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口译交传:李克强总理中外记者见面会


来源:新华网    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2018-03-27 09:20   点击: 次  

 

3月20日(星期二)上午十三届全国人大一次会议闭幕后,国务院总理李克强在人民大会堂三楼金色大厅会见采访十三届全国人大一次会议的中外记者并回答记者提出的问题。

李克强总理会见采访两会的中外记者并回答提问

Premier Li Keqiang Meets the Press

十三届全国人大一次会议20日上午在人民大会堂举行记者会,国务院总理李克强应大会发言人张业遂的邀请会见中外记者,并回答记者提问。国务院副总理韩正、孙春兰、胡春华、刘鹤参加。

The First Session of the 13th National People’s Congress held a press conference on 20 March 2018. Premier Li Keqiang met with Chinese and foreign reporters and answered their questions at the invitation of Spokesperson Mr. Zhang Yesui. The press conference was also attended by Vice-Premiers Han Zheng, Sun Chunlan, Hu Chunhua and Liu He.

李克强总理向中外记者介绍了各位副总理,并对大家表示感谢,欢迎大家提问。

Premier Li Keqiang presented the newly-appointed vice-premiers and thanked members of the media. He then opened the floor to questions. The following is a transcript of the press conference.

李克强:媒体的各位朋友们,女士们、先生们,感谢你们为中国两会作出了大量的报道、付出的辛劳,在这里向你们表示衷心的感谢。

我先介绍一下几位新任的副总理:韩正副总理。孙春兰副总理。胡春华副总理。刘鹤副总理。

下面欢迎媒体的朋友们提问。

Premier Li Keqiang: Members of the media, ladies and gentlemen, let me begin by expressing my high appreciation to all of you for your hard work in covering the NPC and CPPCC sessions. Before taking your questions, let me present to you the newly-appointed vice-premiers. They are: Vice-Premier Han Zheng, Vice-Premier Sun Chunlan, Vice-Premier Hu Chunhua and Vice-Premier Liu He. Now the floor is open for questions.

彭博社记者:今年是中国改革开放40周年。在过去的40年中,中国取得了巨大的经济发展成就,成功使数亿人脱贫。在中国进入新时代以后,面临的问题将更加复杂,我们认为中国改革开放的模式也会经历一些变化,这集中体现在这次两会期间通过了政府机构改革方案以及进行修宪等。请问中国特别是在吸引外资和促进外贸方面,奉行的改革开放模式会跟过去40年有什么不同?

Bloomberg: This year is the 40th anniversary of China’s reform and opening. Over those 40 years, China has enjoyed unprecedented economic growth and hundreds of millions of people have been pulled out of poverty. But it’s becoming increasingly clear that China is entering a new era, where problems are going to become more complicated and the model of reform and opening is also changing, highlighted by the restructuring of the government departments and the revisions of the Constitution that were passed by the National People’s Congress this year. I wanted to ask you what will the biggest difference be between reform and opening in this new era versus the past, especially when it comes to foreign investment and trade?

李克强:中国40年来有目共睹的经济社会发展成就和开放是密不可分的。开放推动了改革,促进了发展。可以说中国人民从开放中尝到了甜头。去年年初,习近平主席在达沃斯世界经济论坛发表演讲时明确表示,中国将继续维护自由贸易,开放是中国的基本国策。如果说中国的开放有新变化的话,那就是门会越开越大。中国经济已经深度融入世界经济,关上门等于挡住了我们自己的路。

Premier Li: Opening-up has been instrumental to China’s economic and social transformation in the past 40 years. It has driven China’s reform agenda, promoted its development and delivered real benefits to the Chinese people. In his speech at the World Economic Forum meeting in Davos last year, President Xi Jinping made it clear that China will continue to uphold free trade and pursue opening-up as a fundamental policy. If there’s anything that’s going to be different from the past, it will be that China will open even wider to the world. With its economy so integrated into the global economy, closing China’s door will only hinder our own progress.

新的变化意味着进一步扩大开放,我们在开放方面还有较大的空间和潜力。比如货物贸易,我们商品进口税率水平在世界上处于中等水平,我们愿意以更开放的姿态进一步降低商品进口的总体税率水平。一些市场热销的消费品,包括药品,特别是群众、患者急需的抗癌药品,我们要较大幅度地降低进口税率,对抗癌药品力争降到零税率。对于服务贸易,我们现在是逆差,进一步开放服务业会付出一些代价,但可以促进提高我们产业的竞争力。下一步重点要放宽服务业的准入,比如在养老、医疗、教育、金融等领域,我们会加大放宽准入力度,在一些领域逐步放宽甚至取消股比限制。我们还会全面放开制造业,在这方面不允许强制转让技术,我们将保护知识产权。

China will continue to open up; indeed, there is still broad space to do so. China’s import tariffs are at the medium level internationally. We are committed to bringing them down still further, particularly for high-demand consumer goods. For instance, we aim to adopt zero tariff for the much-needed anti-cancer drugs.

On the other hand, China runs a deficit in trade in services. Further opening of the services sector will entail a cost, but it will make the sector more competitive. We plan to widen access to elderly care, health care, education and financial services. We will ease or lift the cap on foreign ownership in some sectors. We will also make the manufacturing sector fully open. There will be no mandatory requirement for technology transfer, and intellectual property rights will be better protected.

我们的外商投资负面清单会进一步调整缩减。今年及今后几年会逐步放宽准入。而且我们还要加快推进涉及外商投资的三个法律合并成一个基础性法律,以实现给外商准入前国民待遇的承诺。至于你提到的修宪、机构改革与开放的关系,这次全国人民代表大会已经批准了宪法修正案和政府机构改革方案,我们会遵循宪法,推进机构改革,这将更有利于坚持我们对外开放的基本国策。

The negative list for inbound investment will be shortened in the course of this year and the coming years. We aim to merge the three laws governing foreign investment into one law, and fully honor our commitment to foreign investors of pre-establishment national treatment.

As for your question about how the constitutional amendment and institutional reform is going to impact China’s opening-up, now that the constitutional amendment and government institutional reforms have been adopted at the NPC session, we will faithfully observe the amended Constitution and follow through on institutional reform. This will reinforce our commitment to the fundamental policy of opening-up.

我在报纸上看到,部分媒体对中国的开放有这样那样的议论,所以我多说两句。我们的努力方向是要使13亿人的市场逐步成为中外企业、各类所有制企业都可以公平竞争的市场,给中国消费者以更多的选择,促使中国产品和服务升级,促进经济向高质量的方向发展。

I can see from some media reports that opinions are divided on market openness in China. Let me make this clear. Our goal is to gradually create a level playing field in a market of 1.3 billion consumers for both Chinese and foreign-invested enterprises of all types of ownership. This will provide Chinese consumers with more options and incentivize the upgrading of Chinese products and services and that of the overall economy.

