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中英双语:《中国健康事业的发展与人权进步》白皮书


来源:英文巴士    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2017-10-09 18:16   点击: 次  

中国健康事业的发展与人权进步

Development of China’s Public Health as an Essential Element of Human Rights

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

2017年9月

September 2017

目录

Contents

前言

Preface

一、符合国情的健康权保障模式

I. Ensuring People’s Right to Health Based on China’s Conditions

二、健康环境与条件持续改善

II. Continuous Improvement of Health Environment and Conditions

三、公共卫生服务能力稳步提升

III. Public Health Service Capability Improving Steadily

四、医疗卫生服务质量大幅提高

IV. Great Improvement in the Quality of Medical and Health Services

五、全民医疗保障体系逐步健全

V. Improvement of the National Medical Security System

六、特定群体的健康水平显著进步

VI. Significant Improvement in the Health of Special Groups

七、积极参与全球健康治理和国际医疗援助

VII. Active Participation in Global Health Governance and International Medical Assistance

结束语

Conclusion

前言

Preface

健康是人类生存和社会发展的基本条件。健康权是一项包容广泛的基本人权,是人类有尊严地生活的基本保证,人人有权享有公平可及的最高健康标准。

Health is a precondition for the survival of humanity and the development of human society. The right to health is a basic human right rich in connotations. It is the guarantee for a life with dignity. Everyone is entitled to the highest standard of health, equally available and accessible

中国共产党和中国政府始终坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,奉行人民至上的价值取向,牢牢把握人民群众对美好生活的向往,把增进人民福祉、促进人的全面发展作为发展的出发点和落脚点。多年来,中国坚持为人民健康服务,把提高人民的健康水平、实现人人得享健康作为发展的重要目标。经过长期不懈奋斗,中国显著提高了人民健康水平,不仅摘掉了“东亚病夫”的耻辱帽子,而且公共卫生整体实力、医疗服务和保障能力不断提升,全民身体素质、健康素养持续增强,被世界卫生组织誉为“发展中国家的典范”。

The Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Chinese government have always focused on the people’s needs while seeking the development of the nation. Putting the people first, the Party and the government work to fulfill the people’s aspiration for a better life, and strive to enhance the people’s well-being and all-round development. China has always put the people’s health at the top of its policy agenda, working hard to improve the people’s health and fitness, and making universal health and fitness a primary goal of development. With years of strenuous effort, marked progress has been achieved in making the Chinese people healthier – China is no longer the “sick man of East Asia.” China has made continued improvement in boosting the overall strength of its public health and medical services, and in enhancing the physical fitness and health conditions of its people. China has been hailed as a “role model for developing countries” by the World Health Organization (WHO) in recognition of its achievements.

没有全民健康,就没有全面小康,实现全民健康是中国共产党和中国政府对人民的郑重承诺。党的十八大以来,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,中国把人民健康放在优先发展的战略地位,把创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展理念贯穿于健康权的促进与保护中,以普及健康生活、优化健康服务、完善健康保障、建设健康环境、发展健康产业为重点,加快推进健康中国建设,努力为人民群众提供全生命周期的卫生与健康服务,提升了中国的健康权保障水平,使中国人权事业得到长足发展。

Prosperity for all is impossible without health for all. Health for all is a solemn promise to the people by the CPC and the Chinese government. Since the Party’s 18th National Congress in November 2012, under the firm leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at the core, China has given top priority to improving the people’s health, incorporating the development philosophy of innovation, coordination, green development, opening-up and shared benefits into the promotion and protection of the people’s right to health. Focusing on promoting healthy lifestyles, improving health services, enhancing medical security, building a healthy environment and developing the health industry, China is striving to enhance public health and fitness, providing full-life-cycle medical and health services to its people. With improvement in the Chinese people’s right to health, China’s human rights have also seen profound progress.

一、符合国情的健康权保障模式

I. Ensuring People’s Right to Health Based on China’s Conditions

中国是一个有着13亿多人口的发展中大国。中国共产党和中国政府始终高度重视发展卫生与健康事业,加快转变健康领域的发展方式,切实尊重和保障公民的健康权,形成了符合国情的健康权保障模式。

China is a large developing country with 1.3 billion people. The CPC and the Chinese government have always attached great importance to developing the medical and health services, to transforming the development model of the health sector, and to respecting and protecting citizens’ right to health. A mechanism based on China’s conditions to ensure the people’s right to health has been put in place.

1949年新中国成立时,经济社会发展水平相对落后,医疗卫生体系十分薄弱,全国仅有医疗卫生机构3670个,卫生人员54.1万人,卫生机构床位数8.5万张,人均预期寿命仅有35岁。为尽快改变这种状况,国家大力发展医药卫生事业,制定实施“面向工农兵、预防为主、团结中西医、卫生工作与群众运动相结合”的工作方针,广泛开展群众性爱国卫生运动,普及初级卫生保健,人民健康状况得到了很大改善,医疗技术取得重大突破,首次分离了沙眼衣原体,进行了世界第一例断肢再植手术,成功研制出抗疟新药青蒿素等,取得了举世瞩目的伟大成绩。

When the People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949, China had a weak medical and health system due to low levels of development in its economy and society. The nation had only 3,670 medical and health institutions, 541,000 health workers and 85,000 beds at health institutions. The average life expectancy was 35 years. To change this situation, the government devoted great efforts to developing the medical and health services, and implemented guidelines which stipulated that the health services were to serve vast majority of the people, that prevention should be stressed, that both Western medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) should be utilized, and that health promotion and people’s involvement should be incorporated. The people were mobilized to carry out health promotion programs, and basic knowledge about healthcare was widely spread. All this greatly enhanced the people’s health, and major breakthroughs were made in medical sciences. Chlamydia trachomatis was identified for the first time by Chinese scientists; Chinese doctors performed the world’s first replantation of a severed limb; and artemisinin, an effective cure for malaria, was extracted in a Chinese laboratory.

1978年改革开放以后,国家针对当时存在的医疗卫生资源严重短缺、服务能力不足、服务效率较低等问题,实行多渠道筹资,鼓励多种形式办医,增加资源供给,逐步放开药品生产流通市场,发展医药产业,注重发挥中医药的作用,采取一定的经济激励措施,调动医务人员积极性,增强内部活力。1996年,第一次全国卫生工作会议明确了“以农村为重点,预防为主,中西医并重,依靠科技与教育,动员全社会参与,为人民健康服务,为社会主义现代化建设服务”的新时期卫生工作方针。1998年,国家开始建立保障职工基本医疗需求的社会医疗保险制度。2000年,国家提出建立适应社会主义市场经济要求的城镇医药卫生体制,让群众享有价格合理、质量优良的医疗服务,提高人民健康水平的改革目标。2002年,国家发布《关于进一步加强农村卫生工作的决定》,从农村经济社会发展实际出发,深化农村卫生体制机制改革,将卫生投入重点向农村倾斜,满足农民群众不同层次的医疗卫生需求。

Following the introduction of the reform and opening-up drive in 1978, to address problems such as a severe shortage of medical and health resources and a lack of service capability and low efficiency, the government allowed multi-channel financing for the medical industry, and encouraged medical development in various forms, by increasing resource supply, opening up the pharmaceuticals manufacturing and circulation market, developing the pharmaceutical industry, and promoting TCM. Economic incentives were adopted to encourage medical personnel to enhance their performance. At the First National Health Service Meeting in 1996, a decision was made on implementing the guiding principles for health services in the new era, namely, “focusing on the rural areas, prioritizing prevention, equal emphasis on Western medicine and TCM, relying on science and education, encouraging public participation, promoting public health, and serving socialist modernization.” In 1998, China began to form a social medical insurance system to cover the basic medical needs of workers. In 2000, it set the goal of establishing an urban medical and healthcare system in line with the socialist market economy, so that the people could enjoy reasonably priced, high-quality medical services, and thus become healthier. In 2002, the government released the Decision on Further Enhancing Health Services in Rural Areas. Taking into consideration the levels of economic and social development in rural areas, the government decided to drive health services reform to a deeper level, and put in more funding to rural areas, to provide different levels of medical services to rural residents.

2003年,在党和政府的坚强领导下,全国人民万众一心,取得了抗击“非典”的重大胜利。在总结经验的基础上,国家全面加强了公共卫生服务和重大疾病防控工作,重大疾病防治体系不断完善,突发公共卫生事件应急机制逐步健全,农村和城市社区医疗卫生发展步伐加快,新型农村合作医疗和城镇居民基本医疗保险取得突破性进展。

In 2003, under the firm leadership of the Party and the government, the Chinese people, united as one, won a decisive victory in their combat against the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) pandemic. Learning a lesson from this experience, the government took comprehensive measures to improve public health services, and the prevention and control of serious diseases. Marked progress was made in the prevention and control system for serious diseases, in the response mechanism for public health emergencies, in the development of community healthcare services in rural and urban areas, and in the new-type rural cooperative medical care and basic medical insurance for urban residents.

2009年,国家启动实施新一轮医药卫生体制改革,颁布了《关于深化医药卫生体制改革的意见》,确立把基本医疗卫生制度作为公共产品向全民提供的核心理念,进一步明确公共医疗卫生的公益性质,提出建立公共卫生、医疗服务、医疗保障、药品供应“四大体系”和医药卫生管理、运行、投入、价格、监管、科技和人才、信息、法制“八项支撑”,加快基本医疗卫生制度建设,推动卫生事业全面协调可持续发展。随后,国家又颁布了《医药卫生体制改革近期重点实施方案(2009-2011年)》和《“十二五”期间深化医药卫生体制改革规划暨实施方案》,提出加快推进基本医疗保障制度建设,健全基层医疗卫生服务体系,促进基本公共卫生服务逐步均等化等改革任务。

In 2009, China launched a new round of reform of the medical and healthcare system. With the release of the Opinions on Deepening Reform of the Medical and Healthcare System, the government delivered a message that the basic medical and healthcare system should be available to all citizens as a public product. The nonprofit nature of public medical and healthcare was made clear. In the document, it was proposed that China would develop the “four systems” of public health, medical services, medical security and drug supply and the “eight supporting mechanisms” of medical and healthcare management, operation, investment, pricing, supervision, technology and personnel, information, and law-based development, in an effort to form a basic medical and healthcare system and promote the all-round, balanced, and sustainable development of the health sector. Soon after that, China issued the Plan for Reforming Key Areas of the Medical and Healthcare System (2009-2011) and Plan for Deepening Reform of the Medical and Healthcare System during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period (2011-2015). In these two documents, the government set the goals of the reform, which were accelerating the basic medical security system, improving community-level medical and healthcare services, and promoting equal access to basic public health services.

2012年以来,中国不断加大医药卫生体制改革力度,加快推进公立医院综合改革,推进药品和医疗服务价格改革,全面实施城乡居民大病保险,积极建设分级诊疗制度,优化完善药品生产流通使用政策。2015年10月29日,健康中国建设正式写入党的十八届五中全会公报。2016年8月,全国卫生与健康大会提出:“要坚持正确的卫生与健康工作方针,以基层为重点,以改革创新为动力,预防为主,中西医并重,将健康融入所有政策,人民共建共享。”2016年10月,国家颁布《“健康中国2030”规划纲要》,为推进健康中国建设,提高人民健康水平做出了战略部署。

Since 2012, China has redoubled its effort to reform the medical and healthcare system; it has accelerated the comprehensive reform of public hospitals and the price reform of drugs and medical service; it has also implemented serious illness insurance policies covering both urban and rural residents, adopted a multi-layer diagnosis and treatment mechanism, and improved the policies regarding the production, distribution and use of drugs. On October 29, 2015, enhancing public health and fitness was formally introduced in the communique of the Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee. In August 2016, at the National Health and Fitness Conference, it was stated that the government will “follow the correct guidelines for promoting health and fitness services, focus on lower-level medical institutions, strive to reform and make innovations in the medical sector, prioritize disease prevention, lay equal emphasis on Western medicine and TCM, incorporate health promotion in all policies, and involve all citizens in promoting public health and thereby bring health benefits to all.” In October 2016, the state issued “Healthy China 2030” Planning Outline, a guiding document on promoting public health and fitness, with plans to make the Chinese people healthier.

