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双语对照:《中国保障宗教信仰自由的政策和实践》白皮书


来源:国新办    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2018-04-08 14:43   点击: 次  

中国保障宗教信仰自由的政策和实践

China’s Policies and Practices on Protecting Freedom of Religious Belief

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

2018年4月

April 2018

前言

Preamble

中国是共产党领导的社会主义国家。中国始终坚持从本国国情和宗教实际出发,实行宗教信仰自由政策,保障公民宗教信仰自由权利,构建积极健康的宗教关系,维护宗教和睦与社会和谐。中共十八大以来,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,中国全面推进依法治国,把宗教工作纳入国家治理体系,用法律调节涉及宗教的各种社会关系,宗教工作法治化水平不断提高。信教公民和不信教公民相互尊重、和睦相处,积极投身改革开放和社会主义现代化建设,共同为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦贡献力量。

As a socialist country under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), China adopts policies on freedom of religious belief based on national and religious conditions to protect citizens’ right to freedom of religious belief, build active and healthy religious relationships, and maintain religious and social harmony. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, China, under the staunch leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping as the core, has advanced law-based governance in all respects, integrating religious work into the national governance system, employing laws to deal with all social relationships concerning religion, and improving the management of religious work under the rule of law. Religious believers and non-believers respect each other, and live in harmony, committing themselves to reform and opening-up and the socialist modernization, and contribute to the realization of the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation.

一、保障宗教信仰自由的基本政策

I. Basic Policies in Protecting Freedom of Religious Belief

中国实行宗教信仰自由政策,依法管理宗教事务,坚持独立自主自办原则,积极引导宗教与社会主义社会相适应,最大限度团结广大信教公民和不信教公民。

China adopts policies on freedom of religious belief, manages religious affairs in accordance with the law, adheres to the principle of independence and self-management, actively guides religions to adapt to the socialist society, and unites religious believers and non-believers to the greatest extent.

实行宗教信仰自由政策。尊重和保护宗教信仰自由是中国共产党和中国政府对待宗教的基本政策。每个公民既有信仰宗教的自由,也有不信仰宗教的自由;有信仰某一种宗教的自由,也有在同一宗教中信仰某个教派的自由;有过去不信教而现在信教的自由,也有过去信教而现在不信教的自由。信教公民同不信教公民一样,享有同等政治及经济社会文化等方面的权利,不会因信仰不同造成权利上的不平等。国家尊重公民宗教信仰自由,保护正常宗教活动;公民行使宗教信仰自由权利,不得妨碍其他公民的合法权利,不得强制他人信仰宗教,不得歧视不信教或者信仰其他宗教的公民,不得利用宗教妨害公民合法权益。行使宗教信仰自由权利必须尊重公序良俗,尊重文化传统和社会伦理道德。

Adopting policies on freedom of religious belief. Respecting and protecting freedom of religious belief is a basic policy of the CPC and the Chinese government. Every citizen enjoys the freedom to choose whether to believe in a religion; to believe in a certain religion or a denomination of the same religion; to change from a non-believer to a believer and vice versa. Believers and non-believers enjoy the same political, economic, social and cultural rights, and must not be treated differently because of a difference in belief. The state respects citizens’ freedom to religious belief and protects their normal religious activities. In exercising their right to free religious belief, believers should not interfere in the lawful rights of other people, or force others to believe in any religion. Believers should not discriminate against non-believers or believers of other religions. No one shall use religion to interfere in the lawful rights and interests of citizens. Believers should respect public order, customs, cultural traditions and social ethics in exercising their freedom of religious belief.

依法管理宗教事务。国家对待各宗教一律平等,一视同仁,不以行政力量发展或禁止某个宗教,任何宗教都不能超越其他宗教在法律上享有特殊地位。国家依法对涉及国家利益和社会公共利益的宗教事务进行管理,但不干涉宗教内部事务。国家依法保护公民宗教信仰自由权利,保护正常宗教活动和宗教界合法权益,制止非法宗教活动,禁止利用宗教宣传极端思想和从事极端活动,抵御境外势力利用宗教进行渗透,打击利用宗教进行的违法犯罪活动。信教公民应当遵守宪法、法律、法规和规章。宗教在国家法律范围内开展活动,不得干预行政、司法、教育等国家职能的实施。不得恢复已经被废除的宗教封建特权,不得利用宗教从事危害社会稳定、民族团结和国家安全的活动。

Managing religious affairs in accordance with the law. The state treats all religions fairly and equally, and does not exercise administrative power to encourage or ban any religion. No religion is given preferential treatment above other religions to enjoy special legal privileges. The state manages religious affairs involving national and social public interests in accordance with the law but does not interfere in the internal affairs of religions. The state protects citizens’ right to freedom of religious belief, normal religious activities and the lawful rights and interests of religious groups, bans illegal religious activities, prohibits the dissemination of extremist thought and engagement in extremist activities in the name of religion, resists the infiltration of hostile foreign forces taking advantage of religion, and fights against illegal and criminal activities under the guise of religion. Believers should abide by the Constitution, laws, rules and regulations of the country. Religious activities should be carried out within the bounds of the law. No religion should interfere in the implementation of administrative, judicial and educational functions of the state. No abolished religious and feudal privileges should be resumed. No activities which employ religion to endanger social stability, national unity and state security are allowed to be carried out.