当然,中国的开放是一个渐进的过程,有些当时看起来并不起眼的开放举措,几年后回过头来看,可能成效令人惊讶。比如说5年前我们简化了因私护照办理和出境的手续,结果出境人次从当年的7000多万增加到去年的1亿3千多万,而且其中多数都是去旅游和消费。所以看中国的开放,不仅要看细节、领域,更要看长远、全景。当然,开放是双向的、是相互的,就好像双人划船,光靠单人使力,这个船只能原地打转。只有两人同向用力才能向前进。

This said, China’s opening-up will be an incremental process. In retrospect, a modest step of opening-up may sometimes yield enormous benefits. For example, five years ago we simplified the procedure for getting passports and traveling overseas. As a result, the number of outbound trips made by Chinese citizens surged from 70 million to 130 million last year, most of them being tourists and shoppers. In making sense of China’s opening-up, one needs to pay attention to the concrete steps in specific areas, but more importantly take a panoramic and long-term view. I also want to emphasize that opening needs to work both ways. It’s like rowing a boat: if only one of the two oars people is giving it their best, the boat will just keep turning on the spot. They’ll only move forward if both are working in the same direction.

中国日报社记者:总理您好,今年两会期间,有代表委员提出要像当年抓GDP一样,抓“放管服”改革,同时也有人说,中国目前的制度性成本还是很高,办事还是比较难。请问总理,“放管服”改革要放多少?放了以后该怎么管?是否有一个明确的目标?

China Daily: During this year’s “Two Sessions”, some delegates expressed the view that the Chinese government should pursue the reform of its own functions with the same determination as in pursuing GDP growth in the past. At the same time, we have also heard some complaints suggesting that the government-imposed transaction cost in China remains high, and it is still difficult for the people to get things done. So I would like to ask you, Mr. Premier, what more steps will the new government take to streamline administration and delegate powers? And what will the government do to enhance compliance oversight? Are there any specific goals in this area?

李克强:这是一个很重要的问题。上届政府伊始,我们抓住转变政府职能这个“牛鼻子”,推动简政放权、放管结合、优化服务改革,就是要理顺政府和市场的关系,激发市场的活力和社会创造力。可以说这方面已经取得了阶段性成果,成为政府持续推进自身改革、解放和发展生产力的一个利器。

Premier Li: You asked a very important question. The transformation of government functions was high on the agenda during our first term. We saw the effort to streamline administration, delegate powers, and improve compliance oversight and government services as pivotal to getting the relationship between the government and the market right, which will further stimulate market vitality and public creativity. I’m happy to say that our efforts have paid off, and these measures have become an effective means for further reforming government functions and for unleashing and developing the productive forces.

这次两会期间,我到代表团、联组会参加审议和讨论,不少代表委员都提出,在推进供给侧结构性改革的时候,政府要着力推动优化营商环境,提供办事便利,这可以说是市场主体和人民群众对改革比较迫切的愿望,他们提的有很多看似小问题,实际上连着大政策。我们要见端知本,改革就是要把突破点推向离市场、群众最近的地方,把民之所望作为改革所向。

In my discussions with them during this year’s “Two Sessions”, many delegates raised the hope that in pursuing supply-side structural reforms, the government will focus more on improving the business environment and making things easier for people to get things done. These voices represent the high expectation of market entities and our people for further actions. The issues they raise may seem small, yet they bear on major policy decisions. We must heed this call by tackling the root of the problems and pushing for breakthroughs in areas most closely related to the market and to the lives of our citizens to better respond to their needs.

“天下大事必作于细”。在放宽市场准入方面,今年要在六个方面下硬功夫,也可以把它形象地说成是六个“一”,那就是企业开办时间再减一半;项目审批时间再砍一半;政务服务一网办通;企业和群众办事力争只进一扇门;最多跑一次;凡是没有法律法规依据的证明一律取消。现在我们开办企业的时间经过几年的努力,可以说已经降了不少,但是全国平均还要22天,而在一些发达国家,只需要不到一天的时间。我们项目施工许可的办理时间就更长了,所以必须减繁。这六个“一”都是减,再加上减税、减费,这些都是动政府“奶酪”的,是伤筋动骨的改革。

As we say in Chinese, every single detail counts in the accomplishment of big tasks. Going forward, these are the 6 things we plan to do. We’ll cut the time it takes for opening a business by another half; we will reduce the time required for reviewing a project application by another half; we will put in place, at the national level, an e-platform for accessing government services; we will work to see that our people can get things done in one office, without the need for a second trip; and we will ensure that any requirement for certification that has no basis in law or regulations will be abolished.

Thanks to efforts in recent years, we have significantly cut the time required for opening a business in our country. But it still takes 22 days on national average, whereas it takes maybe less than a day in a developed country. And it takes even longer for one to get a project permit in China. So, with regulatory streamlining and further tax and fee cuts, we are making profound adjustments to government functions. This is like moving the government’s own cheese.

当然,要放得开,还必须管得住、管得好。我们要加强事中事后监管,就是要管住市场秩序,对那些假冒伪劣、坑蒙拐骗、欺行霸市,乃至搞不正当垄断的,就要把它驱逐出市场,甚至严加惩罚,因为它妨碍公平、阻碍创新,也有悖社会道德。市场活力和人文精神是相辅相成的。当然,我们加强监管,也要注意防止扰民。比如这次机构改革,我们就把涉及市场监管的一些部门合并了,推进综合执法,避免多个“大盖帽”去管一个小商贩。

Any regulatory streamlining can only serve its purpose when supported with enhanced compliance oversight, which helps to enforce market order. All acts of malpractice involving cheating in the marketplace, making or selling fake or substandard goods, or running unlawful monopolies, will be dealt with in strict accordance with the law and banned from the market, as they are the enemy of fairness and innovation and go against social ethics.

We believe that a vibrant market and care for the people should go hand in hand. Compliance oversight should not cause undue inconveniences to average citizens. In this round of government institutional reform, for example, we have decided to merge the various market regulatory bodies in order to slim down the bloated ranks of officials who deal with market entities on a daily basis and exercise unified law enforcement.

刚才第一位记者讲到两会的时候提到机构改革,这次国务院机构改革还包括了国税和地税的合并,这令我想起了一件事。我参加一次座谈会,有专家跟我说他去调研时发现,在餐馆里边吃饭是由地税向餐馆收营业税,而要打包带走就由国税来收增值税。他问当地有关方面,要是站在餐馆门槛上吃该由哪个部门来收税啊?当时对方给他的回答是“你这是抬杠”。但在现实当中的确有这样的事情。我们这几年通过推动营改增、取消营业税,实现了税收以共享税为主,这样国税、地税合并就有了基础,可以避免多头收税、干扰企业的行为。所以放要放出活力,管要管出公平。管也是要触动利益的。

The first reporter who asked a question mentioned this round of government institutional reform. One part of it is to combine the state and local tax offices at and below the provincial-level. This actually reminds me of a recent discussion I had with a group of scholars. One of these experts had been doing some local research, and discovered that if you sit and eat in a restaurant, the local tax office collects business tax. But if you order takeaway, the state tax office collects VAT. So he asked a tax officer: what if I stand and eat in the doorway of the restaurant? Who collects the tax then? The officer replied, “That’s just nitpicking for the sake of it.” But actually, it’s true that this kind of problem exists.

In recent years, as you may know, we have introduced the reform to replace business tax with value added tax. This has enabled the sharing of tax revenues and provided the foundation for the merging of tax authorities at the central and local levels to avoid duplications that burden businesses. So all in all, our regulatory rollback and compliance oversight will contribute to a more energized market and the creation of a level playing field. I should also add that vested interests will be dealt with in the enhanced compliance oversight process.