健康事业的发展给人民群众带来实实在在的健康福祉,中国人均预期寿命从1981年的67.9岁提高到2016年的76.5岁,孕产妇死亡率从1990年的88.9/10万下降到2016年的19.9/10万,婴儿死亡率从1981年的34.7‰下降到2016年的7.5‰,居民的主要健康指标总体上优于中高收入国家平均水平,提前实现联合国千年发展目标。同时,中国已形成了以宪法为总领,以民事法律法规、卫生行政法律法规、地方性法规等为实施基础,以健康领域各种纲要、纲领、计划为行动指南的健康制度体系,有效平衡医患关系,公正化解医疗纠纷,切实实现公民健康权。

The development in the field of health services has brought concrete benefits to the Chinese people. The average life expectancy of the Chinese rose to 76.5 years in 2016 from 67.9 years in 1981; maternal mortality dropped from 88.9 per 100,000 persons in 1990 to 19.9 per 100,000 persons in 2016; and infant mortality declined from 34.7 per 1,000 in 1981 to 7.5 per 1,000 in 2016. The main health indicators of the Chinese are generally better than the average level of middle- and high-income countries, and China has achieved the UN’s Millennium Goals in this regard ahead of schedule. Furthermore, China has established a complete medical and health system that is guided by the Constitution, based on civil laws and regulations, laws and administrative regulations on health, and local regulations, and directed by the outlines, programs, and plans of the health sector. The system has proved effective in maintaining sound doctor-patient relations, addressing medical disputes with impartiality, and ensuring citizens’ right to health.

深化医改效果持续彰显,在较短时间内织起了全世界最大的全民基本医疗保障网,建立大病保险制度、疾病应急救助制度,健全医疗救助制度,为实现病有所医提供了制度保障。重大传染病得到有力控制,艾滋病整体疫情控制在低流行水平,联合国千年发展目标确定的结核病控制指标提前实现,血吸虫病疫情降至历史最低水平,2000年实现无脊髓灰质炎目标。2015年,建成了全球最大的法定传染病疫情和突发公共卫生事件网络直报系统,平均报告时间由直报前的5天缩短为4个小时。

The reform of the medical sector has produced noticeable results. Within a short period of time, China was able to achieve the following: developing the world’s largest basic medical insurance network that covers all citizens, providing insurance for patients of serious diseases, enabling patients to receive emergency medical services, and improving medical assistance. All this has provided institutional guarantee that patients have access to medical services. The state has gained effective control over serious infectious diseases, has kept the spread of AIDS at a low level, has achieved the tuberculosis control target of the UN’s Millennium Goals ahead of schedule, has reduced the number of schistosome infections to the lowest level in history, and became a polio-free country in 2000. China set up the world’s largest online direct reporting system of notifiable epidemics and public health emergencies in 2015, and the average reporting time has been shortened to four hours from five days before the introduction of the system.

医疗卫生服务体系建设取得重大进展,基本建成了覆盖城乡的基层医疗卫生服务网络,各级各类医疗卫生机构超过98万个,卫生人员超过1100万人,卫生机构床位数超过700万张。人才队伍建设加快推进,住院医师规范化培训制度逐步建立,涌现出了诺贝尔生理学或医学奖得主屠呦呦等一批杰出医务工作者。社会办医加速发展,民营医院占医院总数的比重超过57%,多元办医格局初步形成。医疗卫生应急救援能力走在国际前列,经受住了防控埃博拉出血热特大传染病疫情的严峻考验,实现了国内“严防控、零输入”和援非抗疫“打胜仗、零感染”双重胜利。

Significant progress has been made in developing a system of medical and healthcare services. A basic medical services network covering both urban and rural areas has been put in place, with 980,000 medical and health institutions at all levels, 11 million health workers, and seven million beds at medical institutions. The state has increased its efforts to foster more medical professionals. A standardization training system for resident doctors is being established, and outstanding figures such as Nobel Prize laureate in Physiology or Medicine Tu Youyou have made significant contributions to society. As more social resources flow into the medical sector, private hospitals now account for over 57 percent of all hospitals, making medical services more diverse. China’s medical and health emergency rescue capability is among the world’s best. It stood the severe test of the Ebola epidemic, blocking all infectious sources from outside its territory and achieved zero infection while Chinese medical teams went on assistance missions in Africa.

经过长期努力,中国卫生与健康事业发展跨上了崭新台阶,不仅显著提高了人民的健康水平,而且形成了符合本国国情的健康权保障模式,其主要特点是:

After many years of hard work, a new stage has been reached in China’s medical and health services. This has not only made the Chinese people healthier, but has also created a model suited to the country’s prevailing conditions that is able to ensure people’s right to health. This model has the following features:

——健康优先,把健康置于优先发展的战略地位,立足国情,将维护和提升健康的理念融入政策、法律、法规制定实施的全过程,实现健康的生活方式、生产条件和生态环境与经济社会良性协调发展。

– Prioritizing health and fitness. The government places people’s health at the forefront of its development strategies, based on China’s prevailing reality, incorporates the awareness of maintaining and improving people’s health into the decision-making process of policies and the formulation and implementation of laws and regulations, and strives to achieve sound and coordinated development between healthy lifestyles, working conditions, the natural environment, and the economy and society.

——预防为主,把以治病为中心转变为以人民健康为中心,坚持防治结合、身心并重、中西医互补,注重慢性病、地方病、职业病防控,减少疾病发生,把握健康领域的发展规律,强化早诊断、早治疗、早康复。

– Focusing on prevention. The focus on healthcare has been shifted from treating illnesses to enhancing people’s health. Equal emphasis is put on disease prevention and treatment, and the well-being of both mind and body. Western medicine and TCM have been made complementary to each other. More efforts have been focused on the prevention and control of chronic, endemic and occupational diseases. In order to reduce the occurrences of illnesses, China’s medical sector is striving to learn more about the patterns and development of health-related issues, emphasizing early diagnosis, treatment and recovery.

——公益主导,坚持基本医疗卫生事业的公益性,把基本医疗卫生制度作为公共产品向全民提供,将公立医院作为医疗服务体系的主体,逐步实现全民享有公共健康服务。

– Nonprofit services. The basic medical and healthcare services will continue to be basically nonprofit, and made available to all citizens as a public product. Public hospitals are the pillar of the medical service system, and steps will be taken to ensure universal access to public-health services.

——公平普惠,坚持卫生服务和医疗保障覆盖全民,以农村和基层为重点,逐步缩小城乡、地区、不同人群间健康水平的差异,保证健康领域基本公共服务均等化。

– Equality and benefit for all. The state will continue to ensure full coverage of health and medical services. Focusing on rural areas and communities, the gaps in health conditions between urban and rural areas, between different localities and between different groups will be gradually narrowed, so that everyone has equal access to basic health services.

——共建共享,坚持政府主导与调动社会、个人的积极性相结合,推动人人参与、人人尽力、人人享有,正确处理政府与市场的关系,政府在基本医疗卫生服务领域有所作为,市场在非基本医疗卫生服务领域发挥活力。

– Universal participation and sharing of benefits. The government will continue to assume the leading role, while private organizations and individuals are encouraged to participate. The goal is to involve all citizens in the building and development of the medical care system, with the benefits jointly shared by all. The government will appropriately handle its relationship with the market, so that the former can play its due role in the basic medical and healthcare sector and that the market can provide more choices in the non-basic medical care sector.

二、健康环境与条件持续改善

II. Continuous Improvement of Health Environment and Conditions

中国积极推广健康生活方式,开展全民健身运动,推进全民健康教育,保障食品和饮用水安全,改善生产、生活、生态和社会环境,为促进公民健康权提供了良好条件。

China is keen to promote a healthy lifestyle, national fitness and health education, protect food and drinking water safety, and improve the environment for production, people’s life, ecology and society in order to better guarantee the Chinese people’s right to health.

健康生活方式全面推行。2007年,国家启动全民健康生活方式行动,倡导居民合理饮食和适量运动,传播健康生活方式理念,创造健康的支持环境,提高全民健康意识和健康行为能力。截至2016年底,全国已有81.87%的县(区)开展了此项行动。发布《中国居民膳食指南(2016)》,对一般人群及儿童、老年人等特定群体进行科学合理膳食指导,引导居民做到平衡膳食、均衡营养。推进居民营养与健康状况监测,以及慢性病与营养监测和发布。推行全民减盐倡议,向居民传授减盐防控高血压等健康知识。实施重点人群营养改善措施,开展农村义务教育学生营养改善计划和贫困地区儿童营养改善项目。持续加大控烟力度,履行世界卫生组织《烟草控制框架公约》规定。2014年深圳市实施《深圳经济特区控制吸烟条例》,2015年北京市实施《北京市控制吸烟条例》,2017年上海市实施《上海市公共场所控制吸烟条例》修正案,落实室内全面禁烟的要求。截至2016年底,全国已有18个城市制定了地方性无烟环境法规、规章,覆盖总人口的十分之一。

Developing a healthy lifestyle. In 2007, China launched the Healthy Lifestyle for All campaign, calling on the Chinese people to develop a healthy diet and engage in physical exercises, advocating healthy lifestyle ideas, creating a supporting environment for a healthy lifestyle, and enhancing the people’s awareness and behavioral abilities to develop a healthy lifestyle. By the end of 2016, the campaign had covered 81.87 percent of counties (districts) across the country. China published the Chinese Dietary Guidelines (2016) that provides healthy dietary guidance to the Chinese people in general, and to children and the elderly in particular to help them develop a balanced diet and nutrition absorption; the government has intensified monitoring of the Chinese people’s nutritional status and health conditions while keeping track of, and issue information about chronic diseases and the people’s nutritional status; it urges the Chinese people to reduce their salt intake, and publicizes information on how to prevent and control high blood pressure; it has adopted measures to improve the nutritional status of key populations and instituted a nutritional improvement plan for compulsory education students in rural areas as well as nutritional improvement programs for children in poverty-stricken areas; the government is continuing to tighten control on the use of tobacco and implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. In 2014, Shenzhen began to activate the Regulations of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone on Smoking Control; in 2015, Beijing implemented the Beijing Regulation on Smoking Control; in 2017, Shanghai enacted revised Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Smoking Control in Public Places, banning indoor smoking in public areas. By the end of 2016, 18 cities had adopted regulations on a smoke-free environment, covering one tenth of the population.

全民健身运动蓬勃开展。将全民健身事业提升为国家战略,把全民健身工作纳入各级政府国民经济和社会发展规划、财政预算及年度工作报告。“政府主导、部门协同、全社会共同参与”的全民健身事业发展格局初步形成。自2009年颁行《全民健身条例》以来,全国已有16个省份和10个较大市制定了全民健身地方性法规,31个省(区、市)全部制定完成省级《全民健身实施计划》。从2009年起,国家将每年的8月8日定为“全民健身日”。2011年至2014年,全国已建成全民健身活动中心3405个,社区多功能运动场9447个,体育公园2366个,健身广场24879个,户外营地878个,室外健身器材169万件。各市(地)、县(区)、街道(乡、镇)、社区(行政村)普遍建有体育场地,配有健身设施。截至2015年底,全国经常参加体育锻炼的人数比例达到33.9%,人均体育场地面积达到1.57平方米,县级及以上地区体育总会平均覆盖率达到72%,各级各类青少年体育俱乐部达到7147个,全民健身站点平均达到每万人3个,社会化全民健身组织网络基本形成。

Giving full play to national physical fitness. Physical fitness has become a national strategy, and the work regarding people’s physical fitness has been included in economic and social development plans, fiscal budgets and annual work reports of governments at all levels. A development trajectory of nationwide physical fitness “led by the government, coordinated among relevant sectors and participated by all” has taken shape. Since the National Fitness Regulations were promulgated in 2009, 16 provinces and ten major cities have worked out local regulations on fitness for all, and all of the country’s 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government have worked out provincial-level fitness-for-all programs. Since 2009, August 8 has become National Fitness Day in China. From 2011 to 2014, 3,405 fitness centers, 9,447 community multipurpose sports playgrounds, 2,366 sports parks, 24,879 fitness squares and 878 outdoor camps were established nationwide, with 1.69 million outdoor fitness facilities installed. Physical fitness venues and facilities can be found in communities (administrative villages), sub-districts (towns and townships), counties (districts) and cities (prefectures). By the end of 2015, up to 33.9 percent of the whole population engaged in physical exercises on a regular basis; the per capita sports venue area reached 1.57 square meters; the coverage rate of sports associations at county level and above was 72 percent; the number of various kinds of juvenile sports clubs was 7,147; every ten thousand people shared three fitness centers on average, and thus a popular national fitness network was basically formed.

