that every foreign investor can benefit from China. As we all know, State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi has already announced that President Xi Jinping will attend the Boao Forum for Asia and deliver an important speech on China's reform and opening up policy. Under President Xi's leadership, China will embark on a broader and more ambitious road that will not only benefit the Chinese people but also make our contribution to the peace and development of the world.

凤凰卫视记者:

Phoenix TV:

近日有媒体称,中美这场贸易战是由中方挑起的,原因是中方采取了强制技术转让等行为,对知识产权保护不利,请问您对此有何评价?

Some media outlets have recently said that the current "trade war" between China and the U.S. was incited by China, because China undertook actions like forced technology transfer, which threatens the protection of intellectual property rights. How would you comment on this?

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

谢谢凤凰卫视的提问。我想,你引用的这个媒体的报道,用特朗普总统经常说的这句话来回答,“那是假新闻!”

Thank you for your question, Phoenix TV. I think it would be appropriate to respond to the media report you quoted with what President Trump gets used to say, that it's "fake news".

美国根据它的国内法,对所谓的“中国盗窃知识产权”问题进行调查,昨天又提出具体征税清单建议。首先,它违背了美国自己所作出的承诺。美国在1994年批准WTO协定的时候,总统向国会提交了一个行政行动声明(SAA),美国承诺,不能通过“301调查”单边认定其他国家的做法是否违反WTO规则。所以,如果处理与WTO相关纠纷的时候,美国必须依据世贸规则和争端解决机构的最终裁决来处理。如果没有世贸组织的授权,美国政府无权终止它在世贸组织项下的义务,它也不能进行交叉报复,它首先违背了自己的承诺。然后在1998年,欧盟将美国的“301”措施告到WTO,这个案子叫DS152,在诉讼过程中,美国又作出了一个国际承诺,就是它要严格按照WTO争端解决的程序来处理相关贸易纠纷,而不是单方面采用“301”的调查及其结论。所以,它违反了国内法承诺,也违反了国际法承诺,你说这个“战”是谁挑起来的?

The U.S. investigated this so-called matter of "China's theft of intellectual property rights" and proposed a specific tax list yesterday based on its domestic law. First, the U.S. violates its own commitments. When the U.S. passed the WTO Agreement in 1994, the President submitted a Statement of Administrative Action to the Congress, and the U.S. promised not to decide whether other countries' practices are against the WTO rules or not unilaterally through the Section 301 Investigation. So the U.S. must handle disputes related to the WTO according to the WTO rules and the final decisions of dispute settlement bodies. Without the WTO's mandate, the U.S. government has no right to terminate its obligations under the WTO, nor can it conduct cross sector retaliation. The U.S. violated its own commitments first. Then, in 1998, the E.U. sued the U.S. for its Section 301 Investigation into the WTO. The case was called DS152. The U.S. made another international commitment to the process of the litigation, saying that it would handle relevant trade disputes in strict accordance with WTO dispute settlement procedures, rather than adopting the Section 301 Investigation and its conclusions unilaterally. Therefore, the U.S. has violated its commitments to its domestic law and international law, so who would you say has incited this "war"?

第二,美国在“301”调查报告中指责中国有“强制技术转让”的做法,这是毫无事实根据的,中国没有任何法律规定外国企业必须转让它的技术给中国合作伙伴,没有任何法律规定做出这样的要求。中国确实存在一些行业,外资进入时需要进行合资,这个要求符合WTO的规定。作为一个发展中国家,希望外资和中国企业能进行合资,这也是完全符合WTO的。在这样的情况下,美国说中国政府强制要求技术转让,是没有事实依据的。企业与企业之间进行技术转让,完全依据契约,一个愿意转让,另外一个愿意接受转让,支付适当的经济对价,这是自愿行为,政府不应该进行干预。实际上,有一些美国企业通过合资企业的方式,在中国实现了巨大收益,比如说美国一个知名汽车公司,它在中国设立了合资企业,现在中国生产的汽车多于它在世界上任何其他地方生产的汽车,包括在美国本土生产的汽车。这个合资企业获取的利润超过它在美国本土的利润,超过这个企业在全世界任何其他国家的利润,这就是合资企业带来的好处,给中美双方都带来好处,怎么能把这样的事说成是强制技术转让呢?