坚持独立自主自办原则。宗教团体和宗教事务不受外国势力的支配,是中国宪法确定的原则。中国政府依照宪法和法律,支持各宗教坚持独立自主自办原则,各宗教团体、宗教教职人员和信教公民自主办理宗教事业。独立自主自办原则是中国人民在民族独立、社会进步的斗争中,基于天主教和基督教长期被殖民主义、帝国主义所控制和利用,被称作“洋教”的屈辱历史,由中国信教公民自主作出的历史性选择。这一原则,顺应了中国人民谋求民族独立、人民解放的历史潮流,顺应了实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦的时代要求,使中国宗教的面貌焕然一新,得到国际宗教友好人士的普遍理解、尊重和支持。坚持独立自主自办原则,不是要断绝中国宗教组织同境外宗教组织的正常联系。中国政府支持和鼓励各宗教在独立自主、平等友好、相互尊重的基础上,开展对外交流交往,建立、发展、巩固同海外宗教界的友好关系,增信释疑,展示良好形象。对境外组织和个人利用宗教从事各种违反中国宪法、法律、法规和政策的活动,控制中国宗教组织、干涉中国宗教事务,甚至企图颠覆中国政权和社会主义制度,中国政府坚决反对并将依法处置。

Adhering to the principle of independence and self-management. Religious groups and religious affairs are not subject to control by foreign countries; this principle is enshrined in the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. The Chinese government supports all religions in upholding the principle of independence and self-management, allowing religious groups, clerical personnel and believers to manage religious affairs themselves in accordance with the Constitution and law. This principle is a historic choice made by Chinese religious believers in the Chinese people’s struggle for national independence and social progress, as Catholicism and Protestantism, which were known as foreign religions in China, had long been controlled and utilized by colonialists and imperialists. The establishment of this principle conforms to the historical trend of the Chinese people’s search for national independence and liberation, to the demands of the times to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, and as a result, religions in China have taken on an entirely new look, winning widespread understanding, respect and support of friendly religious believers around the world. Adhering to the principle of independence and self-management does not mean the severing of normal connections between religious organizations in China and their foreign counterparts. The Chinese government supports and encourages all its religions to conduct international exchanges, to build, develop and consolidate friendly relations with religious groups overseas, to enhance mutual trust and eliminate misgivings, and to present a positive image based on independence, equality and mutual respect. The Chinese government will resolutely oppose and deal with foreign organizations and individuals engaging in activities which violate China’s Constitution, laws, regulations and policies, their attempts to control China’s religious organizations, to interfere in China’s religious affairs and to subvert the Chinese government and socialist system under the guise of religion.

积极引导宗教与社会主义社会相适应。积极引导宗教与社会主义社会相适应,就是要引导信教公民热爱祖国、热爱人民,维护祖国统一,维护中华民族大团结,服从服务于国家最高利益和中华民族整体利益;就是要引导宗教界拥护中国共产党领导、拥护社会主义制度,坚持走中国特色社会主义道路,坚持宗教中国化方向,积极践行社会主义核心价值观,弘扬中华优秀传统文化,努力把宗教教义教规同中华优秀传统文化相融合,遵守国家法律法规,自觉接受国家依法管理。

Actively guiding religions in adapting to the socialist society. Actively guiding religions in adapting to the socialist society means guiding religious believers to love their country and compatriots, safeguard national unity, ethnic solidarity, be subordinate to and serve the overall interests of the nation and the Chinese people. It also means guiding religious groups to support the leadership of the CPC and the socialist system; uphold and follow the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics; develop religions in the Chinese context; embrace core socialist values; carry forward China’s fine traditions; integrate religious teachings and rules with Chinese culture; abide by state laws and regulations, and accept state administration in accordance with the law.

二、宗教信仰自由权利的法律保障

II. Legal Guarantees for Freedom of Religious Belief

中国特色社会主义法律体系不断完善,宗教信仰自由权利保障的法治化水平不断提高,政府对宗教事务的管理更加规范,对广大信教公民合法权益的保护更加全面有力。

The socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics is continuously being improved, with enhanced implementation of the rule of law in protecting freedom of religious belief and increasingly standardized governance of religious affairs, providing stronger guarantees for the lawful rights and interests of its religious believers.

宗教信仰自由权利受中国宪法保障。《中华人民共和国宪法》第三十六条规定:“中华人民共和国公民有宗教信仰自由。”同时规定:“国家保护正常的宗教活动。”“任何国家机关、社会团体和个人不得强制公民信仰宗教或者不信仰宗教,不得歧视信仰宗教的公民和不信仰宗教的公民。”“任何人不得利用宗教进行破坏社会秩序、损害公民身体健康、妨碍国家教育制度的活动。”“宗教团体和宗教事务不受外国势力的支配。”这些规定为国家保障宗教信仰自由权利、依法管理宗教事务、构建积极健康的宗教关系提供了宪法依据。

Freedom of religious belief is protected by the Constitution. According to Article 36 of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, “Citizens of the People’s Republic of China enjoy freedom of religious belief. No State organ, public organization or individual may compel citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion; nor may they discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion.” Article 36 also stipulates that “No one may make use of religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the educational system of the State,” and that “Religious bodies and religious affairs are not subject to any foreign control.” These stipulations serve as the constitutional basis for the State in protecting citizens’ freedom of religious belief, administering religious affairs in accordance with the law, and building positive relations with and among religions.