“利民之事,丝发必兴”。推进改革、做好政府工作,就是要为公、唯实、利民。我们要努力为市场主体优化营商环境、为人民群众提供办事便利,敢于自我革命。只要是为了人民的利益,我们万难不辞、万险不避。

Nothing is too small for us to do if it delivers concrete benefits to our people. The ultimate purpose of all reform measures and endeavors of the government is to serve the common good, be results-oriented, and benefit the people. In this regard, the government will further reform itself to foster a better business environment for market players, and make it easier for our people to access government services. In so doing, this government will rise up to all challenges and press ahead against all odds.

韩联社记者:随着韩朝双方商定下月举行首脑会谈,朝鲜表明无核化意愿,美国总统特朗普同意同朝鲜领导人会晤,近来朝鲜半岛局势出现较大变化。在此情况下,中方对解决半岛问题有何期待?将为此发挥何种作用?中方是否还会继续推进六方会谈以解决半岛问题?

Yonhap News: There have been significant developments on the Korean Peninsula recently, with an inter-Korean summit planned for next month, the DPRK indicating willingness to denuclearize, and the US President agreeing to meet with the North Korean leader. Under such circumstances, I would like to ask, Mr. Premier, what does China expect from the settlement of the Korean nuclear issue and what role is China prepared to play to this end? Will China push forward the Six-Party Talks to resolve the nuclear issue?

李克强:我们乐见半岛出现缓和的趋势,也支持一切有利于通过对话谈判解决半岛核问题的努力,中方会尽最大努力来推动和实现半岛无核化、维护和保持半岛和平稳定。我们希望看到各方拿出诚意,付诸行动,尽快把半岛核问题拉回到谈判桌上来,使半岛无核化与半岛和平稳定能有新的进展,这对有关各方、对世界都是好事。半岛是我们的近邻,直接和中国的利益攸关,我们的关注度是可想而知的。

Premier Li: We welcome the recent de-escalation of tensions on the Korean Peninsula. China supports all efforts that are conducive to the resolution of the Korean nuclear issue through dialogue and negotiation. China will continue to do all it can to take forward the denuclearization process and uphold peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula. We hope that all parties will show sincerity and take concrete actions to get the nuclear issue back to the track of negotiation and strive for new progress towards denuclearization and peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula. We believe this serves the interests of all parties and the world at large.

The Korean Peninsula is in China’s close neighborhood. China’s own interests are at stake. So you can well imagine how concerned we are with the situation there.

中央电视台记者:现在有一些民营企业家担心财产得不到有效保护,心里没有安全感,不敢投资,甚至有一些还在想方设法地向外转移资产,在有些地方还出现了一些企业家投诉政府的不作为和乱作为的情况。您对此怎么看?针对这样的问题打算怎么解决?

CCTV: Concerned about the safety of their property, some private business people are reluctant to make new investments. Some are even trying to transfer their assets overseas. We have also heard complaints from private businesses about the inaction or arbitrary behaviors on the part of some government officials. Premier Li, what will your government do to resolve this problem?

李克强:中国改革开放以来,我们一直坚持“两个毫不动摇”,可以说包括国企、民企等各类所有制企业,为中国经济取得历史性成就都付出了巨大的努力,作出了贡献。现在民营企业税收占半壁江山,对城镇新增就业的贡献率达90%。当然,一段时间以来,的确出现民企投资偏弱的现象,这和产权保护以及多方面的问题相关,我们高度重视。

Premier Li: Since reform and opening-up, we have remained committed to unswervingly consolidating and developing the public sector and unswervingly supporting and developing the non-public sector. It is fair to say that businesses of all types of ownership, private as well as state-owned, have made important contributions to the historic progress of the Chinese economy in the past few decades. Nowadays, private businesses account for about half of the tax revenues. They also contribute 80% to employment and create 90% of new urban jobs. It’s true that private investment has been less than robust due to weak protection of property rights and some other factors. We are paying high attention to addressing this problem.

保护产权就是保护社会主义市场经济的基石,就是保护生产力,我们一直把各类合法产权的保护是放在心上的,而且逢难必解。记得去年在记者会上,有人担心住宅土地使用权到期后会不会有问题,我们明确表示可以延期、不影响交易,而且这方面要抓紧修法。对农民土地承包第二轮到期,我们也明确提出继续延长30年。我们还在多方面采取措施,维护合法产权,运用法律加强保护,这也是弘扬法治精神。

Property rights are the cornerstone of our socialist market economy. Protecting lawful property rights is like nurturing the productive forces. Hence it has been a high-priority item on the government agenda, and every effort has been made to tackle the problems our people have encountered in this area. For example, at last year’s press conference I was asked about the potential effect of the expiration of land use rights for residential homes. I responded by pledging automatic renewal of the rights and the protection of all such transactions. I also called for amending the relevant law to reflect this policy. Since then, we have also reaffirmed the extension of the current rural land contracts by another 30 years. These are examples of our efforts to protect property rights through means of law, which is a good indication of our commitment to the rule of law.

保护产权必须要尊重合同,弘扬契约精神,不能把合同当做废纸。的确,有些地方的某些行为不好,新官不理旧账,换了一个官员,过去的合同就不算了。政贵有恒,不能把合同当废纸。对此我们是坚决制止的,而且要予以处罚。去年我们有关部门抓住几个典型案件,把涉产权的错案纠正过来,这也表明了我们的决心,就是要持续向社会发出信号:让恒产者有恒心,让投资者有信心,让各类产权的所有者安心,给所有合法产权所有者都吃上长效的定心丸。

Let me emphasize that contracts must be honored and not treated as scrap paper. Continuity is essential to good governance. New officials must not be allowed to disavow obligations undertaken by their predecessors; those who have done so will be duly punished. Last year, some property rights cases which were poorly adjudicated were redressed. These actions are meant to send a signal to the society of our resolve to ensure that all property owners and investors, regardless of the type of ownership, will have peace of mind as long as they operate within the confines of the law.

新加坡联合早报记者:随着中国经济崛起,一些批评指出,中国越来越多地使用资本和中国市场的吸引力作为政治工具,影响他国的外交政策,甚至进行某种政治渗透。请问对此您有什么评价?您认为外界对于中国的崛起和战略扩张应该感到担忧吗?

Lianhe Zaobao of Singapore: With China’s economic rise, some critics have been saying that China is increasingly using its money and market as political tools to try to influence other countries’ foreign policies or make some sort of political infiltration. How would you respond to that? Should the world feel worried about China’s rise and its strategic expansion?

李克强:中国这些年对世界经济增长的贡献率超过30%,这不仅有利于促进世界经济复苏,而且对世界和平也是贡献。因为扩大了合作和贸易,就有了更多协商和谈判,从而避免冲突。中国文化历来主张“己所不欲、勿施于人”,我们希望的是和为贵。我们要维护国家的领土完整,绝不会也不能丢失自己的一寸土地,也不会侵占别人的一寸土地,这是同理,我们走的是和平发展道路。

Premier Li: In recent years, China’s economic growth has contributed some thirty percent to global growth. This has been conducive not only to global economic recovery but also to world peace. More trade and more cooperation mean more negotiations, and that helps to keep conflicts away. The Chinese believe that one must not do to others what one does not like to be done to himself. We always value peace. We are resolute in upholding China’s territorial integrity and will never give up a single inch of our own territory. In a similar vein, we will not take or occupy an inch of others’ land. What we pursue is a road of peaceful development.