全民健康教育持续推进。充分利用报刊、电视、广播、互联网及新媒体等宣传媒介开展公众健康宣传教育咨询,引导居民形成自主自律的健康生活方式。国家每年举办“中国环境与健康宣传周”活动。发布《中国公民环境与健康素养(试行)》《“同呼吸、共奋斗”公民行为准则》。通过基本公共卫生服务健康教育、健康素养促进行动、健康中国行、中医中药中国行、重大卫生主题宣传日等项目和活动,开展健康宣传教育。城乡居民健康素养水平由2008年的6.48%上升至2015年的10.25%。

Promoting national health education. Publicity media, such as newspapers, television, radio, the Internet and other forms of new media are utilized for public health publicity, education and consultation to help people develop a self-tailored and self-disciplined healthy lifestyle. China celebrates National Environment and Health Publicity Week every year; it has promulgated the Environment and Health Literacy of the Chinese Citizens (Trial) and a code of conduct for Chinese citizens with the slogan “Breathe the same air and get it done together” to improve air quality and intensify publicity and education through basic public health services and health education, health literacy promotion campaigns, the “Healthy Chinese” and “TCM in China” initiatives, and major theme-day public health publicity. Health awareness in both urban and rural areas rose to 10.25 percent in 2015 from 6.48 percent in 2008.

环境治理深入开展。加强区域联防联控,实现京津冀、长三角、珠三角县区级空气质量监测站点联网,京津冀及周边区域颗粒物组分和光化学监测网全面建成。2011年至2015年,全国化学需氧量和氨氮、二氧化硫、氮氧化物排放总量分别下降12.9%、13%、18%、18.6%。2016年,全国338个地级及以上城市细颗粒物(PM2.5)平均浓度同比下降6.0%,优良天数同比提高2.1个百分点。2013年,国家颁布实施《大气污染防治行动计划》。2014年至2016年,累计淘汰黄标车和老旧车辆1600余万辆。燃煤火电机组基本实现脱硫脱硝全覆盖。超低排放加快推进,截至2017年3月,完成煤电机组超低排放改造约5亿千瓦。实施《土壤污染防治行动计划》,全面启动土壤污染状况详查。颁布《污染地块土壤环境管理办法(试行)》,设立土壤污染防治专项资金。2016年和2017年,国家共下达专项资金约150亿元。初步建成国家土壤环境网,完成2.2万个基础点位布设,建成约1.5万个风险监控点。全面推动落实《水污染防治行动计划》。加强流域水环境综合治理。落实长江经济带大保护工作,组织排查城市黑臭水体。2016年,全国地表水国控监测断面Ⅰ-Ⅲ类水体比例达67.8%,劣V类水体比例降至8.6%。

Vigorously pursuing environmental improvement. Joint pollution prevention and control between different regions has been enhanced; air quality monitoring facilities at county and district levels in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta function as a network; a network monitoring particle matter (PM) and photochemical pollutants in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and neighboring areas is in full operation. From 2011 to 2015, the nationwide chemical oxygen demand, emissions of ammonia nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide decreased by 12.9 percent, 13 percent, 18 percent and 18.6 percent, respectively. In 2016, the PM2.5 average concentration dropped by 6.0 percent year on year and the number of days with excellent and good air quality increased by 2.1 percentage points year on year in 338 cities at the prefectural level and above. In 2013, China enacted the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan; from 2014 to 2016, about 16 million heavily-polluting vehicles and old vehicles that couldn’t meet the environmental protection standards were eliminated; all coal-fired generators have realized desulfurization and denitrification; ultra-low emissions have been encouraged, and by March 2017, coal-fired generators of about 500 million kw had been improved to achieve ultra-low emissions; the Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Soil Pollution has been enacted, and a comprehensive survey of soil pollution has been launched; the Rules on Environmental Management of the Soil of Contaminated Sites (Trial) have been promulgated. A fund for soil pollution prevention and control has been set up, and from 2016 to 2017, RMB15 billion was earmarked by the government for this purpose. A national soil environment network has been primarily established, with 22,000 basic monitoring spots and about 15,000 risk-monitoring stations; the Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution has been promoted and completely implemented; the comprehensive management of the environment surrounding the river valleys has been enhanced; the environmental protection of the Yangtze River Economic Belt has been pursued, and the investigation of black and odorous water bodies in urban areas has been carried out; in 2016, according to the state-controlled monitoring bodies of surface water, the proportion of such spots of Grades I-III reached 67.8 percent, while that of inferior water bodies of Grade V dropped to 8.6 percent.

城乡环境卫生综合整治成效明显。开展卫生城镇创建活动,显著提升城乡人居环境质量。根据2012年调查显示,卫生城镇创建后与创建前相比,规范集贸市场比例由35.2%提高到60.6%,居民对市容环境的满意率由30%提高到98%,对创卫效果的满意率达到98%。截至2015年底,全国城市污水处理率提高到92%,城市建成区生活垃圾无害化处理率达到94.1%。实施7.8万个村庄的环境综合整治,1.4亿多农村人口直接受益。6.1万家规模化养殖场(小区)建成废弃物处理和资源化利用设施。截至2016年底,全国农村生活垃圾处理率在60%左右,处理污水的行政村比例达到22%。农村卫生厕所普及率从2012年的71.7%提高到2016年的80.4%,东部一些省份达90%以上。

Progress in comprehensive management of environmental hygiene in urban and rural areas. The China Healthy Cities and Towns Initiative is being pursued to largely improve living conditions in urban and rural areas. According to a survey in 2012, since the initiative was introduced, the proportion of standardized fairs and markets had risen to 60.6 percent from 35.2 percent, and the percent of residents who are satisfied with urban amenities and the environment increased from 30 percent to 98 percent, with 98 percent of them satisfied with the effect of the initiative. By the end of 2015, the sewage treatment rate in urban areas had increased to 92 percent while the pollution-free treatment rate of household garbage in urban built-up areas had reached 94.1 percent. Comprehensive environmental improvement had been carried out in 78,000 villages, benefiting over 140 million people in rural areas; waste treatment and resource utilization facilities had been installed in 61,000 large-scale livestock and poultry farms. By the end of 2016, the treatment rate of household garbage in rural areas was around 60 percent, and the proportion of administrative villages with sewage treatment had reached 22 percent. In 2016, 80.4 percent of rural households use toilets while the rate was 71.7 percent in 2012; in some provinces, in the more developed eastern areas, the figure was 90 percent or higher.

农村饮用水安全问题基本解决。2006年至2010年,农村饮水安全工程建设总投资1053亿元,解决了19万个行政村、2.12亿农村人口的饮水安全问题。2011年至2015年,国家共安排农村饮水安全建设工程资金1215亿元,地方配套资金600多亿元。截至2016年底,全国农村饮水安全卫生监测乡镇覆盖率达85%以上,农村集中式供水覆盖人口比例提高到82%。国家针对个别地区的特殊困难安排专项资金,提高补助标准,安排4.95亿元资金解决西藏自治区1400多座寺庙、3.23万僧尼和6万多临时供水人口的饮水安全问题。

Drinking water safety issues in rural areas basically solved. From 2006 to 2010, the investment in safe drinking water projects in rural areas reached RMB105.3 billion, providing safe drinking water to 212 million rural residents in 190,000 administrative villages. From 2011 to 2015, RMB121.5 billion from the central government and over RMB60 billion from local governments were appropriated for safe drinking water projects in rural areas. By the end of 2016, the safe drinking water monitoring covered over 85 percent of rural villages, and up to 82 percent of rural residents enjoy centralized water supply. The state has allocated funds to areas with particular difficulties, and raised the subsidy standards, such as by appropriating RMB495 million to provide safe drinking water to over 1,400 monasteries, 32,300 monks and nuns and 60,000 other residents with temporary needs in the Tibet Autonomous Region.

职业健康管理不断加强。2011年,国家修订《中华人民共和国职业病防治法》,大力开展重点领域尘毒危害专项治理,对粉尘危害严重的石英砂加工、石棉开采及制品制造、金矿开采、水泥制造、石材加工、陶瓷生产和耐火材料制造等行业领域组织开展集中整治,督促企业加大投入力度,改进生产工艺,完善防护设施,加强个体防护。工作场所作业环境和条件得到初步改善。截至2016年底,国家依法处罚了一批拒不治理或治理不力的企业,共责令停产整顿1524家,提请关闭1576家,取缔非法企业426家。加大对用人单位职业卫生监督检查力度。2013年至2016年,全国各地区监督检查企业数量从22.9万家增加到39.5万家,增长72.5%。

Enhancing occupational health management. In 2011, China revised the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases. Campaigns were launched to control and reduce the hazards associated with fine dust and toxic stuff during production processes in particular sectors, such as quartz sand processing, asbestos mining and asbestos-product manufacturing, gold mining, cement manufacturing, stone-material processing, ceramics and refractory-material production. Corporations are urged to increase investment to improve production processes and protection measures for employees. Operational environment and conditions at workplaces have been primarily improved. By the end of 2016, the government, in accordance with the law, had punished the corporations that refused or failed to improve their occupational health management, demanding 1,524 corporations to suspend production for rectification, shutting down 1,576 corporations in response to public demand, and eliminating 426 illegal enterprises. The government has intensified supervision and inspection on occupational health management of employers. From 2013 to 2016, the number of corporations nationwide that had been brought under government supervision and inspection increased from 229,000 to 395,000, up by 72.5 percent.

食品安全监管更加严格。2015年,国家修订《中华人民共和国食品安全法》。2016年,各级监管机构在食品生产环节共检查食品生产企业52.1万家次,检查食品添加剂生产企业1.5万家次。检查食品加工小作坊7.2万家次。各级监管机构在食品经营环节共检查销售环节经营主体1209.3万家次。检查餐饮服务环节经营主体886.9万家次。2016年,在全国范围内组织抽检了25.7万批次食品样品,总体抽检合格率为96.8%。妥善处置冒牌婴幼儿配方乳粉等多起食品安全突发事件。

Tougher control of food safety. In 2015, China revised the Food Safety Law. In 2016, regulatory agencies at all levels conducted inspections of the food production process of 521,000 food producers, 15,000 food additive producers, and 72,000 food processing workshops. As for the selling of food products, regulatory agencies at all levels conducted inspections of 12.093 million businesses, and 8.869 million catering services. In 2016, competent authorities conducted random inspections on 257,000 food samples, of which 96.8 percent met the required standards, and properly settled several food safety incidents, including one involving the sale of counterfeit infant formulas.

三、公共卫生服务能力稳步提升

III. Public Health Service Capability Improving Steadily

中国坚持预防为主、防治结合,提高公共卫生服务的可获取性和均等性,加大传染病、慢性病、地方病等疾病预防控制力度,提升突发公共卫生事件应急能力,推行覆盖全民的基本公共卫生服务,均等化程度不断提高。

The Chinese government gives priority to prevention while combining prevention with treatment, and makes great efforts to ensure the people’s equal access to public health services. It devotes great efforts to preventing and controlling epidemic, chronic and endemic diseases, strengthening the quick response capacity on public health emergencies, and developing an increasingly equal and universal basic public health service system.

基本公共卫生服务覆盖率进一步提高。国家免费提供疫苗及接种服务,受益对象从儿童扩展到成人。截至2015年底,疫苗接种率以乡镇为单位总体保持在90%以上,多数免疫规划疫苗可预防传染病的发病与死亡率降至历史最低水平。2010年至2017年,人均基本公共卫生服务经费财政补助标准从15元提高到50元,服务项目从最初的9类41项扩大到12类47项。建立居民健康档案、健康教育、预防接种、儿童健康管理、孕产妇健康管理、老年人健康管理、慢性病患者健康管理、严重精神障碍患者管理、结核病患者健康管理、中医药健康管理、传染病和突发公共卫生事件报告和处理、卫生计生监督协管共12类服务项目,已基本覆盖居民生命全过程。截至2016年底,全国居民电子健康档案建档率达到76.9%,高血压、糖尿病患者健康管理人数分别达到9023万人和2781万人。孕产妇和3岁以下儿童系统管理率分别达到91.6%和91.1%。

The coverage of basic public health services has been further expanded. The government has extended free vaccinations from children only to adults. By the end of 2015, the vaccination rate of every town or township was at least 90 percent and the incidence of and mortality from diseases that can be prevented by programmed vaccines had fallen to the lowest level ever. From 2010 to 2017, the state subsidy for basic public health services has increased from RMB15 to RMB50 per person, and the services have also expanded from 41 in nine categories to 47 in 12 categories. The 12 categories span a person’s life circle, including citizens’ health archives, health education, vaccination, children’s health management, pregnancy and maternity health management, elderly people’s health management, health management of chronically ill patients, management of patients with severe mental disorders, health management of tuberculosis patients, TCM health management, reporting and handling of epidemic diseases and public health emergencies, and assisting management and supervision on health and family planning. By the end of 2016, the government had set up digital health archives for 76.9 percent of Chinese citizens, covering 90.23 million hypertension patients and 27.81 million diabetes sufferers. At the same time, 91.6 percent of pregnant and lying-in women and 91.1 percent of children under the age of three were brought under systematic management.