宗教信仰自由权利保障体现于基本法律之中。《中华人民共和国刑法》《中华人民共和国国家安全法》《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法》等法律均有保护公民宗教信仰自由的相关规定。《中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会选举法》《中华人民共和国人民法院组织法》《中华人民共和国人民检察院组织法》《中华人民共和国城市居民委员会组织法》《中华人民共和国村民委员会组织法》《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》《中华人民共和国教育法》《中华人民共和国劳动法》《中华人民共和国就业促进法》《中华人民共和国工会法》等法律贯彻平等保护原则,规定公民在各级人民代表大会和基层群众性自治组织中的选举权和被选举权、法律适用上的平等权、受教育权、平等就业权和自主择业权、依法参加和组织工会的权利等不因宗教信仰而有区别,不因宗教信仰而受歧视。《中华人民共和国民族区域自治法》规定,民族自治地方的自治机关保障各民族公民有宗教信仰自由。《中华人民共和国未成年人保护法》规定,未成年人不分宗教信仰,依法平等享有生存权、发展权、受保护权、参与权、受教育权等权利。《中华人民共和国广告法》规定,广告不得含有宗教歧视的内容。《中华人民共和国刑法》规定,国家机关工作人员非法剥夺公民的宗教信仰自由,情节严重的,追究刑事责任。《中华人民共和国民法总则》规定,依法设立的宗教活动场所,具备法人条件的,可以申请法人登记,取得捐助法人资格。

Freedom of religious belief is protected by basic laws. China’s Criminal Law, National Security Law, and Counter-Terrorism Law provide for the protection of citizens’ freedom of religious belief. The principle of equal protection for all Chinese citizens is enshrined in the Election Law of the National People’s Congress and Local People’s Congresses, Organic Law of the People’s Courts, Organic Law of the People’s Procuratorates, Organic Law of the Urban Residents Committees, Organic Law of the Villagers Committees, Criminal Procedure Law, Education Law, Labor Law, Employment Promotion Law, and Trade Union Law. These laws stipulate that all citizens enjoy equal rights to vote and stand for election to people’s congresses at all levels and to community-level self-government organizations, the right to equality before the law, the right to education, the right to work and to free choice of employment, and the right to join or organize trade unions in accordance with the law, irrespective of religious belief. The Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy states that organs of self-government in ethnic autonomous areas shall guarantee citizens of all ethnic groups the freedom of religious belief. According to the Law on the Protection of Minors, minors enjoy equal rights to life, development, protection, participation and education in accordance with the law, irrespective of their religious belief. The Advertisement Law prohibits any advertisements that contain any information that discriminates against religions. The Criminal Law stipulates that workers of State organs involved in serious cases, which illegally deprive citizens of their right to freedom of religious belief, shall be investigated for criminal responsibility. The General Provisions of the Civil Law states that a lawfully established place of worship qualifying as a legal person may register for the status of legal person to accept donations.

宗教事务行政法规更加完善。2017年修订公布的《宗教事务条例》,强化了对公民宗教信仰自由和宗教界合法权益的保障,依法规范政府管理宗教事务的行为,增加了维护国家安全和社会和谐的内容。条例规定了宗教团体、宗教活动场所和信教公民在设立宗教活动场所、举行宗教活动、开办宗教院校、申请法人资格、出版发行宗教书刊、接受宗教捐献、管理宗教财产、开展公益慈善和对外交流活动等方面的权利和义务。条例明确了遏制宗教商业化,增加了关于互联网宗教信息服务的内容,同时规定,各级地方人民政府应当为宗教团体、宗教院校和宗教活动场所提供公共服务;各级地方人民政府应当将宗教活动场所建设纳入土地利用总体规划和城乡规划;任何组织或者个人不得在信教公民与不信教公民之间制造矛盾与冲突;出版物、互联网不得发布歧视信教公民或不信教公民的言论。

Administrative regulations regarding religious affairs are improving. The revised Regulations on Religious Affairs released in September 2017 strengthen the protection of Chinese citizens’ freedom of religious belief and the lawful rights and interests of religious groups, bring government’s management of religious affairs under due procedures in accordance with the law, and add provisions on safeguarding national security and maintaining social harmony. The Regulations prescribe the rights and responsibilities of religious organizations, places of worship, and religious believers when establishing places for and holding religious activities, setting up and running religious institutions, applying for legal person status, publishing and distributing religious books and periodicals, receiving donations, managing religious property, conducting charity activities, and carrying out exchanges with other countries. The Regulations prohibit the commercialization of religions, and include additions concerning religious information services on the Internet. In addition, the Regulations also require local governments to provide public services to religious organizations, religious institutions, and places of worship, and incorporate such sites into the overall local plans for land use and urban and rural planning. The Regulations forbid any organization or individual from creating disputes and conflicts between believers and non-believers and prohibit print publications and the Internet from disseminating information which discriminates against religious or non-religious citizens.

外国人在中国境内的宗教活动依法受到保护。《中华人民共和国境内外国人宗教活动管理规定》强调,中国政府尊重在中国境内外国人的宗教信仰自由,保护外国人在宗教方面同中国宗教界的友好交往和文化学术交流活动。境内外国人可以在寺庙、宫观、清真寺、教堂等宗教活动场所参加宗教活动,经省、自治区、直辖市以上的宗教团体邀请可以在宗教活动场所讲经、讲道,可以在县级以上人民政府宗教事务部门认可的场所举行外国人参加的宗教活动,可以邀请中国宗教教职人员为其举行洗礼、婚礼、葬礼和道场法会等宗教仪式,可以携带符合规定的宗教印刷品、宗教音像制品和其他宗教用品入境。同时规定,外国人在中国境内进行宗教活动,应当遵守中国法律、法规。外国人和外国组织不得在中国境内成立宗教组织、设立宗教办事机构和宗教活动场所、开办宗教院校、擅自招收留学生,不准在中国公民中发展教徒、委任宗教教职人员或进行其他传教活动。《中华人民共和国境外非政府组织境内活动管理法》规定,境外非政府组织在中国境内不得非法从事或者资助宗教活动。

The religious activities of foreigners in China are protected in accordance with the law. The Rules on the Administration of Religious Activities of Foreigners in the People’s Republic of China highlights China’s respect for the freedom of religious belief of foreigners within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, and its commitment to protecting the friendly relations, and cultural and academic exchanges with regards to religion between foreigners and Chinese religious groups. Foreigners may attend religious activities at temples, mosques, churches, and other sites for religious activities. They are also permitted to preach at places of worship when invited to do so by Chinese religious bodies at or above the provincial level. Foreigners may hold religious activities attended by foreigners at sites approved by government religious affairs departments at or above the county level. They may invite Chinese clerical personnel to perform baptisms, weddings, funerals, prayers, or other religious services. They are allowed to carry religious printed text, audio-video products, and other religious articles that conform to relevant regulations when entering Chinese territory. Foreigners who conduct religious activities within China shall abide by Chinese laws and regulations. They shall not establish religious organizations, set up religious offices and sites for religious activities, run religious institutions, or recruit foreign students studying in China without authorization; nor shall they recruit followers, appoint clerical personnel from among Chinese citizens or engage in other missionary activities. The Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Administration of Activities of Overseas Non-Governmental Organizations Within China prohibits overseas NGOs from illegally engaging in or sponsoring religious activities.