Second, the U.S. accused China of its "forced technology transfer" in the Section 301 Investigation, which was completely baseless because China has no law stating that foreign companies must transfer their technology to their Chinese partners. There is no law making such requirements either. There are certain industries in China where joint ventures are required for foreign investment, which is in line with WTO rules. As a developing country, China hopes that foreign investment and Chinese companies can make joint ventures, which is completely in line with WTO rules as well. So in this circumstance, it is baseless for the U.S. to say that the Chinese government has forced technology transfer. Technology transfer between companies is completely based on contracts. One company is willing to transfer, and another is willing to accept and pay an appropriate amount, which is a voluntary action that the government should not intervene in. In fact, some U.S. companies have realized huge gains in China by means of joint ventures. For example, a well-known American automobile company established a joint venture in China, and now the automobile production of the company in China is more than its automobile production in any other place in the world, including the U.S. The profits the joint venture obtained exceed those obtained in the U.S. or any other country in the world. These are the benefits of joint ventures, which benefit both China and the U.S. How could such practices be regarded as forced technology transfer?

第三,中国对知识产权的保护是非常坚定的,我们知道,习总书记在十九大报告中提出新的发展理念,第一条就是创新发展,如果没有知识产权的保护,就不可能实现创新发展。我们在法律上进一步健全了知识产权保护体系,在行政执法和司法方面也建立了一系列的制度,我们建立了跨省的知识产权法院和相应的法庭。我自己遇到的美国跨国公司告诉我,它在中国有一家企业,打了31场官司,赢了28场。大家可以查一查,关于知识产权的判决,美国权利人的起诉案件中,80%以上都赢了,这就说明中国的法院系统、中国的行政执法系统对知识产权保护力度是强的。

Third, China is committed to the protection of intellectual property. General Secretary Xi put forward a new development philosophy in his report delivered at the 19th CPC National Congress. The first principle of which is development driven by innovation. Without the protection of intellectual property, there is no space for innovation-driven development. We have improved the IP protection system through legislation and established a series of mechanisms for administrative enforcement and judiciary. We have set up trans-provincial IP courts. An American transnational corporation told me that one of its companies in China won 28 out of 31 cases here. You can search for the judgments of IP disputes. More than 80 percent of lawsuits filed by American clients were ruled in their favor. This shows that China's court system and administrative enforcement provide strong protection for IP rights.

我们是一个发展中国家,我们在知识产权保护方面还没有做到十全十美,但是我们要看到这方面的进步。2001年中国加入世贸组织的时候,全国对外支付的知识产权使用费只有19亿美元,去年对外支付的知识产权使用费达到了286亿美元。我们还需要进一步加大知识产权保护力度。所以习近平主席指出,产权保护,特别是知识产权的保护,是塑造良好营商环境的重要方面,要进一步加大知识产权侵权违法行为的惩治力度,要让侵权者付出沉重代价。所以在知识产权保护方面,我们现在已经取得了很大成就,但是我们未来还要加大努力,进一步完善我们知识产权的保护。所以,如果仅仅因为一些莫须有的报道、指责、个别企业的抱怨,就对中国采取违背WTO承诺、违背自己国内法承诺的歧视性措施,我认为这是中方完全不能接受的。谁是“贸易战”的挑起者,不言自明。谢谢。

China is a developing country. We are not perfect regarding IP protection. But we must admit the progress has been made in this regard. When China entered the WTO in 2001, China forked out only US$1.9 billion to foreign IP owners, but the amount had risen to $28.6 billion by 2017. Certainly, we should intensify IP protection. President Xi said property protection, especially IP protection, is important in building a good business environment. We should introduce harsher punishments for IP infringements and make the violators pay a higher price. Despite the progress we have made, we will endeavor to improve our protection of intellectual property. China cannot accept the practices of some countries that adopt discriminatory measures against China that breach the WTO commitment and its own domestic laws, based on nothing more than groundless reports, accusations and complaints from corporations. It's self-evident who started the "trade war." Thank you.  