基本公共卫生服务的惠及面不断扩大。2012年,国家实现消除新生儿破伤风的目标。2014年,通过新生儿接种乙肝疫苗,5岁以下儿童乙肝表面抗原携带率从1992年的9.67%降至0.32%,提前实现世界卫生组织提出的于2017年将5岁以下人群乙肝表面抗原流行率降到1%以下的目标。流动人口的基本公共卫生服务利用状况持续改善,传染病防控工作普遍开展,流动儿童免疫接种率达90%以上。针对重大疾病、重要健康危险因素和重点人群健康问题,制定和实施重大公共卫生服务项目,为15岁以下人群补种乙肝疫苗、贫困地区儿童改善营养、农村孕产妇提供住院分娩、农村妇女“两癌”筛查、农村建设无害化卫生厕所等,累计覆盖近2亿人。2009年,国家启动“百万贫困白内障患者复明工程”,由政府提供补助为贫困白内障患者实施复明手术,截至2013年底,接受手术的人数已超175万人。

The scope of beneficiaries of the basic public health services has expanded steadily. By 2012, China had eliminated tetanus among all newborn babies. In 2014, through injection of hepatitis B vaccine to newborn babies, the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in children under five years of age decreased from 9.67 percent in 1992 to 0.32 percent in 2014, achieving the WHO’s goal of reducing that figure to below 1 percent three years ahead of schedule. An increasing number of the floating population now have better access to basic public health services. Epidemic diseases have been effectively prevented and controlled among them, and more than 90 percent of their children have received vaccinations. Aiming at serious diseases, major risk factors affecting health and key groups, the state has formulated and implemented major public health service projects that cover nearly 200 million people, such as hepatitis B vaccination for people under 15 years of age who missed the vaccination earlier, nutrition improvement for children in impoverished areas, facilitating rural pregnant women’s delivery in hospital, screening for cervical and breast cancers among women in rural areas, and construction of hygienic toilet in rural areas. In 2009, the government launched the Regaining Eyesight Program for a Million Impoverished Cataract Patients, and had subsidized surgery for more than 1.75 million cataract patients by the end of 2013.

传染病疫情控制水平持续提升。国家已建成全球最大规模的法定传染病疫情和突发公共卫生事件的网络直报系统。法定传染病报告发病率平均降低19.4%。传染病早期发现和预警能力进一步增强,传染病信息报告系统覆盖近7.1万家医疗机构,系统用户超过16万,年报告个案信息约900万件。2016年,全国甲乙类传染病报告发病率、死亡率分别控制在215.7/10万和1.31/10万以下。建成国家、省、市、县四级疾控机构实验室检测网络,中国疾控中心流感、脊髓灰质炎、麻疹、乙脑等实验室成为世界卫生组织参比实验室。疫情形势总体平稳,未发生较大传染病流行。艾滋病整体疫情控制在低流行水平,重点地区疫情快速上升势头得到基本遏制。结核病防治工作成效显著,成功治疗率保持在90%以上。2016年,全国结核病报告发病数比2011年下降12.6%,结核病死亡率降至2.3/10万左右,达到发达国家水平;全国疟疾病例共报告3189例,其中本地感染病例仅有3例,比2010年的4262例大幅度减少,80%以上的疟疾流行县基本消除疟疾。重点寄生虫病防治效果持续巩固,截至2016年底,全国453个流行县均达到了血吸虫病传播控制或以上标准。

The ability to control epidemic diseases has continuously improved. The Chinese government has established the world’s largest online direct reporting system for notifiable epidemic diseases and public health emergencies. Reported incidence of epidemic diseases has dropped by 19.4 percent. The early detection and early warning capacities have been further improved. The epidemic disease reporting system covers 71,000 medical institutions, with 160,000 users and nine million annual individual reports. In 2016, the reported incidence and death rate of epidemic diseases in categories A and B was controlled below 215.7/100,000 and 1.31/100,000, respectively. The state has set up a laboratory network comprised of disease control and prevention institutions at national, provincial, city and county levels. The influenza, poliomyelitis, measles and meningitis B labs of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention have become WHO reference labs. On the whole, the epidemics are under control and there has been no widespread epidemic in China. The spread of HIV remains at a low level, and its rapid growth in certain areas has been checked. The efforts to prevent and treat tuberculosis have achieved good results, with a cure rate of over 90 percent. In 2016, the reported incidence of tuberculosis had decreased by 12.6 percent compared to 2011, and the mortality rate from tuberculosis had dropped to 2.3 per 100,000 patients, reaching the level of developed countries. In the same year, there were 3,189 malaria cases reported nationwide, with only three domestically infected. This was much lower than the 4,262 cases in 2010. The disease has now been eradicated in over 80 percent counties that once had a widespread malaria problem. The prevention and treatment of major parasitic diseases have achieved solid results. By the end of 2016, the transmission of schistosomiasis was brought under control in all the 453 counties where it once had been widespread.

慢性病防控效果显著增强。国家已建立慢性病和慢性病危险因素监测网络。老年人健康管理和高血压、糖尿病患者管理等作为国家基本公共卫生服务免费向公众提供,实施脑卒中、心血管疾病高危筛查、口腔疾病综合干预、癌症早诊早治等项目。截至2016年底,脑卒中高危人群筛查和干预项目累计筛查610余万人,发现高危人群82万人,开展随访干预95.2万人次;心血管病高危人群早期筛查与综合干预项目累计筛查338.9万人,发现高危人群77.6万人,随访管理52.4万人次;儿童口腔疾病综合干预项目为1亿儿童提供免费口腔检查,516.8万儿童免费窝沟封闭,222.9万儿童免费局部用氟;癌症早诊早治项目累计筛查214万高危人群,发现患者5.5万人,整体早诊率高于80%。

The effects of China’s practice in preventing and controlling chronic diseases have remarkably improved. China has set up a monitoring network for chronic diseases and risk factors. As a basic public health service, the health management of the aged and hypertension or diabetes patients is provided free to the public. The state runs many services, like screening for cerebral apoplexy and cardiovascular disease, comprehensive oral disease intervention, and early diagnosis and treatment of cancer. By the end of 2016, the service of screening for and intervention of cerebral apoplexy had been provided to more than 6.1 million people, 820,000 of whom were found to be at high risk, and 952,000 follow-up interventions were conducted. Early screening and comprehensive intervention of cardiovascular disease had been provided to 3.389 million people, 776,000 of whom were found to be at high risk, and 524,000 follow-up interventions were conducted. Comprehensive oral disease intervention had provided free oral examination to 100 million children. A total of 5.168 million children received free dental sealants treatment and 2.229 million children received free local fluoride varnish treatment. The early diagnosis and treatment of cancer service had been provided to 2.14 million high-risk people. Some 55,000 cancer patients were diagnosed through this service, and the overall early diagnosis rate reached 80 percent or above.

地方病流行趋势得到有效控制。截至2015年底,全国水源性高碘地区有90.8%的县非碘盐食用率在90%以上,94.2%的县保持消除碘缺乏病状态,在全球128个采取食盐加碘措施的国家和地区中处于领先水平。95.4%的大骨节病病区村达到消除标准,94.2%的克山病病区县达到控制标准。燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒地区的所有县改炉改灶率达到98.4%,饮水型地方性氟中毒地区有93.6%的农村人口实施了降氟改水工程。燃煤污染型地方性砷中毒地区全部完成改炉改灶,查明的饮水型地方性砷中毒地区全部完成改水。

The spread of endemic diseases is under effective control. By the end of 2015, 90.8 percent of counties whose water sources contained excess iodine had reached the benchmark that 90 percent of salt consumed was iodine-free, and 94.2 percent of the nation’s counties had eradicated iodine deficiency, ranking among the top of all 128 countries and regions officially using iodized salt. Kaschin-Beck disease has been eradicated in 95.4 percent of villages where it was once widespread, and Keshan disease has been put under control in 94.2 percent of the counties where it was once prevalent. In the counties that suffered from endemic fluorosis caused by coal burning, 98.4 percent of coal stoves have been transformed, and in the areas suffering from drinking water-caused endemic fluorosis, 93.6 percent of the rural population now have access to de-fluoridated drinking water. Areas suffering from arsenic poisoning through coal burning have had their stoves transformed, and all people in water-related arsenic poisoning areas now have access to safe drinking water.

精神卫生服务不断完善。国家公布实施《中华人民共和国精神卫生法》,将精神卫生工作纳入法治化轨道。截至2015年底,全国共有精神卫生服务机构2936家,开设床位数43.3万张,分别比2010年增长77.9%、89.9%;共有精神科执业(助理)医师2.77万人,比2012年底的2.31万人增加20.2%。把严重精神障碍纳入新农合和城镇居民医保重大疾病保障范围,实施中央补助地方严重精神障碍管理治疗项目,部分地区出台救治救助专项政策,减轻了患者负担。加强严重精神障碍患者报告登记和救治救助管理。2012年至2016年,全国在册的严重精神障碍患者数由308万例增加到540万例,患者管理率由59.1%提高到88.7%。加强对抑郁症、焦虑症等常见精神障碍和心理行为问题的干预,加大对重点人群心理问题早期发现和及时干预力度,提高突发事件心理危机的干预能力和水平,全面推进精神障碍社区康复服务。

Mental health services have been improved constantly. The state issued the Mental Health Law of the People’s Republic of China, putting the related work within the legal framework. At the end of 2015, China had 2,936 mental health institutions with 433,000 beds - increases of 77.9 percent and 89.9 percent, respectively compared with 2010. There were 27,700 practicing (assistant) psychiatrists nationwide, an increase of 20.2 percent over the 23,100 at the end of 2012. Severe mental disorders have been included as serious diseases under the new type of rural cooperative medical care and basic medical insurance for non-working urban residents. The central government has provided subsidies to local hospitals to help with the management of and treatment for severe mental disorders. Special aid and treatment policies have been drawn up in some local areas. The patients’ expenditures have been greatly reduced. The government has enhanced the management of patients with severe mental disorders, including case reporting and registration, assistance and treatment. Between 2012 and 2016, the number of registered patients with severe mental illnesses increased from 3.08 million to 5.4 million nationwide. From 59.1 percent to 88.7 percent, more and more patients were put under management. The state has enhanced the intervention in common mental disorders or psychological problems, like depression and anxiety. It has intensified the efforts to promptly detect and treat psychological problems among key groups, built up the psychological intervention capacity in emergency events, and promoted the community rehabilitation services for mental disorders.

突发公共卫生事件应急能力全面加强。应急法制基本建立,应急机制不断优化。在全国分区域设置4类36支国家级和近2万支、20多万人的地方卫生应急处置队伍。2014年,国家公共卫生应急核心能力达标率升至91.5%,远超全球70%的平均水平。近年来,国家加快卫生应急体系建设,有效地应对了人感染H7N9禽流感、埃博拉出血热、中东呼吸综合征、寨卡病毒等突发急性传染病疫情,以及四川汶川地震、天津港火灾爆炸事故等一系列重大灾害事故的紧急医学救援和灾后卫生防疫。

The ability to quickly respond to public health emergencies has been strengthened in a comprehensive way. The legal system for emergency response has taken initial shape, and the response mechanism has been optimized. Thirty-six national teams and nearly 20,000 local teams, with over 200,000 members for four categories of emergencies, have been set up in different regions. In 2014, China’s core public health emergency response capacity achieved 91.5 percent of the requirements of the International Health Regulations, better than the world’s average of 70 percent. In recent years, the state has accelerated the construction of a public health emergency response system, which not only effectively handled such epidemic emergencies as human infections of the avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Middle East respiratory syndrome and Zika fever, but also promptly carried out emergency medical rescue and post-disaster epidemic prevention in such disasters and accidents as the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and the 2015 Tianjin Port explosions.