依法打击宗教极端势力和暴力恐怖活动。《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法》规定,国家反对一切形式的以歪曲宗教教义或者其他方法煽动仇恨、煽动歧视、鼓吹暴力等极端主义,禁止任何基于地域、民族、宗教等理由的歧视性做法。《宗教事务条例》规定,不得宣扬、支持、资助宗教极端主义,不得利用宗教破坏民族团结、分裂国家和进行恐怖活动。国家采取措施遏制宗教极端主义传播、蔓延,同时特别注意防止把暴力恐怖活动、宗教极端主义与特定民族或特定宗教联系在一起。

Religious extremism and violent terrorist activities are dealt with in accordance with the law. The Counter-Terrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China states that China opposes all extremism that seeks to instigate hatred, incite discrimination and advocate violence by distorting religious doctrines or through other means, and forbids any discriminatory behavior on the grounds of region, ethnicity and religion. The Regulations on Religious Affairs prohibit any organization or individual from advocating, supporting or sponsoring religious extremism, or using religion to undermine ethnic unity, divide the country, or engage in terrorist activities. China takes measures against the propagation and spread of religious extremism, and at the same time, carefully avoids linking violent terrorism and religious extremism with any particular ethnic group or religion.

三、宗教活动有序开展

III. Conducting Religious Activities in an Orderly Manner

中国主要有佛教、道教、伊斯兰教、天主教和基督教等宗教,信教公民近2亿,宗教教职人员38万余人。佛教和道教信徒众多,但普通信徒没有严格的入教程序,人数难以精确统计。佛教教职人员约22.2万人。道教教职人员4万余人。10个多数人信仰伊斯兰教的少数民族总人口2000多万人,伊斯兰教教职人员5.7万余人。天主教信徒约600万人,宗教教职人员约0.8万人。基督教信徒3800多万人,宗教教职人员约5.7万人。中国还存在多种民间信仰,与当地传统文化和风俗习惯结合在一起,参与民间信仰活动的群众较多。中国的宗教团体约5500个,其中全国性宗教团体7个,分别为中国佛教协会、中国道教协会、中国伊斯兰教协会、中国天主教爱国会、中国天主教主教团、中国基督教三自爱国运动委员会、中国基督教协会。

The major religions practiced in China are Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism, and Protestantism; with a total of nearly 200 million believers and more than 380,000 clerical personnel. China has numerous Buddhist and Taoist believers, but it is difficult to accurately estimate their numbers as there are no set registration procedures which ordinary believers must follow as part of their religion. There are around 222,000 Buddhist clerical personnel and over 40,000 Taoist clerical personnel. The 10 minority ethnic groups, the majority of whose population believe in Islam, total more than 20 million, with about 57,000 clerical personnel. Catholicism and Protestantism have 6 million and 38 million followers in China respectively, with 8,000 and 57,000 clerical personnel. China also has many folk beliefs which are closely linked to local cultures, traditions and customs, in which a large number of people participate. There are approximately 5,500 religious groups in China, including seven national organizations which are Buddhist Association of China, Chinese Taoist Association, China Islamic Association, Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association, Bishops’ Conference of Catholic Church in China, National Committee of the Three-Self Patriotic Movement of the Protestant Churches in China, and China Christian Council.

宗教活动场所条件明显改善。国家依法对信教公民开展集体宗教活动的场所进行登记,将其纳入法律保护范围,确保宗教活动规范有序进行。目前依法登记的宗教活动场所14.4万处。佛教寺院约3.35万座,其中汉传佛教2.8万余座,藏传佛教3800余座,南传佛教1700余座。道教宫观9000余座。伊斯兰教清真寺3.5万余处。天主教教区98个,教堂和活动堂点6000余处。基督教教堂和聚会点约6万处。宗教团体、宗教活动场所执行国家统一的税收制度,按照国家有关规定缴纳税收和享受税收优惠;水、电、气、暖、道路、通讯,以及广播电视、医疗卫生等公共服务延伸和覆盖到宗教活动场所。

Conditions of places of worship have been notably improved. The State requires the registration of places of worship for group religious activities in accordance with the law, so as to provide legal protection and ensure that all activities are carried out in an orderly manner. At present, there are about 144,000 places of worship registered for religious activities in China, among which are 33,500 Buddhist temples (including 28,000 Han Buddhist temples, 3,800 Tibetan Buddhist lamaseries, and 1,700 Theravada Buddhist temples), 9,000 Taoist temples, 35,000 Islamic mosques, 6,000 Catholic churches and places of assembly spread across 98 dioceses, and 60,000 Protestant churches and places of assembly. Religious groups and places of worship follow the unified tax regulations of the State, pay taxes and enjoy tax breaks accordingly. The government ensures that places of worship have access to public services such as running water, electricity, gas, heating, roads, communications, broadcast facilities, televisions, and medical services.