中国过去的发展是在和平的国际环境下取得的,今后要实现现代化,也需要和平的国际环境。这里我想强调两点:

第一,中国永远不会搞扩张。中国是发展中国家,我们无意搞扩张,即使将来强大了,也不会走国强必霸的道路。我们愿意和各国在相互尊重、平等互利的基础上发展关系,共同构建人类命运共同体。我们和其他国家的经贸合作都是按照市场规则、商业原则去推进的。我们倡导“一带一路”,也是要共商共建共享。我们对于发展中国家特别是欠发达国家的援助是力所能及的,不附加任何政治条件,谈不上政治渗透。至于国际社会在有些方面希望中国承担更多国际责任,我们能承担的是与发展中国家地位相当的国际责任。如果把这些看成是战略扩张的话,那就是误读或者是误解。

Our development so far has been achieved in a peaceful international environment. Going forward, a peaceful international environment remains what China needs for attaining modernization. Let me emphasize two points: One, China will not seek expansion. China remains a developing country who has no intention to pursue expansion. Even if it grows stronger in the future, it will continue to defy the logic which predestines a rising country to hegemony. What China wants is to develop relations with all other countries and regions on the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit. Together, we could build a community with a shared future for mankind.

China’s business cooperation with other countries follows market principles and business rules. In pursuing the Belt and Road Initiative, we have sought shared benefits through consultation and collaboration. China’s assistance within its capacity to some other developing countries, especially underdeveloped countries, has never come with political strings. It has nothing to do with political influence. In some areas, the international community may want China to assume a greater role. Well, China is ready to fulfill its due international responsibilities commensurate with its status as a major developing country. It would be a misunderstanding to see China playing such a role as seeking strategic expansion.

第二,我们会集中精力做好自己的事。这些年来,作为总理,我深知中国发展中还有诸多困难和挑战,在民生方面还有诸多难题和痛点,政府每天要应对的是大量这类难题。我们出访和国际交往都是为了赢得和平稳定的国际与周边环境,为中国发展赢得更多的共赢机遇,这一点我们是清醒的。

My second point is that we will continue to focus on managing China’s own affairs well. As Chinese Premier, I am fully aware that my country is still confronted with many difficulties and challenges, including many pressing livelihood issues. We in the government must deal with these challenges on a daily basis. We travel and make friends around the world in order to foster a peaceful and stable environment, internationally and in our neighborhood, and create more win-win opportunities for China’s development. We know clearly that this is what we should continue to do.

人民日报社记者:我们观察到总理您在政府工作报告中指出,要让更加公平、充分的就业始终成为高质量发展的亮点,但是在现实生活中,比如大学生就业还有转岗职工再就业、复转军人再就业等仍然困难不少,这也意味着未来5年中国的就业市场将面临着诸多挑战。请问您准备如何解决这些困难?

People’s Daily: Mr. Premier, in your government work report, you said that fairer and fuller employment should always be a highlight of high quality development in China. At the same time, however, college graduates, laid-off workers from cutting overcapacity and demobilized military personnel continue to face difficulty in getting jobs, which means daunting challenges in ensuring employment. What do you plan to do to tackle this problem?

李克强:就业成效是要由人民群众来评判的,如果有失业也是掩盖不住的,所以我先回答你今年的问题,未来5年会怎么样,要看今年做得怎么样。

Premier Li: Whether the government is doing a good job in employment is best judged by our people. I don’t think anyone would be able to cover it up if we fall short on job creation. Let me first address what we plan to do on the employment front this year, as this year’s performance will be a good indicator of what is to come in the next five years.

过去5年,中国经济运行保持在合理区间,其中一个很大的亮点就是实现了6600多万城镇新增就业,保持了比较充分的就业。就业对于一个家庭来说是天大的事。没有一个人就业,一个家庭就毫无生气。如果大学生毕业就失业,就没有希望。所以我们要将心比心,各级政府及其工作人员,都要把就业放在心上,扛在肩上。今年政府工作报告首次把城镇调查失业率列入预期目标,就是为了更加充分地反映城乡就业状况,也可以说这是自加压力。

In recent years, with the Chinese economy operating within its proper range, some 60 million new urban jobs have been generated, ensuring relatively full employment in China. This has been a big achievement. Employment is of paramount importance for each and every family, and nothing is gloomier for it than zero employment of its members. A college graduate would not have a future if graduation means joblessness. Governments at all levels must fully appreciate the importance of employment, and always put job creation high on their agenda. In this year’s government work report, for the first time, we incorporated surveyed urban unemployment as a projected target, to better reflect the employment situation in both urban and rural areas. This is the government putting pressure on itself.

这里我想报个大账,我们今年城镇实际新成长劳动力有1500万到1600万,我们定的目标是至少要保证新增1100万人就业,但方向是1300万人以上,前几年我们都做到了,今年也没有理由不做到。与此同时,我们还有2.8亿农民工,他们在城市化进程中盖起大楼、铺通大道,为中国发展立下了汗马功劳。促进农民工就业也是新型城镇化的重要内容,进城务工农民都是通过打工来增加他们的收入,今年至少还要新增三、四百万农村转移劳动力,对此,我们要责无旁贷地为农民工创造稳定的就业机会。

In urban areas, we expect to see some 15 to 16 million new entrants to the job market this year. Our minimum target is to generate another 11 million new jobs and we will work towards the goal of 13 million in actual practice. We have been able to do that in the past several years and there’s no reason for us not to hit that mark this year. Moreover, we have some 280 million rural migrant workers. They have worked hard to pave roads and build skyscrapers in the cities, making great contribution to China’s development. Getting migrant workers employed is an important part of China’s urbanization process and a big source of their income. This year, we expect to see some three to four million rural migrant workers coming to the cities, the government must endeavor to fulfill its responsibility in providing job opportunities for these people.

今年的高校毕业生达820万,是历史新高,还有近500万中专毕业生,加上近百万复转军人和去产能转岗职工,必须努力保障他们的就业,绝不允许有零就业家庭出现。这就需要我们进一步拓展就业岗位,特别是培育新动能。过去几年,新动能在增加就业岗位当中可以说做出了重要贡献。我们要通过多方面的努力,保障比较充分的就业,这实际上也能够更多地创造财富。大家想想看,13亿多人口,8亿多劳动力,如果能够实现比较充分的就业,创造的财富是不可估量的,也会给世界市场带来惊喜。

This year, there will be 8.2 million college graduates, another record high number, and five million graduates from secondary vocational schools. In addition, there will be some one million demobilized military personnel and workers laid off in the cutting of overcapacity. We must make every effort to ensure their employment. In particular, there should be no zero employment families. We must also explore new channels for creating jobs, not least by fostering new growth drivers, which have a proven track record of job creation in the past few years. Fairly full employment will also be a major wealth generator. Just imagine, how much wealth will be created by China’s 800 million-strong labor force out of its 1.3 billion population. This will also offer a huge opportunity for international markets.

美国全国广播公司记者:最近越来越多的人担心中国会取代美国的全球领导地位。因此有不少人认为,应该对华打贸易战,来惩戒中国在国家主导模式下采取的不公平贸易和产业政策。您认为应该采取什么措施来解决美方关切,防止贸易战?您是否还认为对话可以解决迫在眉睫的威胁?如果打贸易战,中国能做什么?比如中国是否会考虑动用巨额外汇储备和持有的美国国债?