四、医疗卫生服务质量大幅提高

IV. Great Improvement in the Quality of Medical and Health Services

中国致力于提升医疗卫生资源的可及性和便利性,同步推动医疗服务质量和效率的不断提高,加快建立优质高效的整合型医疗卫生服务体系,药品供应体系不断完善,居民就医感受明显改善。

China is committed to improving the accessibility and convenience of medical and health resources, and the quality and efficiency of medical services at the same time. It aims to accelerate the building of an integrated medical and health service system of good quality and high efficiency, and improve the medicine supply system. More and more people are satisfied with their visits to hospitals.

医疗卫生服务体系资源要素持续增加。2011年至2015年,国家投入420亿元,重点支持建设1500多个县级医院、1.8万个乡镇卫生院、10余万个村卫生室和社区卫生服务中心。截至2016年底,全国医疗卫生机构达983394个,其中医院29140个(公立医院12708个,民营医院16432个),乡镇卫生院36795个,社区卫生服务中心(站)34327个,疾病预防控制中心3481个,卫生监督所(中心)2986个,村卫生室638763个;全国统计的万元以上医疗设备共529.1万台,其中100万元以上的设备12.5万台。2016年,医疗机构床位数比2015年增加39.5万张,每千人口拥有床位数达到5.37张,医院床位数增加35.8万张;全国少数民族医医院有266所,床位数达26484张,年总诊疗968.7万人次,出院58.8万人次。

The resource factors of the medical and health-service system keep increasing. From 2011 to 2015, China invested RMB42 billion to support the building of 1,500 county-level hospitals, 18,000 town and township health centers, and more than 100,000 village clinics and community health centers. By the end of 2016, there were 983,394 medical and health institutions in China, among which 29,140 were hospitals (12,708 public hospitals and 16,432 private ones), 36,795 town and township health centers, 34,327 community health centers (stations), 3,481 disease prevention and control centers, 2,986 health inspection institutes (centers), and 638,763 village clinics; there were also 5.291 million items of medical equipment each worth RMB10,000 or more, among which 125,000 were worth more than RMB1 million each. In 2016, the number of beds in medical institutions increased by 395,000 compared with 2015 – 5.37 beds for every 1,000 people; the number of beds in hospitals increased by 358,000. There were 266 hospitals of ethnic healthcare, with 26,484 beds, providing 9.687 million treatment sessions annually, and the number of discharged patients reached 588,000.

医药卫生人才队伍更加优化。国家已构建起全世界规模最大的医学教育体系。截至2016年底,全国共有922所高等医学院校、1564所中等学校开办医学教育,硕士授予单位238个、博士授予单位92个,在校学生总数达395万人,其中临床类专业在校生达到114万人、护理类专业达到180万人。全国共有14所教育机构开设了少数民族医药专业和中医专业少数民族医药方向,在校生约17万人。云南、广西、贵州等地的中医学院先后设立中医学本科傣医、壮医、苗药等专业方向。部分少数民族医药院校与高等中医药院校合作,联合培养少数民族医药人才。截至2016年底,全国卫生人员总量达1117.3万人,卫生技术人员845.4万人,每千人口医师数达到2.31人,执业(助理)医师大学专科及以上学历人员比例为81.2%,高层次专业人才逐年增加。每千人口护士数达到2.54人,医护比达到1:1.1。

Health personnel optimized. China has built a medical education system of the largest scale in the world. By the end of 2016, there were 922 medical colleges and universities in China, 1,564 secondary schools with medical courses, 238 organizations granting master’s degrees, and 92 granting doctoral degrees. The number of students at these schools had reached 3.95 million, among whom 1.14 million were students of clinical majors and 1.8 million of nursing majors. Fourteen educational institutions now offer specialties in ethnic healthcare, and research into ethnic healthcare in TCM majors, with about 170,000 students. TCM colleges in Yunnan, Guangxi and Guizhou offer undergraduate specialties of healthcare of the Dai, Zhuang and Miao peoples. Some ethnic-healthcare colleges and TCM colleges cooperate to cultivate personnel specializing in ethnic healthcare. By the end of 2016, the number of health workers totaled 11.173 million, with 8.454 million technical personnel, and 2.31 physicians for every 1,000 people; practicing (assistant) physicians with a college degree or above made up 81.2 percent of the total. The number of high-caliber professionals is increasing year by year. The number of nurses for every 1,000 people has reached 2.54, and the ratio of doctors to nurses has reached 1:1.1.

社会力量办医不断增长。优先支持社会力量举办非营利性医疗机构,推进非营利性民营医院与公立医院同等待遇。鼓励医师利用业余时间、退休医师到基层医疗卫生机构执业或开设工作室。全国民营医院占比超过57%,社会办医疗卫生机构床位总数比2011年增长81%,门诊量已占全国门诊总量的22%。截至目前,在全国注册多点执业的医生中,到社会办医疗机构执业的超过70%。

The non-governmental sectors operating hospitals are growing. China supports non-governmental sectors in starting non-profit medical institutions, and promotes equal treatment between non-profit private hospitals and public hospitals. We encourage physicians to make use of their spare time, and retired physicians to work in community medical and health institutions or open clinics. Private hospitals now account for more than 57 percent of all hospitals, the number of beds in medical and health institutions operated by non-governmental sectors has increased by 81 percent compared with 2011, and their outpatient visits take up 22 percent of the total in China. Now, of the physicians who have obtained licenses that give them permission to work for more than one organization, more than 70 percent also work in medical institutions operated by non-governmental sectors.

基层和农村医疗条件进一步改善。从医疗卫生体制、医疗服务机构设置、医疗服务人员配备等多个方面向基层和农村倾斜。将县级医院定位为县域内的医疗卫生中心和农村三级医疗卫生服务网络的核心,在每个县(市)重点办好1至2所县级医院(含中医医院)。基本实现每个乡镇建好1所卫生院,平均每个行政村设有1个村卫生室,每千农村居民配有1名乡村医生。

Community and rural medical conditions further improve. China gives priority to community and rural medical development in terms of the establishment of medical and health systems, the setting up of medical service institutions and the team building of medical service personnel. It takes county-level hospitals as the medical and health centers of the county, and places them at the core of the three-tier rural medical and health service network at the county, township and village levels. It focuses on the operation of one or two county-level hospitals (including TCM hospitals) in each county (city). Now, almost every town or township has a health center, every administrative village has a village clinic, and every 1,000 rural residents have a village doctor.

医疗卫生服务供给更具层次性。建立专业公共卫生机构、综合和专科医院、基层医疗卫生机构“三位一体”的重大疾病防控机制,强化信息共享、互联互通机制,推进慢性病防、治、管整体融合发展,实现医防结合。全面建立分级诊疗制度,引导形成基层首诊、双向转诊、上下联动、急慢分治的合理就医秩序,健全治疗——康复——长期护理的服务链。全国三级医院预约诊疗率达到38.6%,近400家医疗机构设置了日间手术中心。开展家庭医生签约服务,居民对家庭医生的专业技术和服务态度的满意度达80%以上,群众就医感受得到明显改善。

Medical and health service supply is becoming more refined and targeted. China has established a mechanism for serious illness prevention and control that combines professional public health institutions, general and specialized hospitals, and community medical and health institutions. We are enhancing the mechanism for information sharing and inter-connection, promoting the integrated development of chronic disease prevention, control and management, and realizing the combination of treatment and prevention. We are building a comprehensive classified diagnosis and treatment system, guiding the formation of a rational medical treatment order featuring primary treatment at the community level, two-way transfer treatment, interconnection between different levels and different treatments for acute and chronic diseases, and improving the service chain of treatment, rehabilitation and long-term care. The diagnosis and treatment rate based on appointments in Grade III hospitals has reached 38.6 percent, and nearly 400 medical institutions have set up ambulatory surgery centers. We are also providing family physician contracted services. More than 80 percent of citizens are satisfied with the skills and attitude of family physicians. The people’s service experience has greatly improved.

医疗质量安全水平持续提高。制定《医疗质量管理办法》,逐步建立并完善医疗质量管理与控制体系,发布质控指标,开展信息化质量监测与反馈。推进医疗机构临床路径管理,制定1212个临床路径,基本覆盖常见病和多发病。发布实施《遏制细菌耐药国家行动计划(2016-2020年)》,综合治理细菌耐药问题。加强处方和用药监管。2016年,全国住院患者抗菌药物使用率为37.5%,较2011年降低21.9个百分点;门诊处方抗菌药物使用率为8.7%,较2011年降低8.5个百分点。医疗责任保险覆盖超过90%的二级以上医院。高度重视血液安全和血液供应,截至2015年底,实现血站核酸检测全覆盖,血液安全水平与发达国家基本一致。推进无偿献血和临床合理用血。2016年,共有1400万人次参加无偿献血,比2015年增长6.1%,基本满足临床用血需求。公民逝世后器官捐献已成为器官移植的主要来源。

The quality and the safety level of medical services continues to rise. We have formulated Medical Quality Management Measures, gradually established and improved the medical quality management and control system, released quality control indicators, and conducted informationalized quality monitoring and feedback. We have promoted clinical pathway management (CPM) by developing 1,212 clinical pathways, which cover almost all common and frequently occurring diseases. We have released and implemented the National Action Plan to Contain Antimicrobial Resistance (2016-2020), to resolve the problem of antimicrobial resistance in a comprehensive way. We have also strengthened supervision over prescription and drug use. In 2016, the rate of inpatients using antibacterial drugs was 37.5 percent, 21.9 percentage points lower than in 2011; the usage rate in outpatient prescriptions was 8.7 percent, a decrease of 8.5 percentage points compared with the rate in 2011. Medical liability insurance covers more than 90 percent of hospitals at Grade II and above. We attach great importance to blood safety and supply. By the end of 2015, we had realized the full coverage of nucleic acid tests in blood stations, with a blood safety level equivalent to that of developed countries. We also encourage voluntary unpaid blood donations and rational clinical use of blood. In 2016, 14 million people donated blood gratis, an increase of 6.1 percent over 2015 and almost satisfying the demand for clinical blood use. Donation has become the main source of organs for transplants.

药品供应保障体系进一步完善。以国家基本药物制度为基础的药品供应保障体系取得长足发展,相比制度实施前,基本药物销售价格平均下降30%左右,并在基层医疗卫生机构实行零差率销售,患者用药负担大为减轻。启动首轮国家药品价格谈判试点,乙肝、非小细胞肺癌等谈判药品的采购价格下降50%以上,价格处于全球低位,截至2016年底,患者减少支出近亿元。完善罕见病药品供应保障政策。增加艾滋病防治等特殊药物免费供给。深入推进医药创新,实施“重大新药创制”科技重大专项。2011年至2015年,全国共有323个创新药获批开展临床研究,埃克替尼等16个创新药获批生产,139个新化学仿制药上市,累计600多个原料药品种和60多家制剂企业达到国际先进水平GMP要求,PET-CT、128排CT等一批大型医疗设备和脑起搏器、介入人工生物心脏瓣膜、人工耳蜗等高端植入介入产品获批上市。推动建设遍及城乡的现代医药流通网络,基层和边远地区的药品供应保障能力不断提高。

The drug supply security system keeps improving. This system, based on the national basic drug system, has made great headway. Since the implementation of the policy, the prices of basic drugs have dropped by about 30 percent on average, and basic drugs have been sold in community-level medical and health institutions with zero markup, easing the financial burden on patients. We initiated the first round of pilot projects of national drug price negotiation, reducing the purchasing prices of drugs for hepatitis B and non-small-cell lung cancer by over 50 percent, making them the lowest in the world. By the end of 2016, the patients’ expenses had been reduced by nearly RMB100 million. We have also improved the policy that ensures drug supply for rare diseases, and increased the free supply of special drugs, for instance, drugs for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. China encourages medical and pharmaceutical innovation, launching a key project named the National New Drug Innovation Program. From 2011 to 2015, 323 innovative drugs in China were approved for clinical research, 16 innovative drugs including Icotinib Hydrochloride Tablets were approved for production, 139 new chemical generic drugs entered the market, a total of more than 600 Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) and over 60 pharmaceutical companies reached the international advanced GMP standard, and a number of large medical equipment such as PET-CT and 128-MSCT, and advanced implantable products including brain pacemaker, bioprosthetic valve and artificial cochlea have been approved and entered the market. We have promoted the building of a modern medical and pharmaceutical distribution network that covers both the urban and rural areas, and strengthened drug supply security at the community level and in remote areas.