宗教典籍文献依法出版。多语种、多版本的宗教经典以及记载、阐释、注解宗教教义、教规的印刷品、音像制品和电子读物的印制出版流通,满足了各族信教公民的多样化需求。整理出版《大藏经》《中华道藏》《老子集成》等大型宗教古籍文献。西藏寺庙的传统印经院得到保留和发展,现有布达拉宫印经院等传统印经院60家,年印经卷6.3万种。已翻译出版发行汉、维吾尔、哈萨克、柯尔克孜等多种文字版的《古兰经》等伊斯兰教经典,编辑发行《新编卧尔兹演讲集》系列等读物和杂志,总量达176万余册。中国已为100多个国家和地区累计印刷超过100个语种、1.6亿多册《圣经》,其中为中国教会印刷约8000万册,包括汉语和11种少数民族文字以及盲文版。许多宗教团体和活动场所开设了网站,中国伊斯兰教协会开通中文版和维吾尔文版网站。

Religious texts and literature are published as prescribed by the law. The printing, publication and circulation of religious text, in different languages and editions, and printed works, audio-visual products and e-books that record, explain and/or annotate religious doctrines and canons, have met the diverse demands of citizens with religious beliefs from the various ethnic groups. Several large collections of religious classics, including the Chinese Buddhist Canon, the Chinese Taoist Canon and A Collection of Editions and Commentaries for the Laozi, have been compiled and published. Traditional sutra printing houses in Tibetan Buddhist temples have been well preserved and developed. There are now 60 such sutra printing houses, including the one in the Potala Palace, that can print 63,000 different sutras every year. Islamic classics, such as the Koran, have been translated and published in Chinese, Uygur, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz languages. The publication and circulation of the New Collection of Al-Wa’z Speeches series and other reading materials and magazines have exceeded 1.76 million copies. China has printed over 160 million copies of the Bible in more than 100 different languages for over 100 countries and regions, including 80 million copies printed in the Chinese language, 11 ethnic minority languages and braille for churches in China. A great many religious groups and places of worship have launched websites; and the Islamic Association of China has a website in both Chinese and Uygur languages.

宗教教育体系更加完善。截至2017年9月,经国家宗教事务局批准设立的宗教院校共91所,其中佛教41所,道教10所,伊斯兰教10所,天主教9所,基督教21所。全国性宗教院校6所,分别为中国佛学院、中国藏语系高级佛学院、中国道教学院、中国伊斯兰教经学院、中国天主教神哲学院、金陵协和神学院。宗教院校在校学生1万多人,历届毕业生累计4.7万余人。

The religious education system has been further improved. By September 2017, there are 91 religious schools in China whose establishment was approved by the State Administration of Religious Affairs (SARA), including 41 Buddhist, 10 Taoist, 10 Islamic, 9 Catholic and 21 Protestant schools. There are six national level religious colleges, namely, the Buddhist Academy of China, High-level Tibetan Buddhism College of China, Chinese Taoist College, China Islamic Institute, National Seminary of the Catholic Church in China, and Nanjing Union Theological Seminary. At present, more than 10,000 students study in these religious schools whose graduates total more than 47,000.

宗教教职人员社会保障更加有力。2010年有关部门联合发布《关于妥善解决宗教教职人员社会保障问题的意见》,2011年又联合发布《关于进一步解决宗教教职人员社会保障问题的通知》,将宗教教职人员纳入社会保障体系。截至2013年年底,宗教教职人员医疗保险参保率达到96.5%,养老保险参保率达到89.6%,符合条件的全部纳入低保,基本实现了社保体系全覆盖。

Social security for religious clerical personnel has been enhanced. The SARA and other relevant departments jointly issued the “Directives on Solving the Social Security Problem for Religious Clerical Personnel” in 2010, and again the “Notice of Further Solving the Social Security Problem for Religious Clerical Personnel” in 2011, which brought clerical personnel into the social security system. At the end of 2013, 96.5 percent of clerical personnel were covered by medical insurance, 89.6 percent by the old-age insurance, and all qualified personnel by subsistence allowance welfare. Almost all clerical personnel were covered by the social security system in China.

信教公民的宗教活动有序进行。公民在宗教活动场所内以及按照宗教习惯在自己家里进行的一切正常的宗教活动,如礼拜、封斋、拜佛、祈祷、讲经、讲道、诵经、烧香、弥撒、受洗、受戒、终傅、追思、过宗教节日等,受法律保护,任何组织和个人不得加以干涉。藏传佛教寺庙学经、辩经、受戒、灌顶、修行等传统宗教活动和寺庙学经考核晋升学位活动正常进行,每逢重大宗教节日都循例举行各种宗教活动。穆斯林在饮食、衣饰、年节、婚姻、丧葬等方面的风俗习惯得到充分尊重。中国伊斯兰教协会每年组织穆斯林赴沙特参加朝觐活动,从2007年起,每年人数均在1万人以上。

The religious activities of believers are being conducted in an orderly manner. All normal religious activities, including attending religious services, fasting, worshiping Buddha, praying, preaching, reciting scriptures, burning incense, attending Mass, being baptized or ordained, observing extreme unction, holding memorial ceremonies, and celebrating religious festivals, which believers conduct at places of worship or in their own homes in accordance with customary religious practices, are protected by law, and no organization or individual may infringe on these rights. Traditional Tibetan Buddhist activities such as scripture study and debate, initiation into monkhood or nunhood, abhisheka (empowerment ceremony) and self-cultivation, and tests and degree promotions in lamaseries are held on a regular basis, while ceremonial activities are also held during important religious festivals. Muslim customs regarding food and drink, clothing, festivals, marriages and funerals are fully respected. The Islamic Association of China organizes for Muslims to go on pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia every year, with the number of participants exceeding 10,000 a year since 2007.