中国国际广播电台记者:

China Radio International:

我的问题提给朱部长。在刚刚结束的阿根廷G20财长和央行行长会上,美国代表提出中国的市场化进程在倒退,您当时也在现场,能否介绍一下中方当时是怎么回应的?另外我也听说,美国的副财长表示,中美全面经济对话不会再继续了,您是否认可这一说法?

My question is for Mr. Zhu. At the G20 Meeting of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors recently concluded in Argentina, the U.S. representative said that China's transition to a market economy is regressing. You were at the meeting. Could you tell us how the Chinese side responded to this view at the meeting? I also heard that the Under Secretary of the Treasury of the United States said the two countries won't have any more comprehensive economic dialogue. Do you accept this view?

朱光耀:

Zhu Guangyao:  

确实,3月19-20日,阿根廷作为G20主席国,在阿根廷首都布宜诺斯艾利斯举行了首次G20财长和央行行长会议,在会议之前还举行了副手会议。我知道,国际媒体对此广泛报道,就在相关的会议上,美方确实有代表表示“中国改革倒退”的问题,他是在讨论全球经济风险的框架之下提出这个问题的。当时我作为中方的财政副手出席了会议,美方的代表是主旨发言人。他发言时,我确实按了发言的按钮,当时排序已经很靠后了,但是会议主席马上更改了计算机排列顺序请中方发言,因为他提到了“中方改革倒退”的问题,所以他请我在美方代表发言之后马上发言。第一,我们对从全球经济形势怎么看。我说,中方认为2018年是全球金融危机以来全球经济最呈现向好态势的一年,在这种情况下,G20的团结和政策协调至关重要。

The G20 Meeting of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors was held in Buenos Aires on March 19 and 20. Before that, a meeting of their deputies was held. It's true that the U.S. representative mentioned a regression in China's reform. He made the remark when discussing the global economic crisis. As the deputy finance minister of China, I made a speech immediately after him.

In my speech, I first made clear China's perception of the world economy. China believes that after the outbreak of the global financial crisis, the year 2018 has seen the best performance of the world economy. Therefore, it's important for the G20 countries to remain united and to coordinate their policies with each other.  

第二,我就讲到了40年来中国改革开放取得的成绩。我们改革开放之初,中国人均国民生产总值只有220美元,到了去年已经超过了8820美元,这样翻天覆地的变化,是改革开放的结果,是中国人民奋斗的结果,中国人民生活水平改善的同时,为世界做出了重大的贡献。几十年来,中国脱贫事业的巨大成就对全球减贫事业的贡献率达到70%,中国经济增长对全球经济增长的贡献率,多年来保持在30%以上,这是中国改革开放的成就,也是中国对世界的贡献。

Then, I mentioned the success China has made after it adopted the reform and opening up policy. When the policy was introduced, China's per capita GNP was US$220. Last year, this figure exceeded US$8,820. The change is remarkable. This is the result of the reform and opening up policy and of the hard work of the Chinese people. When improving their life, the Chinese people have also made great contributions to the world. In the past decades, China accounts for more than 70 percent of poverty reduction worldwide. For many years, China's economic growth accounted for more than 30 percent of the world's total economic growth. These are the achievements of China's reform and opening up policy and the contributions China has made to the world.