传统医药发展更受国家支持。2013年至2015年,国家投入专项资金46亿元支持中医药服务能力建设。2016年,国家印发《中医药发展战略规划纲要(2016-2030年)》。中药工业规模以上企业主营业务收入8653亿元,约占全国医药工业规模以上企业主营业务收入的三分之一。2011年以来,49项中医药科研成果获得国家科技奖励。青蒿素及治疗急性早幼粒细胞白血病等中西医药研究成果获全球关注。

TCM is receiving more support from the government. From 2013 to 2015, China invested a special fund of RMB4.6 billion to support the capacity building of TCM. In 2016, it issued the Outline of the Strategic Plan on the Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine (2016-2030). The revenue generated by Chinese medicine producers each with turnover over RMB20 million per annum reached RMB865.3 billion in that year, accounting for about one third of the total revenue generated by all the drug producers each with turnover over RMB20 million per annum in China. Since 2011, 49 achievements in TCM scientific research have received national science and technology awards. Artemisinin, medicines for curing acute promyelocytic leukemia and other TCM and Western medicine research findings have attracted worldwide attention.

五、全民医疗保障体系逐步健全

V. Improvement of the National Medical Security System

中国大力推进医疗保障体系建设,形成以基本医疗保障为主体,其他多种形式补充保险和商业健康保险为补充的多层次、宽领域、全民覆盖的医疗保障体系,初步实现了人人享有基本医疗保障。

China has been vigorously improving its national medical security system. Now, a multi-layered and wide-ranging medical security system covers the whole population, mainly supported by basic medical security, and supplemented by various forms of supplementary insurance and commercial health insurance. The country has preliminarily realized basic healthcare for every citizen.

基本医疗保险实现全覆盖。以职工基本医疗保险、城镇居民基本医疗保险和新型农村合作医疗为主体的全民医保初步实现。截至2016年底,全国基本医疗保险参保人数超过13亿人,参保覆盖率稳固在95%以上。2016年,国家正式启动城镇居民基本医疗保险和新型农村合作医疗两项制度整合,统一覆盖范围、统一筹资政策、统一保障待遇、统一医保目录、统一定点管理、统一基金管理,逐步在全国范围内建立统一的城乡居民基本医疗保险制度,实现城乡居民公平享有基本医疗保险权益。

Basic medical insurance covers all urban and rural residents. The whole population is now covered by medical insurance, which is mainly composed of basic medical insurance for working urban residents, basic medical insurance for non-working urban residents, and the new type of rural cooperative medical care. By the end of 2016, basic medical insurance had more than 1.3 billion recipients nationwide – a coverage of above 95 percent. In 2016, China officially integrated basic medical insurance for non-working urban residents and the new type of rural cooperative medical care, to unify insurance coverage, funding policies, insured treatment, reimbursement catalogues, management of contracted medical institutions and fund management. In this way, the system of basic medical insurance for urban and rural residents was established step by step, so that urban and rural residents now enjoy equal access to basic medical insurance.

基本医疗保险保障能力和可持续性进一步增强。2016年,全年职工基本医疗保险基金收入和支出分别为10274亿元和8287亿元,比2012年分别增加4212亿元和3419亿元,年均增长率分别为15.7%和15.6%;全年城镇居民基本医疗保险基金收入和支出分别为2811亿元和2480亿元,比2012年分别增加1934亿元和1805亿元。2017年,城乡居民基本医疗保险财政补助标准继续提高,各级财政人均补助标准达到每人每年450元。

Support for basic medical insurance schemes and its sustainability have been increasing. The income and expenditure of the basic medical insurance fund for working urban residents in 2016 were RMB1,027.4 billion and RMB828.7 billion respectively – RMB421.2 billion and RMB341.9 billion more than those of 2012, representing an annual increase of 15.7 percent and 15.6 percent on average. The income and expenditure of the basic medical insurance fund for non-working urban residents were RMB281.1 billion and RMB248 billion, respectively – RMB193.4 billion and RMB180.5 billion more than those of 2012. In 2017, government subsidies for basic medical insurance for non-working urban and rural residents are increased, with annual per capita subsidies at all levels reaching RMB450.

基本医疗保险待遇水平逐步提高。2016年,职工基本医疗保险和城镇居民基本医疗保险基金的最高支付限额分别达到当地职工年平均工资和当地居民年人均可支配收入的6倍,政策范围内住院费用基金支付比例分别为80%和70%左右。2017年,新型农村合作医疗门诊和住院费用的报销比例分别稳定在50%和70%左右。《国家基本医疗保险、工伤保险和生育保险药品目录(2017年版)》西药、中成药部分共收载药品2535个,比旧版目录增加339个,增幅约15%,基本涵盖了《国家基本药物目录(2012年版)》中的治疗性药品。对部分具有重大临床价值且价格高昂的专利独家药品,政府组织医保药品谈判,准入36个药品,治疗领域覆盖多种恶性肿瘤、部分罕见病及慢性病。新增部分医疗康复项目纳入基本医疗保险支付范围。

Basic medical insurance benefits have been improved. In 2016, the payment caps of the basic medical insurance for working urban residents and for non-working urban residents were six times local employees’ average salary of the year and local residents’ per capita disposable income of the year, respectively; inpatient reimbursement rates from basic medical insurance were about 80 percent and 70 percent, respectively. In 2017, outpatient and inpatient reimbursement rates from the new type of rural cooperative medical care scheme are about 50 percent and 70 percent, respectively. The National Medicine List for Basic Medical Insurance, Industrial Injury Insurance and Maternity Insurance (2017) includes 2,535 items of Western medicines and Chinese patent medicines, with 339 more medicines than those in the previous list, or an increase of 15 percent, almost including all therapeutic medicines in the National Essential Medicine List (2012). As for expensive patent medicines with high clinical value, the government organized talks on medicines covered by the insurance and added 36 items to the National Essential Medicine List (2012) for the treatment of malignant tumors, and some rare and chronic diseases. Some newly added rehabilitation treatments are now covered by basic medical insurance.

基本医疗保险支付方式改革有序推进。全国70%以上地区积极探索按病种付费、按人头付费、按疾病诊断相关分组(DRGs)付费等支付方式。加快推进基本医疗保险全国联网和异地就医直接结算工作,继续推广就医“一卡通”。截至2017年8月底,全国已基本实现参保人员统筹区域内医疗费用直接结算和省内异地就医住院费用直接结算。顺利开展跨省异地就医住院医疗费用直接结算联网接入工作,全国所有省份(含新疆生产建设兵团)、所有统筹地区已全部接入国家基本医疗保险异地就医结算系统,截至2017年8月底,开通6616家跨省异地就医住院医疗费用直接结算定点医疗机构。

Forms of reimbursements from basic medical insurance have been improved. More than 70 percent of regions in China are exploring new forms of payment from basic medical insurance, such as payment by a certain category of disease, by capitation or by Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs). The country has been building a national network of basic medical insurance, promoting cross-province real-time reimbursement from basic medical insurance, and the use of all-purpose card. By the end of August 2017, real-time reimbursements had been realized for all areas covered by basic medical insurance across the country; real-time reimbursements for cross-region inpatient medical expenses within the same province had been basically realized in the country. A national real-time reimbursement network for cross-province inpatient expenses has been put in place, and all provinces (including Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps) have joined the national network of cross-province reimbursement of basic medical insurance. By the end of August 2017, China had a total of 6,616 designated medical institutions for real-time reimbursements of cross-province inpatient expenses.

城乡居民大病保障机制不断完善。全面实施城乡居民大病保险,以解决大额医疗费用为切入点,不断完善和提高针对重特大疾病的医疗保障制度。截至2015年底,城乡居民大病保险已覆盖所有城乡居民基本医疗保险参保人。2016年,大病保险覆盖城乡居民超过10亿人,推动各省大病保险政策规定的支付比例达到50%以上,受益人员的实际报销比例提高10-15个百分点。

Serious illness insurance for urban and rural residents has been improved. China has implemented serious illness insurance for urban and rural residents, aiming to cover large medical expenses, and improve medical security for serious illnesses. By the end of 2015, serious illness insurance for urban and rural residents covered all recipients of basic medical insurance. In 2016, serious illness insurance covered more than 1 billion urban and rural residents; according to provincial policies, the serious illness insurance reimbursement rates shall be more than 50 percent, and the actual reimbursement ratio was raised by 10 to 15 percentage points.

医疗救助机制成效显著。医疗救助政策框架基本建立,医疗救助与城乡居民大病保险有效衔接,医疗救助标准和救助水平的城乡统一逐步实现。医疗救助对象范围从过去的城乡低保对象和特困人员,逐步拓展到贫困人口、低收入家庭成员和因病致贫家庭中的重病患者。各级工会积极组织开展职工医疗互助活动,对患重大疾病的职工进行帮扶,减轻患病职工经济负担。2016年,国家共安排155亿元医疗救助补助资金(不含疾病应急救助补助资金),其中92%的资金投向中西部地区和贫困地区,累计实施医疗救助8256.5万人次,资助困难群众参加基本医疗保险5560.4万人。被救助对象在年度救助限额内住院救助的比例普遍达70%以上。医疗救助服务更加便利可及,93%的地区实现了医疗救助与医疗保险费用“一站式”结算。2013年起,国家建立疾病应急救助制度,通过设立疾病应急救助基金,对需要紧急救治但身份不明或身份明确、无力支付医疗费用的患者进行救治。截至2017年6月,累计救助患者约64万人。

Medical assistance mechanisms have made marked progress. A medical assistance policy framework has been established; medical assistance programs dovetail nicely with serious illness insurance schemes; and medical assistance criteria and capacity have become consistent in both urban and rural areas. Medical assistance recipients have been expanded from subsistence allowance recipients and people in dire poverty to the poverty-stricken population, low-income household members and critically-ill patients in illness-stricken poor families. Trade unions at all levels have been organizing employees’ mutual aid for medical expenses, to help employees with serious illnesses and reduce their financial burden. In 2016, China appropriated RMB15.5 billion in medical assistance subsidies (excluding illness emergency assistance subsidies), 92 percent of which went to central and western regions, and poverty-stricken areas, assisted 82.565 million cases, and helped 55.604 million people with financial difficulties to receive basic medical insurance. The proportion of inpatient recipients within the annual limit exceeded 70 percent. Medical assistance services have become more convenient, as 93 percent of the country has realized one-stop reimbursement from medical assistance funds and basic medical insurance. In 2013, China set up an illness emergency assistance fund to help unidentified patients who need immediate treatment, or identified patients who cannot afford the related medical expenses. By June 2017, some 640,000 patients had received help from the fund.

农村贫困人口医疗保障水平逐步提高。2016年,国家开始实施健康扶贫工程。对农村贫困人口实现城乡居民医保、大病保险全覆盖,农村贫困人口政策范围内住院费用报销比例提高5个百分点。组织动员全国80多万工作人员,对因病致贫返贫家庭,精准调查核查发病率高、费用高、严重影响生产生活能力的93种重点病种,建立起健康扶贫工作台账和数据库。组织对患有大病和慢性病的农村贫困人口进行分类救治,截至2017年5月,全国已分类救治贫困患者260多万人。实行精准的大病保险倾斜性支付政策,对农村贫困人口在起付线、报销比例、封顶线等方面给予重点倾斜。推进农村贫困人口县域内住院先诊疗后付费和“一站式”即时结算。安排全国889家三级医院承担对口帮扶任务,对所有贫困县1149家县级医院实现帮扶全覆盖。

Medical security for the rural poverty-stricken population has been improved. In 2016, China started to implement poverty relief through healthcare. Now the rural poverty-stricken population is fully covered by both basic medical insurance and serious illness insurance for urban and rural residents. The inpatient reimbursement rates for the rural poverty-stricken population have been raised by more than five percentage points. China has mobilized over 800,000 medical workers to visit illness-and-poverty-stricken families, and investigate 93 major diseases with high occurrence, high treatment costs and severe impact on work and life, thereby keeping a record and setting up a database for poverty relief through healthcare. The country provides categorized treatment to rural poverty-stricken population suffering from serious illnesses and chronic diseases. By May 2017, China had given such treatment to over 2.6 million people. The country has adopted preferential policies favoring the rural poor with respect to reimbursement from serious illness insurance. China implements a policy of treatment before payment and one-stop reimbursement for rural poverty-stricken inpatients at county-level hospitals. In addition, China has designated 889 Grade III (top-level) hospitals to assist 1,149 county-level hospitals in all poverty-stricken counties across the country.