NBC News: Premier Li, there is increasing concern that China will displace the United States as the world’s leader and a lot of talk about a trade war as punishment for what critics describe as unfair trading, industrial policies over an authoritarian, state-led economic model of China. So Mr. Premier, in your view, what measures can be taken to address America’s concerns and prevent a trade war? Do you still believe that dialogue can resolve what looks like an imminent threat? And what can China do in the event of a trade war? Would you, for example, use China’s vast foreign exchange reserves and massive holding of American debt? Thank you.

李克强:最近一段时间关于中美要打贸易战的议论比较多,但是我认为中美打贸易战对双方都没有好处,没有赢家。而且如果用“打仗”这个词来形容贸易的话,也有悖于贸易的原则。因为贸易就是要通过协商、谈判、对话来解决争端。我希望双方要保持理性,不要感情用事,避免打贸易战。

Premier Li: Indeed, there has been much talk about an emerging trade war between China and the United States recently. We believe a trade war does nobody any good. No one will emerge a winner from a trade war. War is essentially the antithesis of trade, and trade disputes should be resolved through negotiation, consultation and dialogue. What we hope is that cool heads and rational actions will prevail instead of emotions or impulses holding sway. A trade war should best be avoided.

去年中美贸易的规模已经达到5800多亿美元,能走到这一步是靠市场,是按照商业规则来推进的,否则也不可能有这么大的量。当然,我们不愿意看见有比较大的贸易赤字,不仅是对美国。我们希望贸易总体平衡,否则的话难以持续。

Last year, China-US trade reached $580 billion. This is achieved through observing business rules and market principles. Otherwise, such a big volume of trade would be unthinkable. A large trade deficit, either with the United States or any other country, is not what China goes after. We want to see a basically balanced trade. Otherwise, it would not be sustainable.

刚才我已经讲了一些中国继续推进扩大开放的具体措施,包括在服务业、制造业、商品等领域。美方企业是可以抓住机遇的。但同时我们也希望美方能够放宽对华高技术、高附加值产品的出口。我们会严格保护知识产权。希望美方不要丢了这个平衡中美贸易的重器,否则就是丢了赚钱的机会。

Just now, I listed some further steps of opening-up China is going to take covering services, manufacturing and products. US businesses may well seize these opportunities. At the same time, we hope the United States will ease restrictions on exporting high-tech and high value-added goods to China. The associated intellectual property rights will be fully protected. We hope this important measure for balancing China-US trade will not be passed over. Otherwise a good opportunity would be missed.

中国有巨额的外汇储备。运用外汇储备进行投资,我们从来都是按照市场规律进行多元化、市场化操作,而且中国是负责任的长期投资者。中美关系是最大的发展中国家和最大的发达国家之间的关系,两国经济有很强的互补性。中美关系稳定发展对两国、对世界都是好事。至于对中国发展的一些担忧,我认为那是过虑了。

China has vast foreign exchange reserves. We have been making diversified investments of these reserves on the basis of market principles, and China will remain a responsible long-term investor. The relationship between China and the United States is one between the world’s largest developing country and largest developed country. Our economies are highly complementary. A stable China-US relationship is in the interest of both countries and the whole world. Any worry about China’s greater development is unnecessary.

中国新闻社记者:我们注意到前阵子中国有关部门对一些保险类、金融类企业采取了强制性措施。请问下一步这样的做法是否会继续?以及这是否表明了中国新一轮风险点正在继续,中国是否有可能发生系统性金融风险?

China News Service: Mr. Premier, we have noticed that recently some mandatory steps have been taken against certain Chinese insurance and financial companies. Will this happen again in the future? Does this mean that new risks are building in China? And will they set off systemic financial risks?

李克强:我要负责任地说,中国有能力防范、也不会出现系统性金融风险。因为中国经济的基本面是好的,金融运行也是稳健的。当然了,中国经济总量已达80多万亿元,银行资产有250多万亿元,你说没有点风险,那是不可能的。常言道:云多易生雨,树大常招风。我记得我在这里曾经说过,我们银行的资本充足率和拨备覆盖率是比较高的,高于国际标准。我在这里还想说,目前我们商业银行法定存款准备金率在15%左右,这也相当于存了20多万亿的准备金,或者叫做风险准备金。

Premier Li: Let me make it very clear as a person who holds responsibility in this area: China has the capability to forestall systemic financial risks and I do not foresee such risks. This is because the fundamentals of China’s economy remain strong, and its financial system is in good shape. That said, as China’s GDP exceeds 80 trillion yuan with 250 trillion yuan of assets in the banking sector, our financial system is not risk free.

Just as a proverb goes, gathering clouds may bring rain and tall trees catch the wind. I recall that at the press conference a couple of years ago, I pointed out that both the capital adequacy ratio and provision coverage ratio of Chinese commercial banks are fairly high and above international standards. Let me add here that the required reserve ratio stands at about 15 percent, which is equivalent to us having some 20 trillion yuan stashed away against risks.

今年我们还主动调低了赤字率,这是因为去年中国经济稳中向好,财政超收超出了预期。仅中央财政就超收了2500多亿元,我们没有用,放到今年。而且今年前两个月财政收入又达到两位数增长,我们对实现今年全年经济社会发展的主要目标和未来发展的预期是充满信心的,所以我们还会努力按这个方向持续降低赤字率。当然,调低赤字率并不意味着要改变积极财政政策的取向。我们今年的财政支出超过去年财政支出,增加的量是不小的。我们降低赤字率既是有信心的表现,也是为应对如果国际不确定因素增多、国内一些新的风险点出现而备足工具。

This year, we have taken the initiative to cut the budget deficit to GDP ratio, supported by the sustained momentum of steady growth and higher than expected tax revenues. Last year, the central government had an extra fiscal revenue of 250 billion yuan above projection, and we have yet to dig into that amount of money. The first two months of this year saw a double digit increase in China’s fiscal revenues. So we are confident about meeting all the major economic and social development targets this year.

Going forward, we plan to further cut the deficit ratio. But this does not mean we will change our proactive fiscal policy, for this year will see considerable increase in the fiscal spending relative to last year. Our ability to cut the deficit ratio shows our confidence in the health of our economy and is also meant to make provisions for guarding against global uncertainties and emerging risks at home.

当然,金融领域也有一些违法违规行为或者规避监管的行为在兴风作浪。最近我们监管部门主动出手、果断处理,就是要让这些点状的风险不扩散,该戳的“脓包”还是要戳,否则也有道德风险。在处理的过程中,我们也注意保护消费者的合法权益,积累了经验。未来有类似的问题出现,我们还会坚决地处置。

True, some irregularities and evasion of regulation in the financial sector have occurred. The relevant authorities have taken resolute measures to deal with the pockets of risks to prevent them from further spreading. When a blister needs bursting, it should be burst. Otherwise, a small problem may escalate and entail moral hazards. In dealing with these cases, we have taken care to protect the lawful rights and interests of our consumers, and have gained further experience in this area. We will continue to resolutely tackle such cases should they arise in the future.

我们这次机构改革把银监会和保监会合并,也是要防止规避监管的行为发生。当然,还有一个老问题就是非法集资,政府会保持打击的力度。这里我也想说一句话,投资者千万不要听信那些非法集资者编造的“竹篮子也可以打水”的神话。

In this round of institutional reform, we have decided to merge the insurance and banking regulatory bodies to plug possible loopholes. At the same time, we do face another old problem of illegal fund raising. The government will keep up the fight against such illegal activities. I would also like to advise all investors not to buy into the lies of those illegal fundraisers who’d have you believe a bamboo basket will hold a gallon of water.