另一点,我们马上要纪念中国改革开放四十周年,我们将进一步推出改革开放的新举措。习近平主席强调,中国的改革开放只有进行时,没有完成时,开放也是改革,要寓改革于开放之中。所以在这种情况下,中国的大门对世界会越开越大,我们欢迎同世界进行更广泛的政策沟通交流,也欢迎更多的外国投资。与此同时,中国也会增加对外投资,使得中国经济同世界经济更紧密地融合。在这种情况下,G20加强政策协调,包括中美两国的政策协调,就变得至关重要,这是会议的一个讨论情况。作为一个实际的参与者,我想把真实的情况借记者的提问通告给大家。

China is going to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the introduction of the reform and opening up policy. New reform and opening up measures will be announced. China will surely become more and more open. We want to have more policy communication with other countries. We welcome more foreign investment in China. We will also increase investment overseas. Our aim is to further integrate the Chinese economy into the world economy. In this context, it's crucial for G20 to enhance policy coordination among member countries, including China and the United States.

This is generally what I said at the meeting.

第二个问题,关于中美全面经济对话机制问题。中美全面经济对话机制是去年4月6日在海湖庄园会晤时,习近平主席和特朗普总统共同倡导的四个中美之间重要对话机制之一,它实际上是延续和继承了2006年以来双方建立的中美战略经济对话和中美战略与经济对话的两个机制,但是又有特朗普行政当局的特点。应该说,在这个对话机制下双方进行过很好的合作,包括中美经济合作百日计划的早期收获。我记得去年5月份,就在这个房间里,我回答过记者的提问,包括CNN记者当时的提问。在这种情况下,我们应该珍惜到现在双方已经发展建立的合作关系。巧的就是,就在那一天,会议结束之后,美国副财长给我发来了电子邮件,他表示,报道中说到了“中美全面经济对话不再存在了,是错误的,美国方面珍视同中国建立的高层对话”。这个你们可以查证。因为双方始终保持着密切的政策沟通,而且在一些重要信息方面要随时进行交流。我也可以告诉大家,我给他回的话是,我也重视你这条信息,我将把你这条信息向上报告。

The second question pertains to the China-U.S. comprehensive economic dialogue mechanism, which was one of the four important China-U.S. dialogue mechanisms that Chinese President Xi Jinping and his counterpart Donald Trump initiated during their meeting at Mar-a-Lago on April 6, 2017. It is actually a continuation of the China-U.S. Strategic Economic Dialogue and the China-U.S. Strategic and Economic Dialogue, but bears the hallmark of the Trump administration. The dialogue mechanism has led to very productive cooperation, including the early-stage outcomes achieved under the China-U.S. 100-day economic cooperation plan. I remember, in May last year, in this room, I answered questions from the press, including a CNN journalist. In this situation, we should cherish the cooperative relationship already established between the two countries. Coincidently, on that very day, after the press conference, the U.S. Deputy Treasury Secretary said in an email to me that it was wrong to say that China-U.S. comprehensive economic dialogue was dead and that the U.S. cherished high-level dialogue with China, referring to a report. You can verify this. Since the two parties keep close policy communication, important information may need to be exchanged at any time. I can tell you that my reply to his email was, "I also value your message and will report this message to my superiors."

现在中美两个大国存在这种经济方面的分歧,我想一方面反映的是对对方更加开放的市场的需求,包括对对方更好的营商环境的要求,这反映了一种合作的愿望,还是希望在这种市场发展,否则的话,我们分道扬镳就用不着谈这些需要解决的问题了,我们面临的挑战是确实的,但是我想双方都有智慧,也有能力来解决这些问题。因为毕竟我们是为了共同利益,这个共同利益首先是自身利益,中美利益融合在一起,就是共同利益。中美之间共同利益远远超过我们之间的分歧,就在于此。双方5800亿美元的贸易额,2300亿的直接投资额,再加上华尔街日报提到的中国政府持有的美国债券(现在美国财政部公布的数额是1.1到1.2万亿,数额是有波动的),但是远远超过这些数据的是中美两国人民通过这种友好的交往,我们在不断地增加互信,中美两国是世界上伟大的两个国家,中美两国人民是伟大的民族,合作共赢是我们的共同目标。谢谢。