六、特定群体的健康水平显著进步

VI. Significant Improvement in the Health of Special Groups

中国高度重视保障妇女、儿童、老年人和残疾人等特定群体的健康权,不断完善卫生与健康规划,提供多元化和有针对性的健康服务,非歧视地均等满足各类群体的特殊需求。

The Chinese government attaches great importance to the protection of the right to health of special groups such as women, children, the elderly and the disabled. It constantly improves health programs, and provides diversified and targeted health services to meet the special needs of various groups in a non-discriminatory and equal manner.

妇幼保健服务体系不断健全。建立遍布城乡的三级妇幼卫生服务网络。2016年,国家投资29亿元支持247所市、县级妇幼保健机构建设。截至2016年底,全国共有妇幼保健机构3063个,妇产医院757个,儿童医院117个,妇产科和儿科执业(助理)医师37万人。在3.4万个社区卫生服务中心(站)、3.7万个乡镇卫生院、64万个村卫生室中均配有专兼职妇幼保健工作人员。

The maternal and child healthcare service system has been continuously improved. A three-level network of maternal and child healthcare service has been put in place in urban and rural areas. In 2016, the Chinese government invested RMB2.9 billion to support the construction of 247 city- and county-level maternal and child healthcare institutions. By the end of 2016, there were 3,063 such institutions, 757 maternity hospitals, 117 children’s hospitals, and 370,000 gynecologists, obstetricians and pediatricians, and assistants. Full-time and part-time maternal and child healthcare workers were available in 34,000 community health centers (stations), 37,000 town and township health centers and 640,000 village clinics.

妇女孕产期保健服务水平切实提升。2009年起,国家逐年扩大农村妇女宫颈癌和乳腺癌检查项目的覆盖面,受益人群不断增加。2009年至2016年,国家免费为1299个项目县的6000余万35岁至64岁农村妇女进行了宫颈癌检查,并专项投入资金226亿元,补助农村孕产妇7400余万人。农村孕产妇住院分娩率从2008年的92.3%提高到2016年的99.6%,农村孕产妇死亡率和婴儿死亡率大幅下降。国家安排补助资金,支持免费孕前优生健康检查项目,农村孕产妇住院分娩补助项目,增补叶酸预防神经管缺陷项目,预防艾滋病、梅毒和乙肝母婴传播项目等11项服务项目。《中国妇女发展纲要(2011-2020年)》目标不断实现。

Antenatal and perinatal care services have been upgraded. Since 2009, the Chinese government has been expanding year by year the coverage of cervical cancer and breast cancer screening programs in rural areas, and the number of beneficiaries has grown. Between 2009 and 2016, the government carried out free cervical cancer screening for more than 60 million rural women aged 35-64 in 1,299 project counties, and subsidized more than 74 million rural pregnant and lying-in women with a special investment of RMB22.6 billion. The rate of hospital deliveries for rural women increased from 92.3 percent in 2008 to 99.6 percent in 2016, and rates of maternal and infant mortality in rural areas decreased sharply. The government arranged subsidies for 11 programs, including free pre-pregnancy examinations for healthy childbirth, hospital deliveries for rural women, supplementary taking of folic acid by rural women to prevent neural tube defects, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B. The targets of the Program for the Development of Chinese Women (2011-2020) have been met one by one.

儿童健康水平显著提高。2013年,全国0-6个月婴儿纯母乳喂养率上升到58.5%,母乳喂养率不断提高。2016年,婴儿死亡率和5岁以下儿童死亡率分别为7.5‰和10.2‰,均提前实现联合国可持续发展目标和《中国儿童发展纲要(2011-2020年)》目标,与发达国家差距进一步缩小。2016年,5岁以下儿童低体重率、生长迟缓率、贫血患病率分别下降到1.49%、1.15%、4.79%,均提前实现《中国儿童发展纲要(2011-2020年)》目标。截至2016年底,全国创建30家国家级儿童早期发展示范基地。开展贫困地区儿童营养改善项目,为国家连片特殊困难地区的6-24月龄儿童每天提供1包富含蛋白质、维生素和矿物质的辅食营养补给品。2016年第五次中国儿童体格发育调查结果显示,最近40年,全国7岁以下儿童体格发育水平快速增长,已超过世界卫生组织颁布的儿童生长发育标准。

Children’s health has improved remarkably. In 2013, the pure breastfeeding rate of babies aged 0-6 months increased to 58.5 percent nationwide. The breastfeeding rate keeps growing. In 2016, infant mortality was 7.5 per thousand and that of children under five was 10.2 per thousand, both meeting the targets set in the UN Sustainable Development Goals and the Program for the Development of Chinese Children (2011-2020) ahead of schedule. This shows that the gap between China and developed countries is rapidly narrowing. In 2016, for children under five, the underweight and growth retardation rates, and anemia prevalence decreased to 1.49 percent, 1.15 percent and 4.79 percent, respectively – all meeting the targets set in the Program for the Development of Chinese Children (2011-2020) ahead of schedule. By the end of 2016, 30 state-level demonstration bases for children’s early development had been set up. The government has implemented a program of nutrition improvement for children in poverty-stricken areas, providing one pack of nutritional dietary supplements containing protein, vitamins and minerals every day for every baby aged 6-24 months in impoverished areas. According to the fifth survey of Chinese children’s physical development in 2016, in the past 40 years the physical development of children under seven improved rapidly, even higher than the child growth standards published by the WHO.

儿童疾病防治成果得到巩固。2016年,艾滋病母婴传播率下降到5.7%,新生儿破伤风发病率保持在1‰以下。儿童免疫规划疫苗接种率均保持在99%以上,继续保持无脊髓灰质炎状态,儿童肺结核报告发病率保持在较低水平。2016年,遗传代谢性疾病(苯丙酮尿症和先天性甲状腺功能减低症)筛查率达到96%,贫困地区新生儿疾病筛查项目实施范围已覆盖全国21个省(区、市)的354个县(市、区)。实施免费孕前优生健康检查、贫困地区新生儿疾病筛查、地中海贫血防控试点等重大公共卫生服务项目。

Children’s disease control has been consolidated. In 2016, the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV decreased to 5.7 percent, and the incidence of neonatal tetanus was less than 1 per thousand. Children’s vaccination rate under the national childhood vaccine program was more than 99 percent. The country remains polio-free, and has a low reported incidence of tuberculosis in children. In 2016, the screening rate of inherited metabolic diseases (phenylketonuria and congenital hypothyroidism) reached 96 percent, and the neonatal disease screening program for poor areas covered 354 counties (cities or districts) in 21 provinces (autonomous regions and centrally administered municipalities). The Chinese government has been carrying out major public healthcare service programs such as free pre-pregnancy examination for healthy childbirth, screening of neonatal diseases in poor areas, and pilot prevention and control of thalassemia.

老年人健康服务体系日趋完善。截至2015年底,全国建有康复医院453所、护理院168所、护理站65所,比2010年分别增加了69.0%、242.9%、16.1%;全国康复医院、护理院、护理站从业卫生人员分别为36441人、11180人、316人,比2010年分别增加了96.5%、286.7%、69.9%。2015年,国家为65岁及以上老年人体检达1.18亿人次,健康管理率达82%。老年人心理健康得到充分关注,国家和社会通过各种形式向老年人宣传心理健康知识、提供心理辅导,丰富老年人精神文化生活。

The healthcare service system for the elderly has improved. By the end of 2015, there were 453 rehabilitation hospitals, 168 nursing homes and 65 nursing stations around China, up by 69.0 percent, 242.9 percent and 16.1 percent, respectively from 2010. The number of health personnel working in the above three kinds of institutions was 36,441, 11,180 and 316, respectively, up by 96.5 percent, 286.7 percent and 69.9 percent from 2010. In 2015, the government offered 118 million medical examinations to senior citizens aged 65 or above, a health management rate of 82 percent. The mental health of the elderly has also attracted full attention. Governmental and social organizations publicize related knowledge and provide mental health counseling to the elderly, while working to enrich their cultural life.

医养结合服务模式深入推进。2016年在全国遴选确定90个市(区)为国家级医养结合试点单位。全国医养结合机构共有5814家,床位总数达121.38万张。其中,养老机构设立医疗机构3623家,医疗机构设立养老机构1687家,医养同时设立504家,有2224家纳入了医保定点范围。积极开展养老院服务质量建设专项行动,质量控制体系更加健全,医养结合机构的服务质量显著提升。

The combined medical and elderly care services have been promoted. In 2016, 90 cities (districts) were selected as state-level pilot units to provide combined medical and elderly care services. Across China, there were 5,814 institutions providing both services, with a total of 1.2138 million beds. Of these, 3,623 were nursing institutions for the elderly that have established medical facilities, 1,687 were medical institutions that have added care services for the aged, and 504 were institutions offering both services. In total, 2,224 were among designated medical insurance institutions. Special steps have been taken to improve services at these nursing institutions for the elderly; as a result, we have seen a sounder quality control system and better services at these institutions combining medical service and ordinary care service.

残疾预防与残疾人康复服务持续加强。2016年和2017年,国家分别颁布《国家残疾预防行动计划(2016-2020年)》和《残疾预防和残疾人康复条例》,残疾预防与残疾人康复工作纳入法治化发展轨道。2012年至2016年,全国共有1526万残疾人得到基本康复服务。截至2016年底,全国共有残疾人康复机构7858个,在岗人员22.3万人,947个市辖区和2015个县(市)开展社区康复工作,配备45.4万名社区康复协调员。自2017年起,国家将每年8月25日定为“残疾预防日”。

Disability prevention and rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities have improved. In 2016, the Chinese government published the National Action Plan on Disability Prevention (2016-2020), and in 2017, the Regulations on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, bringing the work onto the track of the rule of law. From 2012 to 2016, 15.26 million people with disabilities received basic rehabilitation services nationwide. By the end of 2016, there were 7,858 rehabilitation institutions for the disabled around China, with 223,000 employees; and 947 municipal districts and 2,015 counties (cities) provided community-based rehabilitation services, with 454,000 coordinators. August 25 is China’s Disability Prevention Day, as set in 2017.

残疾人康复体育的覆盖面逐步扩大。推进“十三五”残疾人体育基本公共服务。实施“由西向东”“自北向南”“先薄弱后发达”的地区引导政策,资助西部6省(区、市)康复体育进家庭项目8000户,撬动全国服务88884户,补贴新建社区健身示范点50个,撬动全国新建1842个。全国经常参加体育健身活动的残疾人比例提升至9.6%。

Rehabilitation sports for the disabled have been expanded to more areas. The Chinese government has been working to improve basic sports facilities for the disabled since the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020). It has implemented a region-based guidance policy by advancing from west to east, from north to south and from the underdeveloped to the more-developed areas. Under this policy framework, the government has funded six western provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) in introducing rehabilitation sports into 8,000 households, from which a national campaign started, offering services to 88,884 households. It also subsidized 50 communities in installing fitness facilities as demonstration sites, and subsequently 1,842 new ones were set up nationwide. Now people with disabilities who regularly participate in sports and fitness activities make up 9.6 percent of the national total, a percentage higher than before.

残疾孤儿得到特别关爱。2015年以来,国家将城乡低保对象、特困供养对象中具有手术适应症的病残儿童,以及社会散居孤残儿童纳入“明天计划”资助范围,参照福利机构内孤残儿童的救治政策和做法,实施医疗康复,数以万计的“明天计划”术后康复儿童融入了社会。福利机构内凡具备手术适应症的新增患儿都能在最佳治疗时机得到手术救治。截至2016年底,国家已投入资金8.6亿元,为9万多名残疾孤儿实施了手术矫治和康复训练。

Orphans with disabilities receive special care. Since 2015, the Chinese government has included sick and disabled children among urban and rural residents entitled to basic living allowances and people living in dire poverty and entitled to relief and support, and orphaned and disabled children who remain unsettled, in the Tomorrow Plan for Rehabilitation of Handicapped Orphans. In addition, it offers medical rehabilitation to these children with reference to treatment policies and practices of welfare institutions. Thanks to the Tomorrow Plan, tens of thousands of children have had operations and been integrated into society after recovery. At welfare institutions, all children with surgical indications who are new to these institutions are able to get surgery at the optimal opportunity for treatment. By the end of 2016, the country had invested RMB860 million in offering corrective operations and rehabilitation training to more than 90,000 orphans with disabilities.