扰乱宗教领域正常秩序的行为得到纠正。自2012年起,有关部门依据《关于处理涉及佛教寺庙、道教宫观管理有关问题的意见》,开展联合督查,集中治理宗教活动场所“被承包”“被上市”等乱象。2017年国家宗教事务局等12个部门制定下发了《关于进一步治理佛教道教商业化问题的若干意见》,禁止商业资本介入宗教活动场所,防止借教敛财等行为扰乱宗教活动正常秩序。有关部门加大对互联网宗教事务的管理,及时处理涉及宗教的违法信息,保护宗教界的合法权益。

Activities that disturb the normal order in places of worship have been rectified. In accordance with the “Directives on Some Issues Relating to the Management of Buddhist and Taoist Temples”, the SARA and other relevant departments have been conducting joint investigations since 2012 into the problem of religious revenue being used by businesspeople or “go public”. In 2017, the SARA and 11 related departments issued “Guidelines on Further Controlling the Commercialization of Buddhism and Taoism”, which prohibits commercial capital from being invested in religious revenues, to prevent normal religious activities from being affected by money-grabbing behavior. Relevant departments have intensified the management of the Internet regarding religious affairs, and swiftly dealt with the spread of illegal information concerning religions, effectively protecting the legal rights and interests of religious groups.

四、宗教界的作用得到充分发挥

IV. The Role of Religious Groups Has Been Fully Developed

中国鼓励各宗教与时俱进,与社会主义社会相适应,为促进经济发展、社会和谐、文化繁荣、民族团结、祖国统一贡献力量。

China encourages all religions to keep pace with the times and adapt to the socialist society, and contribute to economic growth, social harmony, cultural prosperity, ethnic solidarity and national unification.

努力对教义教规作出契合国情和时代要求的阐释。中国各宗教在发展过程中历来有与中国优秀传统文化相融合、与社会发展现实需求相适应的特点。中国宗教界坚持宗教中国化方向,践行社会主义核心价值观,弘扬中华民族优良传统,积极探索符合中国国情的宗教思想。在保持基本信仰、核心教义、礼仪制度的同时,佛教界和道教界开展讲经交流活动,伊斯兰教界开展“解经”工作,天主教界推进民主办教,基督教界开展神学思想建设,努力对宗教教义教规作出契合国情和时代要求的阐释。佛教界将爱国与爱教结合起来,更多关注现世问题,更加注重弘法利生、公益慈善、文化交流。道教界致力于尊道贵德、道法自然、清静恬淡、抱朴守真等教理教义的转化和发展,助力中华优秀传统文化的继承与弘扬。伊斯兰教界注重阐释教义中爱国、和平、团结、宽容、中道等思想,起到了立正信、明是非、反分裂、抵制宗教极端主义的积极作用。天主教界积极推动教会的本地化,在教会事务的管理及重大问题的决策上实行“民主办教”。基督教界吸取中国优秀文化的养分,促进基督徒与不同信仰者之间的互相尊重、和睦相处,推动基督教更好地融入当代中国社会。

Making efforts to interpret religious teachings and rules which conform to the national conditions and demands of the times. In the course of their development, religions in China have blended with traditional Chinese culture and adapted to the actual needs of social development. Chinese religious groups must conduct religious activities in the Chinese context, practice core socialist values, carry forward the fine traditions of the Chinese nation, and actively explore religious thought which conforms to the reality in China. While maintaining their basic beliefs, core religious teachings and etiquette system, the Buddhist and Taoist communities hold sermons, the Islamic community carries out work interpreting the classics, the Catholic community encourages the running of its religious work in a democratic manner, and the Protestant community conducts theological construction, all in an attempt to interpret religious teachings and rules to conform to the national conditions and demands of the times. The Buddhist community integrates patriotism with love of religion, focusing more on worldly concerns, promoting Buddhism to benefit all living creatures, public charity, and cultural exchange. The Taoist community is committed to promoting its religious principles such as “respecting the Tao and valuing morality”, “Tao follows nature”, “being quiet and serene”, and “embracing simplicity and wisdom”, to help carry forward and promote traditional Chinese culture. The Islamic community focuses on interpreting the thoughts in its religious doctrine of patriotism, peace, unity, tolerance and the Middle Path, serving to form correct belief, discerning right from wrong, opposing secession, and resisting religious extremism. The Catholic community actively promotes the localization of churches, managing church activities and making decisions in a democratic manner. The Protestant community draws nourishment from traditional Chinese culture, helping to foster mutual respect and harmony between Protestants and believers of all faiths so as to allow Protestantism to better integrate into modern Chinese society.

积极从事公益慈善活动。从2012年起,宗教界依据《关于鼓励和规范宗教界从事公益慈善活动的意见》,每年开展“宗教慈善周”活动,捐款数额累计超过10亿元。为汶川地震等重大灾难事故举行各种赈灾祈福祈祷活动;集中力量帮助贵州省三都水族自治县脱贫;开展多种形式的捐资助学;资助专业医疗机构开展便民义诊,捐助困难群体的医疗救治;开展多种形式的敬老助残活动,创建养老机构,建立残疾人康复站,初步统计,宗教界共开办了养老机构400多家,床位数总计约2.9万张;倡导绿色环保理念,佛教界和道教界开展了“文明敬香”和“合理放生”活动,建设生态寺庙、生态宫观。

Actively engaging in public charity activities. Since 2012, based on “Opinions on Encouraging and Regulating Religious Circles’ Participation in Public Welfare Charitable Activities”, religious groups have carried out an annual “Religious Charity Week”; with total donations exceeding one billion yuan. They have also held prayer services following the Wenchuan earthquake and other major disasters and incidents, utilized available resources to help the Sandu Shui Autonomous County, Guizhou Province to eliminate poverty, made donations to education in various forms, funded professional medical institutions to provide free services, subsidized medical treatment for disadvantaged groups, and carried out a range of activities to help the elderly and disabled by establishing nursing homes for the elderly and rehabilitation centers for the disabled. According to preliminary statistics, religious groups have established more than 400 nursing homes offering approximately 29,000 beds. They also advocate a “green environment” philosophy. Buddhist and Taoist communities have called for environmentally friendly forms of burning incense and freeing captive animals, and have constructed eco-friendly temples.