The divide on China-U.S. economic ties, in my opinion, is partly a reflection of the expectation for a more open market as well as a better business environment from each other, and partly a reflection of the aspiration for cooperation in the market. Otherwise, we can just go our own way and ignore the issues on the agenda. The challenges facing us are real, but I think the two countries have the wisdom and capabilities to solve these issues, because we have shared interests that derive from one another's interests. China and the U.S. have more shared than divergent interests, and that is the reason for this. The two countries have US$580 billion worth of trade volume and 230 billion worth of direct investment, in addition to the U.S bonds held by the Chinese government (valued at US$1.1-1.2 trillion according to the U.S. Treasury) as mentioned by the Wall Street Journal. Beyond that, the two countries enjoy the friendship between their people and build up mutual trust. China and the U.S. are two great countries and the people of the two countries are great people. Win-win cooperation is what we both desire. Thank you.

第一财经记者:

China Business Network:

感谢两位部长,我有一个问题问王受文副部长,最近WTO总干事阿泽维多说,如果中美全面开打“贸易战”,会对全世界经济产生严重的影响,现在是WTO最困难的时期,也有专家认为,如果中美开打“贸易战”,可能对第三国的影响会更大,中方有没有“贸易战”对本国以及世界的影响做出相应的评估?在这种外部环境下,中方是不是还会坚持开放的力度?谢谢。

I have a question for Vice Minister Wang Shouwen. WTO Director-General Roberto Azevêdo said recently that a trade war between China and the U.S. would have a grave impact on the global economy and that the WTO was facing a most difficult moment. Some other experts believe that third countries would suffer most from the trade war. Has China assessed the effects of the trade war on both itself and the world? Faced with the current external environment, will China push ahead with further opening up? Thank you.

王受文:

Wang Shouwen:

谢谢你的提问。确实,WTO总干事阿泽维多的讲话有很多的道理,“贸易战”没有赢家,这就是为什么作为负责任的国家、作为负责任的WTO成员,中方不愿意打“贸易战”,中方愿意在平等协商、相互尊重的基础上,在大家都同意的WTO规则之下,来讨论处理相互之间的所有分歧。但是如果中国的利益受到了损害,如果中国的经济安全受到了威胁,那么中方将按照国际法的精神,遵循中国《对外贸易法》的要求,采取一切必要措施,捍卫我们的利益。我们当然希望所谓的分歧都能够通过WTO的渠道解决,这对WTO的体制,对各当事方的影响都会是最小的,但是如果一方坚持要打“贸易战”,中国也不怕。我刚才已经提到,打,奉陪到底;谈,大门敞开。我们愿意在WTO或者双边的框架下,就双方的分歧坦诚地交换意见,实现互利共赢的结果。谢谢。

Thank you for your question. Indeed, Director-General Azevêdo's words are very reasonable. No one will emerge a winner from a trade war. This is why China, as a responsible country and WTO member, doesn't want a trade war. China is willing to discuss and settle all disputes with the U.S. based on equality, consultation and mutual respect in line with WTO rules, which are widely agreed on. However, if China's interests are hurt and its economic security is endangered, we will take all necessary measures to defend our legitimate interests in accordance with the spirit of international law and the stipulation of China's Foreign Trade Law. Of course, we hope all the so-called disputes can be settled within the WTO framework, so that we can minimize damage to the WTO system and to the interests of all parties. But if someone is determined to wage a trade war, China will not be afraid. As I mentioned just now, China will fight to the end if a trade war is initiated, while also keeping the door to dialogue and consultation open. China is willing to openly exchange views with the U.S. on handling differences within the WTO or bilateral framework for mutual benefit and win-win results. Thank you.

路透社记者:

Reuters:

美国采取贸易方面的这些措施的话,是不是超出了我们一开始的预期?另外,在中国和美国相互谈判的过程中,我们是不是会提到人民币汇率的问题?谢谢。

Are the U.S. trade measures beyond China's initial expectation? Will the RMB exchange rate be a topic during the negotiations between China and the U.S.? Thank you.