今日俄罗斯国际通讯社记者:两年前,我曾经向您提过关于中俄经贸合作的问题。两年过去了,仍然有人说中俄关系政治热、经济冷。俄罗斯刚刚进行总统大选,将组建新政府。作为同样新上任的中国总理,您希望新一届俄罗斯政府实施哪些行动来改善中俄经贸合作?同时,中国政府又将会采取哪些措施?另外,您想向俄罗斯释放怎样的政治信号?

RIA Novosti: Mr. Premier, two years ago I asked you at the press conference about the China-Russia relationship being close politically but lukewarm economically. It seems that this is still how some people would describe the China-Russia relationship today. Russia just held its presidential election and will soon form a new government. As Chinese Premier at the start of a new term, what actions do you hope the new Russian government will take to enhance the business ties between the two countries, and what will the Chinese government do? What political message would you like to convey to Russia?

李克强:19日下午习近平主席和普京总统通了电话,习近平主席对普京总统当选连任表示了祝贺。

你刚才提到的中俄经贸关系,前几年走了一个“马鞍形”,这是世界贸易形势变化、国际大宗产品价格下跌等客观原因造成的。去年中俄经贸关系有了新的发展,贸易规模增加了20%以上。现在中俄两大经济体的年贸易规模是800多亿美元,我觉得还有很大潜力。我们完全可以通过创新机制,挖掘潜力,朝1000亿美元的目标迈进。如果说要向俄罗斯人民发出什么样的信号,那就是:中俄互为最大的邻国,中俄全面战略协作伙伴关系稳定发展对双方、对世界都有利。

Premier Li: On the evening of the 19th, President Xi Jinping and President Putin had a telephone conversation and President Xi congratulated his Russian counterpart on his re-election. Recent years did see a slide in China-Russia trade because of the changing landscape of global trade and the downturn in commodity prices. However, that slide was reversed last year and our trade registered an over 20% growth year on year. Between our two large economies, trade now exceeds $80 billion. I believe there is still much untapped potential in China-Russia trade. We can work together to bump it up to, say, $100 billion, by exploring new mechanisms and unlocking potential. What I would like to say to the Russian people is that China and Russia are each other’s biggest neighbors. The steady growth of the comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination between China and Russia serves the interests of both countries and the world at large.

台湾东森电视台记者:我们知道近年来由于种种原因,两岸关系充满着严峻的挑战,前景令人担忧,我的问题是面对这样的形势,大陆未来还要怎样维护两岸关系的和平发展?以及如何维护两岸同胞的福祉?

EBC of Taiwan: In recent years, due to various reasons, cross-Strait relations have encountered some serious challenges with uncertain prospects. My question is, under such circumstances, what will the mainland do to uphold the peaceful development of cross-Strait relations and promote the well-being of people on both sides?

李克强:保持两岸和平发展,这是两岸民众的福祉所在,我们会坚定按这条路走下去。我们一直在考虑怎样为台湾同胞来大陆工作、学习、生活,提供同等的待遇,因为我们是一家人。正因为我们同属于一个中国,那就不能容忍任何“台独”的企图、主张和行径,也不能允许外国势力打“台湾牌”,这会给两岸同胞、给两岸关系都带来困难。我们愿意和认同体现一个中国原则的“九二共识”的台湾政党、团体开展对话、协商,共同商谈解决两岸同胞关心的问题,维护两岸关系和平发展,最终实现祖国和平统一。这是民族大义所在。

Premier Li: The peaceful development of cross-Strait relations serves the well-being of people on both sides of the Taiwan Strait, and we will continue to go down this path. We have been working on ways to ensure that our fellow countrymen and women from Taiwan will enjoy the same treatment as mainlanders when they come to work, live or study on the mainland, because we are members of the same family, and we both belong to one and the same China. That said, any attempt, proposition or activity for “Taiwan independence” must not be tolerated, and we must not allow any external forces to play “the Taiwan card” to cause difficulties for people on both sides of the Taiwan Strait and for cross-Strait relations. We are willing to have dialogue and consultation with all political parties and groups on Taiwan which subscribe to the one-China principle to discuss all issues that concern people on both sides. We should work together to uphold the peaceful development of cross-Strait relations and eventually achieve China’s peaceful reunification. We believe herein lies the fundamental interests of our nation.

光明日报社记者:近年来,我国的医药卫生体制改革虽然已取得了一些新的进展,但一场大病就让一个家庭陷入困境的现象还是屡有发生。请问总理,新一届政府在解决老百姓因病致贫问题上将会采取哪些新的举措?

Guangming Daily: Mr. Premier, the reform of China’s healthcare system has made good strides in recent years, but often a major illness can still land a family in severe difficulty. What steps will the new government take to address the problem of illness-induced poverty?

李克强:过去几年,我们用了很大的努力,在过去的基础上完善基本医保制度,构建了世界上最大的医保网,这是为了让人人小病能看、大病敢看。但同时我们也感受到,确实还有一些困难家庭看大病难。你刚才讲的问题不只是困难家庭,还有一些享受不到优质医疗资源的家庭也有同样的问题,新媒体上常有报道。

Premier Li: In the past few years, we have made enormous efforts to improve the basic health insurance system. A medical insurance safety net, the largest of its kind in the world, has been put in place to treat both minor and serious illnesses. This being said, some families living in poverty or those who have difficulty accessing quality medical resources do face the kind of problems that you mentioned. A lot of such cases are reported in the new media.

中国太大,我们还有三千多万贫困人口。以习近平同志为核心的党中央对脱贫攻坚高度重视,对打赢这场攻坚战向全社会作出承诺。在贫困人口当中,很多是因为大病致贫,或大病返贫。所以我们要在巩固基本医保的基础上,把治大病的问题作为重点来抓。这几年我们创新体制,把基本医保和商业保险结合起来,运用“大数法则”,放大资金效应,使更多的人享受大病医保,去年就有1700多万人受益。

China is a vast country; we still have some thirty million people living in poverty. The Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core gives high priority to poverty eradication and has made the pledge of winning the fight against poverty. Among the impoverished population, many are pushed or have fallen back into poverty because of a serious disease. The government, while improving the basic healthcare system, has given greater attention to the treatment of serious diseases. We have adopted some innovative measures; for example, we have complemented basic health insurance with commercial insurance schemes. By harnessing the law of large numbers, such an arrangement has produced an amplifying effect of the insurance funds and extended the coverage of serious disease insurance to 17 million people last year.

今年我们要在这方面继续加大力度,提高的中央财政对基本医保的补助资金,一半用于大病保险,至少能使2000万人以上能够享受大病保险救助,而且扩大了大病保险病种。同时我们要通过发展“互联网+医疗”、医联体等,把优质医疗资源下沉,让更多的大病患者能够方便得到优质医疗资源的服务。

This year, we plan to do more. We will raise central government subsidies for basic medical insurance schemes, and half of the increase will go to serious disease insurance. Our aim is to cover at least 20 million people and more types of serious diseases in the insurance program. What’s more, we will encourage the development of telemedicine and healthcare consortiums to make quality medical resources more accessible at the community level.