自觉抵制极端主义。面对宗教极端思想对人类文明共同底线的挑战,宗教界旗帜鲜明地同极端主义划清界限,坚决反对冒用宗教名义从事暴力恐怖和民族分裂活动,大力倡导正信正行。2013年1月,汉传、藏传与南传三大语系佛教的高僧大德和专家学者召开会议,呼吁所有佛教界人士积极行动起来,向广大信众宣讲正确的佛教生命观,反对违背佛教教义和戒律实施或煽动他人实施自焚的极端行为。2014年5月,中国伊斯兰教协会发出《坚守中道,远离极端》倡议书,全国伊斯兰教界知名人士共同发声,严厉谴责暴力恐怖活动。2016年7月,中华宗教文化交流协会会同中国伊斯兰教协会在乌鲁木齐举办了伊斯兰教中道思想国际研讨会,倡导中道思想,共同反对极端主义。2017年12月,中国全国性宗教团体联合发出倡议,号召宗教界增强鉴别能力,防范和抵制邪教侵害,维护社会和谐稳定。

Conscientiously resisting extremism. Faced by the challenge of religious extremism to the bottom line of human civilization, religious groups have taken a clear stand and drawn a line against extremists, fully advocating correct belief and behavior, and fighting resolutely against the use of terrorist violence and instigation of separatism in the name of religion. In January 2013, eminent monks, experts and scholars of Buddhism of Chinese tradition, Tibetan tradition and Theravada tradition convened a meeting to call on all Buddhists to become more active in preaching to their believers about the correct outlook on life and opposing extremist behaviors such as self-immolation or the incitement of others to do so, which violate Buddhist teachings and discipline. In May 2014, the China Islamic Association released a proposal entitled “Keep to the Middle Path and Steer Clear of Extremism”, whereby well-known Islamic figures across the country condemned violent terrorist activities. In July 2016, the China Religious Culture Communication Association and the China Islamic Association held the International Seminar on the Islamic Middle Path in Urumqi, advocating the role of the Middle Path in opposing extremism. In December 2017, national religious groups jointly issued a proposal calling for religious communities to enhance their abilities to distinguish, guard against and resist the encroachment of cults, and maintain social harmony and stability.

五、宗教关系积极健康

V. Active and Healthy Religious Relations

中国妥善处理党和政府与宗教、社会与宗教、国内不同宗教、中国宗教与外国宗教、信教公民与不信教公民等多种关系,形成了积极健康的宗教关系。

Relations between the Party/government and religious groups, society and religion, different religions within the country, religions of China and foreign countries, and religious believers and non-believers are properly handled in China. This has enabled active and healthy religious relations to take shape.

党和政府与宗教界的关系和谐融洽。中国共产党坚持以“政治上团结合作、信仰上互相尊重”的原则处理同宗教界的关系,同宗教界的爱国统一战线不断巩固。目前,中国约有2万名宗教界人士担任了各级人民代表大会和政治协商会议的代表、委员,积极参政议政,实施民主监督。从1991年开始,党和国家领导人每年与全国性宗教团体负责人迎春座谈,听取他们的意见建议。全国各地普遍建立了党政领导干部与宗教界人士联谊交友机制,加深了解,增进友谊。

Harmony between the Party/government and religious groups. The CPC adheres to the principle of “uniting and cooperating politically, and respecting each other’s beliefs” in the handling of relations with religious groups, and maintains good relations with religious circles. They have formed a consolidated patriotic united front. At present, approximately 20,000 prominent figures from the religious circles serve as deputies and members at all levels of people’s congresses and committees of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, and participate in the deliberation and administration of state affairs and exercising democratic oversight. Since 1991, Party and state leaders have held annual seminars before the Spring Festival with heads of national religious groups to listen to their opinions and suggestions. Mechanisms have been established between Party and government leaders and religious personages across the country to help enhance mutual understanding and friendship.

社会对宗教持包容态度。两千多年来,佛教、伊斯兰教、天主教、基督教等先后传入中国,很少出现以宗教为背景的冲突和对抗,国家与社会对各种宗教和多样的民间信仰持开放态度,宗教信仰自由和民间信仰多样性获得尊重。各宗教继承和发扬长期以来中国化、本土化的传统,主动适应社会,发扬爱国爱教、团结进步、服务社会、和谐包容的优良传统,自觉维护国家利益、社会公共利益和公序良俗,履行社会责任。2016年,全国宗教界在各地开展了纪念抗日战争暨世界反法西斯战争胜利71周年和平祈祷活动,呼吁维护民族团结、国家稳定和世界和平。

Social tolerance towards religions. Religious conflict and confrontation have rarely been seen in China since the introduction of Buddhism, Islam, Catholicism and Protestantism over the past 2,000 years. The state and the society have maintained an open mind towards diverse religions and folk beliefs, and respect both freedom of religious belief and diversity of folk beliefs. Religious groups carry on the longstanding tradition whereby religions in China must be Chinese in orientation, and actively adapt to society. They also carry on the fine traditions of patriotism, unity, progress, service to society, harmony, and inclusiveness. Religious groups conscientiously safeguard national and social public interests, public order and good customs, and fulfill social responsibility. In 2016, Chinese religious groups organized peaceful prayer services across the country to commemorate the 71st anniversary of victory in the Chinese People’s War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression and the Second World War, and call for the maintenance of ethnic solidarity, national stability and world peace.