朱光耀:

Zhu Guangyao:

中美之间保持着密切的沟通,即使在分歧很严重的方面,我们也保持着政策的沟通。在沟通中,中方阐明了原则,中国商务部明确宣布,也代表了中国政府的立场,就是在“301”的框架下,我们不会在“301”框架下磋商,这是一个基本的原则。因为你这是单方面的诉求,所以,我们希望双方把政策要求明确提出以后,本着相互尊重的原则,我们来探讨解决问题的新途径。最重要的是相互尊重,然后我们再实现合作共赢。我们双方都有责任和义务管理好预期,因为中美两国作为全球最大的两个经济体,双方政策的宣示,不仅对各自经济产生着重大的影响,同时也会对全球经济产生重大的影响。全球的多边体制,要靠所有WTO成员来共同维护。在这个过程中,中美两国都有着重要的责任。在这个过程中,所有国家都要认识到,霸权主义不得人心,单边主义不得人心。在维护多边体制方面,我们要共同努力,因为实际上美国始终在二战以后建立起来的全球经济体制发挥着领导作用,中国是这个体制的重要参与者、建设者、贡献者,当然也是受益者。我们愿意和大家一起,通过合作的方式,以建设性的合作方式,来维护这个多边的体制,来使得我们全球经济能够向前健康稳定的发展。

China and the United States keep close communication; even facing severe differences, we still maintain policy communication. China has made its principle clear. The Chinese Ministry of Commerce, representing the position of the Chinese government, clearly stated that we will not negotiate under the Section 301 framework. This is a basic principle, because the U.S. action is a unilateral one. We hope that the two sides can clearly put forward their policy requirements  and seek new ways to solve the problem based on the principle of mutual respect. The most important thing is mutual respect, and then we can achieve win-win cooperation.

Both of us have the responsibilities and obligations to manage our expectations, because China and the United States are the two largest economies in the world, and their policies not only have a major impact on their respective economies, but also have a major impact on the global economy. The global multilateral system must be maintained by all WTO members. In this process, both China and the United States have significant responsibilities. In this process, all countries must realize that hegemonism and unilateralism are unpopular. In safeguarding the multilateral system, we must work together because the United States has always played a leading role in the global economic system that has been established since World War II. China is an important participant, builder, and contributor to this system, and of course, it is also a beneficiary. We are willing to work with all of you to maintain this multilateral system through cooperation – constructive cooperation – so that our global economy can move forward and develop in a healthy and stable manner.

关于汇率问题,最近IMF已经对汇率进行了一个非常清晰的定义,包括经济的基本面、稳健的宏观政策和健全的机制,在这个前提下,汇率的决定反映了市场的力量。我想,中美两国作为国际货币基金组织的重要成员和国际金融市场的重要参与者和维护者,我们都担负着共同的责任。在这个方面的合作,有利于金融市场的稳定,有利于我们防范可能出现的系统性的金融风险,也有利于世界经济能够健康持续地向前发展。谢谢。

Regarding the exchange rate issue, the IMF recently made a very clear definition of the exchange rate, including the fundamentals of the economy, sound macroeconomic policies and sound mechanisms. Under this premise, the determination of exchange rates reflects the strength of the market. I think that China and the U.S., as important members of the International Monetary Fund and important participants and defenders of the international financial market, both shoulder common responsibilities. Cooperation in this area is conducive to the stability of the financial market, helps prevent possible systemic financial risks and contributes to the healthy and sustainable development of the world economy. Thank you.

中评社记者:

CRNTT:

我的问题是问给朱部长。这一轮中美贸易摩擦爆发之后,您预计会不会对中国今年的GDP增长目标造成影响?如果有的话,可能会有多大影响?

My question is for Mr. Zhu. Will this round of trade friction between China and the United States impact China's GDP growth target this year? If yes, how big will the influence be?