今年春节前我到地方调研,路过一个贫困人口家庭,临时走了进去,看到家里老人有大病,也有医保卡,但还是不敢去看。这个情景在我脑中至今挥之不去。常说病来如山倒,我们就是要用大病保险等多种制度,不让一个人患大病、全家都倒下。

During my inspection trip on the eve of this past Spring Festival, I dropped in on a poor family and met an elderly woman there who was seriously ill. Although she had insurance coverage, the family still found the treatment unaffordable. Their plight is still vivid in my memory. A Chinese saying compares a major illness to a mountain falling down. When such an illness strikes, it is our hope that the family will still find protection. That’s the very purpose of us having major illness insurance program and other similar mechanisms.

日本东京广播公司记者:今年是《中日和平友好条约》缔结40周年。您在1月会见到访的日本外相河野太郎时曾经表示,中日关系可谓“乍暖还寒”。您认为双方还应该采取哪些措施,使两国关系真正复苏?您是否考虑接受日方邀请,结合出席今年中日韩领导人会议,对日本进行首次正式访问,开启中日两国领导人互访?

TBS: This year marks the 40th anniversary of the China-Japan Peace and Friendship Treaty. Mr. Premier, when you met Foreign Minister Kōno in January, you have said the relationship is warming up but there are still some cold parts left. If so, what more should both sides do for the relationship to fully recover? And in the upcoming occasion of trilateral summit including South Korea, would you intend to accept the invitation for your first official visit to Japan and will that be the start of the reciprocal visits by the two countries’ leaders?

李克强:一段时间以来,中日关系确实出现了改善的势头,安倍首相多次邀请我访问日本。我愿意在中日关系保持持续改善势头的氛围中,积极考虑今年上半年结合出席中日韩领导人会议正式访问日本。

Premier Li: We have seen signs of improvement in China-Japan relations lately. Prime Minister Abe has invited me on several occasions to visit Japan. In an atmosphere of continuously improving ties, I would be ready to positively consider paying an official visit to Japan while attending the China-Japan-ROK Leaders’ Meeting there in the first half of this year.

我认为中日关系改善不仅需要氛围,更需要远见和定力。中日两国领导人互访有利于让中日关系回归正常轨道,但更重要的是要夯实中日关系的基础,我们不能搞“一锤子买卖”,要让中日关系持续向好。今年是《中日和平友好条约》缔结40周年,应该遵守和坚持《中日和平友好条约》等中日之间四个政治文件的精神和共识。如果说两国关系现在出现了“小阳春”,就要防止出现“乍暖还寒”,要让中日关系向着持续稳定的方向发展。我们对日方有期待。

Improvement of China-Japan relations requires not just the right atmosphere, but also vision and commitment. Exchange of visits at the leadership level will help get this relationship back on the track of steady development, but we must look to consolidate the foundation of China-Japan relations rather than just make a one-time deal. There needs to be sustained, steady progress of this relationship. This year marks the 40th anniversary of the China-Japan Treaty of Peace and Friendship. It’s important to honor the spirit and the consensus reached in the four Sino-Japanese political documents including the Treaty of Peace and Friendship. If we have seen a spring in China-Japan relationship, we must also watch out for any possible return of chills. We need to work together for the sustained, steady development of this relationship. That is what is expected of Japan.

新华社记者:最近几年“互联网+”和共享经济发展的势头非常迅猛,但是也出现了一些问题,未来的发展可能还有一些障碍。请问总理,您对此怎么看?未来政府对推动“互联网+”有什么新的举措?

Xinhua News Agency: The Internet Plus model has been widely used in recent years and there is a boom in the sharing economy. Meanwhile, in this process some problems have cropped up, and their development may face some hurdles in the future. How do you see the situation, Mr. Premier? And what will the government do to promote further development of the Internet Plus model?

李克强:如果说中国经济这艘巨轮这几年能够行稳致远,其中一个重要原因就是在世界科技革命新一轮浪潮中成功挂上了“互联网+”这个风帆,它催生了新动能。这几年我们推动政府职能转变,激发市场活力,促进消费成为发展主动力,使经济结构发生深刻变革。这些都是相互关联的,从而有效避免了中国经济“硬着陆”。大家知道,前几年“硬着陆”的声音是不绝于耳的。现在经济稳中向好,新动能等上述这些方面都起了重要作用。

Premier Li: In recent years the Internet Plus model has played an important role in promoting the steady growth of China’s economy, like a new sail being installed on the big ship riding the wave of a new round of global technological revolution. Transformed government functions have helped to energize the market. Consumption has become the biggest driver of China’s development, and there has been a fundamental change in China’s economic structure. All this interconnected progress, together with the new drivers, has enabled the Chinese economy to defy repeated predictions of a hard landing and sustain a sound momentum of economic growth.

“互联网+”不仅加出了新动能,而且它是最大的共享经济平台,为大众创业、万众创新提供了广阔的舞台,推动经济社会发展和人民生活发生着深刻的变化,让科技精英、企业家都有更多展现能力的机会,更让亿万草根能够发挥聪明才智,表现他们独特的价值。

The Internet Plus model has not just fostered new drivers of growth, but also provided the largest platform for the sharing economy, giving opportunity for our people to pursue their own entrepreneurship and make innovations. It has made a big difference in China’s economic and social development and profoundly changed the way we work and live. In this context, technological professionals, business people or the average people can all tap into their unique potential and have the opportunities to prove their talents.

当然,“互联网+”作为新事物,也有这样那样的问题,关键是要趋利避害,采取包容审慎的监管方式。对于“互联网+”,不能怕惹事、图省事,出现一些问题就一巴掌打死;也不允许利用“互联网+”搞坑蒙拐骗,败坏“互联网+”的声誉,抹黑“互联网+”。我们应该从两个方面悉心呵护。下一步我们还要采取推动“互联网+”的许多新举措,比如说过去一些“互联网+”的企业总是到海外上市,现在我们已经要求有关部门完善境内上市制度,欢迎他们回归A股,同时要为境内的创新创业企业上市创造更加有利的、符合法律规定的条件。我们还要推进“互联网+”来拓展“智能+”,把它和医疗、教育、政务服务等结合起来,推动数字经济、共享经济向前发展,既快又健康。当然,对如何推动发展,既要符合发展规律,又尽量不要让传统思维限制了我们的想象力。

As a new phenomenon, the Internet Plus may also have its own problems. In this process, we need to maximize its benefits while taking care to address its possible downsides. In exercising regulation over new things, we believe the government needs to adopt a prudent yet accommodative approach. We should neither shut them down once problems occur, which would be the easier thing to do, nor allow the Internet Plus model to become a hotbed for cheating and manipulation. We should guard against both of these risks.

As the next step, we will adopt more measures to encourage the growth of this model. For example, Chinese internet companies tend to get listed overseas. What we plan to do is to improve the conditions for them to return to the mainland markets. We will also create conditions in keeping with the law for our mainland high-tech or innovation companies to get listed on the mainland markets. We need to further develop the Internet Plus model by applying smart technologies to education, health care, government services and other services sectors to promote fast and sound growth of the digital economy and the sharing economy. We need to both follow existing patterns and think out of the box in developing these models.

香港凤凰卫视记者:我们注意到在您今年所作的政府工作报告中提到建设粤港澳大湾区,支持香港和澳门融入国家发展大局,全面推进内地和港澳的互利合作。但是在香港也有担忧,担心这一做法是否会让香港失去自身的特色和定位,会不会影响到“一国两制”的落实,甚至模糊“两制”的界线。您怎样看?