各宗教积极开展交流对话。历史上,各种宗教在中国交融共生、彼此借鉴,成为中国优秀传统文化的有机组成部分。在当代,不同宗教相互尊重、相互学习,开展对话交流,开创了“五教同光,共致和谐”的新境界。全国性和一些地方性宗教团体建立了联席会议机制,对涉及宗教关系的问题进行协商沟通,创造了具有中国特色的宗教对话模式,增进了相互之间的理解和友谊。

Active exchanges and dialogues between different religions. Throughout history, different religions in China have blended together and drawn lessons from one another to become an integral part of traditional Chinese culture. In modern times, different religions respect and learn from each other, and take part in exchanges and dialogues, and a new realm of “five religions (Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism and Protestantism) working together to achieve harmony” has taken shape. National and local religious groups have established a mechanism of joint conferences to discuss issues concerning religious relations, creating modes of religious dialogue with Chinese characteristics and enhancing mutual understanding and friendship.

宗教领域国际交流广泛开展。在独立自主、平等友好、相互尊重的基础上,中国宗教界已经与超过80个国家的宗教组织建立了友好关系,积极参加涉及不同文明、信仰与宗教的国际性会议,广泛参与世界基督教教会联合会、世界佛教徒联谊会、伊斯兰世界联盟、世界宗教者和平会议等国际性组织的活动,参加联合国人权理事会会议,参与多个双边和多边人权对话。积极响应“一带一路”倡议,促进民心相通,文化交融。佛教界举办了4届世界佛教论坛,道教界举办了4届国际道教论坛,这两个论坛已成为海内外佛教、道教重要的国际交流平台。中国伊斯兰教协会分别于2012年、2014年赴土耳其、马来西亚举办伊斯兰文化展演活动。中美基督教会2013年在上海举办“第二届中美基督教领袖论坛”,2017年在美国举办“中国教会事工”交流会。2016年,中国伊斯兰教协会、中国基督教协会和中国天主教一会一团共同与德国新教联盟在德国联合举办“中德宗教对话——和平与共享”跨宗教对话。改革开放以来,各宗教团体选派出国留学人员超过千人。

Extensive international religious exchanges. Chinese religious groups have established friendly relations with religious organizations in more than 80 countries based on the principles of independence, equality, friendship, and mutual respect, and played an active part in international conferences involving diverse cultures, beliefs and religions. Chinese religious groups participate extensively in activities run by international organizations including the World Council of Churches, World Fellowship of Buddhists, Muslim World League, and World Conference on Religion and Peace, as well as conferences set up by the United Nations Human Rights Council, and bilateral and multilateral dialogues on human rights. Chinese religious groups have responded actively to the Belt and Road Initiative, working to promote closer ties between people and the linking up of cultures. Chinese Buddhist and Taoist communities have held four World Buddhist Forums and four International Taoism Forums respectively, which have become important international platforms for the communication of Buddhism and Taoism both at home and abroad. The China Islamic Association organized the China Islamic Culture Expo & Art Show in Turkey and Malaysia in 2012 and 2014 respectively. Chinese and American Protestant organizations held the Second China-USA Protestant Church Leaders Forum in Shanghai in 2013, and the China-U.S. Church Symposium in the U.S. in 2017. In 2016, the China Islamic Association, China Christian Council, Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association, Bishops Conference of Catholic Church in China and Union Evangelical Churches in Germany jointly hosted the China-Germany Inter-religious Dialogue – Peace & Sharing in Germany. Since China’s adoption of reform and opening-up in 1978, Chinese religious groups have sent more than 1,000 people abroad to study.

信教和不信教公民和睦相处。不信教公民尊重信教公民的宗教信仰,不歧视和排斥信教公民;信教公民尊重不信教公民的信仰选择。在多数公民不信教的地方,少数信教公民的合法权利得到尊重和保护;在多数公民信教的地方,少数不信教公民的权利同样得到尊重和保护。

Harmony between religious believers and non-believers. Citizens who do not hold any religious belief respect the freedom of others to practice religion, and do not discriminate against them; religious believers respect those who do not believe in any religion. In regions where the majority of citizens are non-believers, the legitimate rights of minority religious believers are respected and protected; in regions where the majority of citizens are religious believers, the legitimate rights of the minority who are non-believers are equally respected and protected.

结束语

Conclusion

宗教是人类文明的有机组成部分。保障宗教信仰自由,妥善处理宗教关系,使之与时代相适应,遏制宗教极端主义,是世界各国面临的共同课题。中国结合宗教发展变化和宗教工作实际,汲取国内外正反两方面的经验,走出了一条依法保障宗教信仰自由、促进宗教关系和谐、发挥宗教界积极作用的成功道路。中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会报告明确指出,全面贯彻党的宗教工作基本方针,坚持宗教的中国化方向,积极引导宗教与社会主义社会相适应。中国将一如既往地尊重和保障公民的宗教信仰自由,努力建设富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国。

Religion is an integral part of human civilization. Protecting freedom of religious belief, properly handling religious relations and adapting them to the times, and curbing religious extremism are common tasks facing all countries around the world. Considering the development of religions and changes in religious work, and learning from both positive and negative experiences at home and abroad, China has embarked on a road to success which enshrines freedom of religious belief in law, promotes harmonious religious relations, and encourages religious groups to play a positive role. According to General Secretary Xi Jinping’s report at the 19th CPC National Congress held in 2017, China will fully implement the Party’s basic policy on religious affairs, uphold the principle that religions in China must be Chinese in orientation and provide active guidance to religions so that they can adapt themselves to the socialist society. China will continue to respect and protect its citizens’ freedom to religious beliefs, and strive to build the country into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally-advanced, harmonious, and with a sound environment.

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