朱光耀:

Zhu Guangyao:

中国经济在近年来保持着一个稳健的增长态势,特别是我们十九大以后和本届“两会”李克强总理的政府工作报告,明确了中国经济增长从高速度的增长向高质量的发展转变这一重要的指导思想,和稳中求进的基本原则相一致,我们中国经济要进一步提高增长的质量,实现效益优先,保持中国经济健康持续发展,是非常重要的。

The Chinese economy has maintained stable growth in recent years. Both the 19th CPC National Congress and the government work report delivered by Premier Li Keqiang at this year's two sessions made clear that the Chinese economy has shifted from fast growth to high quality development. This is in accordance with the principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability. It's very important for China to upgrade its economy, give priority to performance and therefore maintain sound and sustainable development.

党中央、国务院已经明确了在这个基本指导思想的前提下,我们要坚定不移地实施供给侧结构性改革,以供给侧结构性改革为主线,打好三大攻坚战,也就是今后三年的攻坚战。第一项,防范系统性金融风险。第二项,实现脱贫攻坚的任务。第三项,防治污染,也就是蓝天保卫战。这三大战役关系着我们经济体系的稳定和人民生活质量的提高。国际货币基金组织连续调高了中国经济的增长率,他们预测中国经济的增长2018年是6.6%,高于李克强总理在《政府工作报告》中所预计的中国发展目标6.5%。IMF过去有个总体评估,按照其预测的6.6%的目标,如果中国在2018、2019、2020年里保持三年平均6.3%的增长速度,中国到2020年就能实现比2010年GDP翻一倍的目标。所以我们完全有信心在2020年实现比2010年GDP翻一番的政策目标。2017年我们人均国民生产总值已经达到了8820美元。世界银行有个统计标准,也就是中等收入标准是1.27万美元,如果按照这个速度发展,大家算一下,我们肯定可以跨过中等收入线。

The Central Committee of the CPC and the State Council have made it clear that guided by this basic principle, we must unswervingly implement the supply-side structural reforms, focusing on the supply-side structural reform to push the three major tasks.

The three major tasks, also tasks for the next three years, are preventing systemic financial risks, reducing poverty and controlling pollution. These three major tasks are related to the stability of our economic system and quality of our people's lives. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has made consecutive upward revisions of its forecast for China's economic growth. The fund expects China's economy to expand by 6.6 percent this year, higher than the 6.5 percent target announced by Premier Li Keqiang during his government work report presentation at the opening meeting of the first session of the 13th National People's Congress.

The IMF had an overall assessment. According to its 6.6 percent forecast, if China maintains a three-year average growth rate of 6.3 percent in 2018, 2019, and 2020, China will double its 2010 GDP by 2020. Therefore, we are fully confident that we will achieve our goal of doubling the size of China's economy by 2020. In 2017, China's per capita GNP reached US$ 8,820. The World Bank's middle-income standard is US$12,700. We can certainly cross the middle-income line if China develops at this speed.

所以在这种情况下,我们不希望中美发生“贸易战”,但是现在确实我们受到了这种严重贸易摩擦的威胁。我们双方应该冷静下来,通过合作的方式,以相互尊重为前提,我们来探讨一种新路径,而且要在合作的过程中逐步实现中美贸易的不平衡状况的改变。因为中方明确,我们不追求贸易顺差,在合作的过程中逐步实现贸易的平衡。同时,在共赢之中,实现中美两大经济体的和谐共存,共同提高人民的生活福祉,共同促进世界的和平发展。谢谢。

Therefore, we do not want China and the United States to have a "trade war," yet now we are indeed threatened by serious trade frictions. Both sides should calm down and explore a new path through cooperation and mutual respect, and we must gradually come up with a way to mitigate the imbalance in Sino-U.S. trade during the process of cooperation. China has made clear that we do not pursue a trade surplus and we hope bilateral trade will gradually come to a balance in the process of cooperation. At the same time, in a win-win situation, China and the United States can realize the harmonious coexistence of their economies, work together to improve people's well being, and jointly promote the peaceful development of the world. Thank you.

主持人 胡凯红:

Hu Kaihong:

今天的吹风会就到此结束,谢谢两位部长,谢谢各位记者朋友。

This concludes today's briefing. Thank you, Mr. Zhu and Mr. Wang. Thank you, friends from the press.

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