Phoenix TV of Hong Kong: Mr. Premier, in your government work report this year, you said efforts will be made to develop the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, support Hong Kong and Macao in integrating their own development into overall national development and further enhance the mutually beneficial cooperation between the mainland and these two regions. But some people in Hong Kong feel somewhat worried whether this will undercut Hong Kong’s unique role, or affect the implementation of “one country, two systems”, or even blur the line between the two systems. How would you respond to that?

李克强:我们要建设粤港澳大湾区,把它建成世界级的大湾区,重要原因就是三地有各自独特的优势,能够形成互补,否则就谈不上建设一个有世界竞争力的大湾区了。现在大湾区的规划纲要正在制定过程当中,很快会出台实施,港澳居民到内地来,特别是到广东来工作、生活,在住房、教育、交通等诸多方面将逐步享受同等的待遇。我们愿意和港澳同胞一起共享国家发展的机遇。就是对台湾同胞,我们也希望他们能分享大陆的发展机遇。

Premier Li: We want to build the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area into a world-class city cluster with the three places drawing upon each other’s comparative strengths; otherwise this Greater Bay Area would not be competitive internationally. The outline for the development program is being formulated and will be adopted for implementation. For people from Hong Kong and Macao who come to work or live on the mainland, especially in Guangdong, we will gradually introduce the same treatment for them as mainlanders in terms of housing, education and transportation, among others. We would also like to share such opportunities with people from Taiwan.

至于说香港、澳门融入国家发展大局,我们当然会坚持“一国两制”、“港人治港”、“澳人治澳”、高度自治的方针,我们和其他国家都可以共同发展、互利共赢,更何况内地和港澳同属一个国家,在“一国两制”下,会更好发挥各自的优势,形成互补,打造新的增长极。

We encourage Hong Kong and Macao to integrate their own development into overall national development. In this process, we will continue to observe the principle of “one country, two systems” under which the people of Hong Kong administer Hong Kong, the people of Macao administer Macao, and both regions enjoy a high degree of autonomy. As there can be mutually beneficial cooperation and common development between different countries, there is even more reason for the three places which belong to one and the same country to do so. Under the guidance of the “one country, two systems” principle, we are confident that these three areas will draw upon each other’s strengths and work together in building a new and strong region of vibrant growth.

中国国际广播电台记者:我们知道,中国目前已经进入到了老龄化社会,但是养老供给不足、质量不高,而且还面临着很多人养不起老的问题。此外,我们也注意到,在某个省份,去年已经出现了养老金被“击穿”的现象,不少人也在担心,会不会有其他省份步其后尘?请问这个问题如何应对?将怎么解决两亿多人的养老问题?

China Radio International: Mr. Premier, given the aging of the Chinese population, quality and inexpensive old-age care is woefully lacking. It was also reported last year that a Chinese province ran behind its pension payouts, raising concerns about similar problem in other provinces. How should this problem be addressed and what will the government do to ensure adequate old-age support for the over 200 million senior citizens in China?

李克强:我们已经到吃饭时间了,你问了一个和吃饭相关的问题。保证养老金足额发放、按时领取,这是我们必须做到的。的确,有个别省份去年养老金收不抵支。我到一些老工业基地去调研,特别是今年两会下团,我首先问的是养老金能不能够及时足额发放。个别省份发放养老金之所以有困难,和当地经济下行压力较大、财政减收有关,他们已经采取盘活处置国有资产、调整财政支出结构等来保证及时足额发放。当然,中央财政也给了一定的帮助。

Premier Li: It’s already lunch time, and your question is also about a livelihood issue. We must ensure that old-age pensions will be paid in full and on time. The problem that you described did happen in certain provinces last year. I made a point of raising the issue of pension payouts each time I visit old industrial bases or hold discussions with the delegates during this year’s Two Sessions. The difficulties that some provinces face are mainly due to the decline in their fiscal revenues at the time of local economic downturn. But they have taken multiple steps to address the issue, such as putting to better use state-owned assets or adjusting the structure of government expenditure. The central government has also provided some funding support for this.

不可否认,可能还会有一些省份养老金在总体上会出现一些困难,但从全国范围来讲,我们保证养老金按时足额发放是有能力的。去年末企业职工养老保险基金的结余是4.1万亿元,当年也是收大于支。我们还有养老金的战略储备,就是社会保障基金拥有的资金在增加,去年达1.8万亿元,完全可以保证全国范围内养老金按时足额发放。

Despite the difficulties faced by some provinces, at the national level, we are capable of making pension payment in full and on time. As of the end of last year, the balance of China’s pension insurance funds for urban workers stood at over 4.1 trillion yuan, and we had more revenues than expenditures. We also have 1.8 trillion yuan in social security fund as a strategic reserve, which is still increasing. So we are fully capable of ensuring full and timely payment of pension benefits nationwide.

当然,我们还要推进这个领域的相关改革,像今年我们将实施养老金基金调剂制度,中央收取3%进行统筹调剂,以后比例还会有所提高,以弥补有些省养老金可能会发生的不足。同时,我们还会通过划拨国有资产收益来增加社保基金的总量,不仅使它安全,而且要拓展盈利空间,这些都是保证老有所养的“定盘星”,大家对未来应该充满信心。为什么这么说?因为如果我们不能做到这一点,老人辛苦了一辈子还不能老有所养,那后来人就会失去信心。

We will continue to pursue reform in this area. This year, we plan to establish a central system of pension fund provisions that can be transferred to provinces in case of need. The initial contribution rate for all provinces will be three percent, which means each province will contribute three percent of their funds to the central provision to be used to fill the shortfalls that some provinces may face. In addition, we will use some of the state-owned asset proceeds to replenish the national social security fund to make it safer and more profitable. These measures will help to deliver stronger old-age support to the senior people in China. We should give people confidence in the future. Think about it, if decades of hard work cannot earn one a decent retirement life, our future generations will lose faith in us.

不能把老年人当作负担,“夕阳红”还是一个产业。很多老人可以做他们力所能及的事情。当然,这绝不是推卸我们必须保证老有所养的责任。

We should never see senior people as a liability, though. There are still so many things that they can do and a retired life can also offer tremendous business opportunities and turn out to be an important industry. That said, we will never shirk the government’s due responsibility in extending adequate old-age support.

刚才主持人说这是最后一个问题,你问的是民生问题,前面记者也问到了几个民生的问题。这一点请大家相信,我们以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,很重要的就是要贯彻以人民为中心的发展思想,人民政府工作的出发点和落脚点就是保障和改善民生,我们就是要保障基本民生,破除民生痛点,增加优质资源,惠及更多人民群众。

Just now the moderator said this is going to be the last question. I recall that previously we also addressed several questions related to people’s livelihood. Under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, we will continue to put people first. The efforts made by a people’s government boils down to the purpose of serving our people’s well-being and improving their lives. We will continue to take strong measures to ensure people’s basic living needs, address their pressing concerns, make more quality resources available, and deliver more concrete benefits to our people.

记者会结束时,楚天都市报记者问:个税起征点会提高多少?

Chutian Metropolis Daily: Mr. Premier, how much will the personal income tax threshold be raised?

李克强答:我们会抓紧启动,按法律程序办理。

Premier Li: We will start the relevant process expeditiously and the procedures will be handled in accordance with law.

记者会在人民大会堂三楼金色大厅举行,历时约2小时,参加采访的中外记者1200余名。



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