七、积极参与全球健康治理和国际医疗援助

VII. Active Participation in Global Health Governance and International Medical Assistance

中国是医疗卫生领域国际合作的倡导者、推动者和践行者,始终致力于实现国际人口与发展大会行动纲领,全面落实联合国2030年可持续发展议程特别是健康领域可持续发展目标,积极开展对外医疗援助和全球应急处置,认真履行健康领域国际公约,勇于承担国际人道主义责任。

China advocates, promotes and carries out international medical and health cooperation. It is firmly committed to realizing the Program of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, and implementing the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, especially sustainable development goals relating to health. China actively provides medical aid to other countries, and promptly conducts global emergency responses. It earnestly implements international health conventions and shoulders its international humanitarian responsibilities.

参与医疗卫生国际规则体系建设。中国较早签署批准《世界卫生组织组织法》,加入《麻醉药品单一公约》《精神药物公约》,参与制定《阿拉木图宣言》等一系列国际条约、宣言,响应《儿童生存、保护和发展世界宣言》。2016年,在第69届世界卫生大会上,中国提出并推动通过“促进创新和获取安全有效可负担的优质儿童药品”决议,得到各方积极回应。

Taking part in the formulation of international medical and health rules. China was one of the first countries in the world to sign and approve the Constitution of the World Health Organization. It has joined the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. China has participated in the making of a series of international treaties and declarations, including the Declaration of Alma-Ata, and supported the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children. At the 69th World Health Assembly held in 2016, China raised and promoted the adoption of a resolution to “promote innovation and access to quality, safe, efficacious and affordable medicines for children,” getting positive responses from all sides.

与世界卫生组织开展深度合作。2016年,在北京签署发布《中国-世界卫生组织国家合作战略(2016-2020)》,确定卫生政策、规划、技术、人力资源等领域的合作。2017年,签署《关于“一带一路”卫生领域合作的谅解备忘录》《关于“一带一路”卫生领域合作的执行计划》,共同致力于与“一带一路”沿线国家在卫生应急、传染病防治、传统医学等领域的合作。

Carrying out in-depth cooperation with the WHO. In 2016, the China-WHO Country Cooperation Strategy (2016-2020) was signed in Beijing, defining cooperation in health policies, planning, technology and human resources. In 2017, the Memorandum of Understanding on the Belt and Road Health Cooperation Mechanism and the Implementation Plan on the Belt and Road Health Cooperation Mechanism were signed to promote cooperation in health emergency response, prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, and traditional medicine between countries along the Belt and Road.

国际医疗卫生交流合作不断扩大。中国与其他国家开展健康领域的经验共享和战略对话,每年举办多个医疗卫生服务领域的国际研讨会。2015年12月,在中非合作论坛约翰内斯堡峰会上宣布中非公共卫生合作计划,包括参与非洲疾控中心建设等重要举措。2016年10月,与埃塞俄比亚等15个亚非国家建立对口医院合作关系。2017年4月,与马拉维等非洲国家签署医药卫生合作协议。从2005年开始,中国已培训数千名来自发展中国家的官员和技术服务人员,推动中国民间组织在津巴布韦、肯尼亚等国家及湄公河地区开展青少年生殖健康和艾滋病预防的教育培训项目。

Extending international medical and health exchanges and cooperation. China conducts health experience sharing and strategic dialogue with other countries. It organizes a number of international medical and health seminars. In December 2015, cooperation plans on public health were announced at the Johannesburg Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, including participation in the construction of African Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other major initiatives. In October 2016, China built partnerships with counterpart hospitals in 15 Asian and African countries, including Ethiopia. In April 2017, China signed medical and health cooperation agreements with Malawi and other African countries. Since 2005, China has trained thousands of officials and technical personnel from developing countries, and encouraged its non-governmental organizations to develop education and training projects on adolescent reproductive health and AIDS prevention in Zimbabwe and Kenya, as well as the Greater Mekong Sub-region.

对外医疗卫生援助成绩卓著。1963年以来,中国先后向69个发展中国家派遣了援外医疗队,累计派出医疗队员2.5万人次,治疗患者2.8亿人次。2015年9月,中国在联合国系列峰会上宣布将在未来5年为发展中国家提供100所医院和诊所、实施100个“妇幼健康工程”等重大卫生援助举措。截至2017年6月,中国共有1300多名医疗队员和公共卫生专家在全球51个国家工作,在华培养了2万多名受援国际医疗卫生管理和技术人才,建设了综合医院、专科中心、药品仓库等150多个标志性设施,提供了急救车、诊疗仪器、疫苗冷链等多批医用物资,向非洲捐赠抗疟药品,挽救了4000万人的生命。自2008年起,中国为非洲国家设立了30个疟疾防治中心,提供价值1.9亿元的青蒿素类抗疟药品。

Making outstanding achievements in international medical and health assistance. Since 1963, China has sent teams totaling 25,000 medical workers to 69 developing countries. They have diagnosed and treated a total of 280 million cases. In September 2015, China announced at relevant United Nations summits that it would take major health assistance actions for developing countries in the five years to come, including the construction of 100 hospitals and clinics, and the implementation of 100 “maternal and child health projects.” By June 2017, more than 1,300 medical team members and public health experts from China were working in 51 countries, and over 20,000 health management and technical personnel had been trained in China for the recipient countries. It had built more than 150 facilities, including general hospitals, specialized centers and drug warehouses. China had provided batches of medical supplies to those countries including ambulances, diagnosis and treatment equipment, and vaccine cold chains. In the same period, it donated antimalarial drugs to Africa, saving 40 million lives. Since 2008, China has built 30 malaria prevention and treatment centers in Africa, and provided RMB190 million worth of artemisinin-based antimalarial drugs.

全球应急处置有效开展。中国达到《国际卫生条例》履约标准。积极引领国际应急救援行动,先后加入应对安哥拉、圭亚那的黄热病、寨卡病毒等疫情。2014年,西非暴发埃博拉出血热疫情,中国连续4轮向疫区国家和国际组织提供现汇和物资等援助,共计价值1.2亿美元。派遣1200多名医护人员和公共卫生专家赴疫区及周边国家,累计完成样本检测近9000份、留观诊疗病例900多例、培训1.3万名当地医疗护理和社区防控骨干。2015年,尼泊尔发生8.1级特大地震,中国先后协调安排4支共193人的中国政府医疗防疫队伍赴尼泊尔灾区开展救援,累计救治伤员2600多人次,培训卫生防疫技术骨干1000余人。

Effectively conducting global emergency response. China has met the requirements for implementing the International Health Regulations. It has been playing an active and leading role in international emergency rescue, and has participated in the fight against epidemics, including yellow fever and Zika virus disease in Angola and Guyana. After the outbreak of Ebola in West Africa in 2014, China provided assistance including cash and supplies to epidemic-stricken countries and international organizations on four consecutive occasions, with a total value of US$120 million. More than 1,200 Chinese medical personnel and public-health experts had been sent to epidemic-stricken areas and neighboring countries to complete nearly 9,000 sample tests, observe and treat over 900 cases and train 13,000 local people in medical care and community-based prevention and control. After an 8.1-magnitude earthquake hit Nepal in 2015, the Chinese government sent four medical and epidemic prevention teams with a total of 193 members to the disaster area to help relief efforts. A total of 2,600 cases were treated and more than 1,000 core members of health and epidemic prevention work were trained.

中医药的国际认同度持续提升。中医药已传播到全球183个国家和地区,成为中国与东盟、欧洲、非洲等地区和卫生组织合作的重要内容。“中医针灸”列入联合国教科文组织人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录,《黄帝内经》《本草纲目》入选世界记忆名录。据世界卫生组织统计,已有103个会员国认可使用针灸,其中29个设立了传统医学的法律法规,18个将针灸纳入医疗保险体系。

International recognition of TCM continuing to grow. Now, 183 countries and regions around the world have access to TCM. TCM has become an important part of China’s cooperation with regions and health organizations in ASEAN, Europe and Africa. TCM acupuncture and moxibustion have been recognized as important parts of the intangible heritage of mankind by UNESCO, and the Chinese medical classics Huangdi Neijing (Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor) and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica) have been included in the UNESCO Memory of the World. According to statistics from the WHO, 103 member states have authorized the use of acupuncture and moxibustion, of which 29 have established laws and regulations promoting traditional medicines, and 18 include acupuncture and moxibustion in their medical insurance systems.

结束语

Conclusion

中国共产党和中国政府切实尊重和保障人民健康权利,把维护人民健康作为治国理政的基本要务,实施了一系列利当前、惠长远的重大举措,中国健康事业取得了举世瞩目的伟大成就,为人类可持续发展做出了重要贡献。

The CPC and the Chinese government earnestly respect and protect people’s right to health, and consider safeguarding people’s health as a basic task of governance. Significant actions have been taken, aiming to benefit people both in the present and the future. China has achieved great success in health affairs, making an important contribution to the sustainable development of mankind.

“人生天地间,长路有险夷”。中国清醒地认识到,保障人民健康是一个系统工程,需要长时间的持续努力。当前,由于工业化、城镇化、人口老龄化,由于疾病谱、生态环境、生活方式不断变化,中国仍面临多重疾病威胁并存、多种健康影响因素交织的复杂局面;同时,随着生活水平提高和健康观念增强,人民群众对健康产品、健康服务的需求持续增长,并呈现出多层次、多元化、个性化的特征。中国既面对着发达国家面临的健康问题,也面对着发展中国家面临的健康问题。

“Between heaven and earth, man experiences both dangers and stability during the course of his lifetime.” We are keenly aware that safeguarding people’s health is a systematic project. It takes a long period of sustained efforts. At present, with the situation of the country’s industrialization, urbanization and aging population, as well as the changing disease spectrum, ecological environment and lifestyle, the Chinese people are still facing a complex situation in which multiple disease threats coexist and a variety of health factors are intertwined; meanwhile, with the improvement of living standards and enhancement of the concept of health of the people, public demand for health products and health services continues to grow, showing multi-level, diversified and individualized characteristics. Consequently, China is faced with health problems common to both developed and developing countries.

为了更好地保障人民群众的健康权,中国正在加紧推进健康中国建设,已制定实施《“健康中国2030”规划纲要》《全民健身计划(2016-2020年)》《“十三五”卫生与健康规划》《“十三五”深化医药卫生体制改革规划》等一系列规划纲要,并提出“三步走”的目标,即到2020年,建立覆盖城乡居民的中国特色基本医疗卫生制度,主要健康指标居于中高收入国家前列;到2030年,促进全民健康的制度体系更加完善,主要健康指标进入高收入国家行列;到2050年,建成与社会主义现代化国家相适应的健康国家。中国各级政府将继续以高度的责任感和紧迫感,努力全方位、全周期保障人民健康,奋力推动卫生与健康事业全面发展。

In order to better safeguard people’s right to health, we are speeding up the building of a heathy China. A series of plans and outlines have been made and implemented, including the “Healthy China 2030” Planning Outline, the National Fitness Program (2016-2020), the 13th Five-Year Plan for Medical and Health Service Development, and the Plan for Deepening Reform of the Medical and Healthcare System During the 13th Five-Year Plan Period (2016-2020). The Chinese government has put forward a “three-step” goal: a sound basic medical and healthcare system with Chinese characteristics will be established covering both urban and rural residents, with the main health indicators ranking in the forefront of the high- and middle-income countries by 2020; the health-promotion system will be improved, with the main health indicators in the ranks of the high-income countries by 2030; and a healthy China conforming to the requirements of a modern socialist country will be built by 2050. Governments at all levels will continue their work toward comprehensively safeguarding people’s health for the full life cycle, and promoting the overall development of medical and health services, with a high sense of responsibility and urgency.

健康是人类的永恒追求,健康促进是国际社会的共同责任。联合国2030年可持续发展议程将健康确定为重要可持续发展目标,全球健康体系正处于发展的重要时期。中国将一如既往地积极参加健康相关领域的国际活动,深入参与全球健康治理,大力落实健康领域可持续发展目标。通过配合“一带一路”建设,增进同沿线国家卫生与健康领域的合作,加强与世界各国的互学互鉴。在“共同构建人类命运共同体”的伟大进程中,中国愿与世界人民携起手来,为建设一个更加美好的健康世界而不懈努力。

Health is an eternal pursuit of mankind, and health promotion is the common responsibility of the world community. The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development has set healthy lives as a major sustainable development goal, and the development of the global health system is at a crucial stage. China will, as always, energetically participate in health-related international activities, take an active part in global health governance, and implement sustainable development goals in the public health sector. In its efforts to build the Belt and Road, China will enhance medical and health cooperation with countries along the route, and emphasize learning from and drawing on the experiences of other countries. In the great process of “jointly building a community with a shared future for mankind,” China is keen to join hands with people around the world in making unremitting efforts to build a better and healthier world.

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