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英语笔译:2015年国民经济和社会发展计划草案的报告


来源:新华网    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2015-03-19 08:10   点击: 次  

关于2014年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2015年国民经济和社会发展计划草案的报告

Report on the Implementation of the 2014 Plan for National Economic and Social Development and on the 2015 Draft Plan for National Economic and Social Development

——2015年3月5日在第十二届全国人民代表大会第三次会议上

Third Session of the Twelfth National People’s Congress, March 5, 2015

国家发展和改革委员会

National Development and Reform Commission

各位代表:

Fellow Deputies,

受国务院委托,现将2014年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2015年国民经济和社会发展计划草案提请十二届全国人大三次会议审议,并请全国政协各位委员提出意见。

The National Development and Reform Commission has been entrusted by the State Council to submit this report on the implementation of the 2014 plan and on the 2015 draft plan for national economic and social development to the Third Session of the Twelfth National People’s Congress (NPC) for your deliberation and for comments from the members of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).

一、2014年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况

I. Implementation of the 2014 Plan for National Economic and Social Development

去年以来,面对复杂多变的国际环境和艰巨繁重的国内改革发展稳定任务,各地区各部门在党中央国务院的正确领导下,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,按照宏观政策要稳、微观政策要活、社会政策要托底的总体思路,统筹稳增长、促改革、调结构、惠民生、防风险,认真执行十二届全国人大二次会议审议批准的2014年国民经济和社会发展计划,扎实做好各方面工作,经济社会发展在新常态下保持总体平稳。计划执行情况总体是好的。

Last year, in the face of a complex and volatile environment abroad and arduous and formidable tasks involving reform, development, and stability at home, all regions and government departments, under the correct leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the State Council, adhered to the general work guideline of making progress while ensuring stability; followed a general philosophy of keeping macro policies stable, making micro policies flexible, and meeting basic needs through social policies; and made coordinated efforts to ensure steady growth, advance reform, make structural adjustments, improve the standard of living, and guard against risks. We earnestly implemented the 2014 Plan for National Economic and Social Development approved at the Second Session of the Twelfth NPC, carried out our tasks in a sure and steadfast fashion, and achieved good results in all respects. Overall, we sustained steady economic and social development under a new normal and successfully implemented the plan for 2014.

(一)加强和改善宏观调控,经济保持平稳发展。创新完善宏观调控思路和方式,在区间调控基础上加强定向调控、结构性调控,经济运行处在合理区间。

1. We strengthened and improved macro-control and ensured steady economic performance.

We created new and improved ways of carrying out regulation at the macro level, took more targeted measures and enhanced structural adjustments on the basis of range-based regulation, and ensured that the economy performed within an appropriate range.

一是经济增速平稳。充分发挥消费的基础作用,实施扩大消费的综合性政策,社会消费品零售总额增长12%,信息、养老健康等服务消费快速发展。有效发挥投资的关键作用,启动实施生态环保、清洁能源、农业水利等重大工程,创新重点领域投融资机制,全社会固定资产投资增长15.3%,民间投资占固定资产投资(不含农户)比重提高到64.1%。积极发挥出口的支撑作用,着力稳定出口、增加进口,以美元计价的货物进出口总额增长3.4%,在国际市场的份额继续提升。最终消费支出、资本形成、净出口对经济增长的贡献率分别为51.2%、48.5%和0.3%。国内生产总值达到63.6万亿元,增长7.4%。

1) The economy grew steadily.

Fully leveraging the fundamental role of consumption in driving economic growth, we implemented a comprehensive range of policies aimed at boosting consumer spending. Total retail sales of consumer goods for the year rose by 12% and consumption in information, elderly care, health, and other service sectors grew rapidly. Making good use of the key role of investment, we launched major projects in ecological conservation and environmental protection, clean energy, agriculture, and water conservancy, and made innovations in the mechanisms for investment and financing in key areas. Total fixed-asset investment for the year rose by 15.3%, of which 64.1% came from nongovernmental sources (excluding rural households). Giving play to the supporting role of exports, we worked hard to stabilize exports while increasing imports. The total volume of US dollar-denominated imports and exports for the year rose by 3.4%, and our international market share continued to rise. Final consumption, capital formation, and net exports were responsible for 51.2%, 48.5%, and 0.3% of economic growth, respectively. The gross domestic product (GDP) reached 63.6 trillion yuan, an increase of 7.4% over the previous year.

二是就业形势稳定。坚持实施更加积极的就业政策,以改革促就业,以增长带就业,以政策保就业,突出抓好大学生就业创业、城镇失业人员和就业困难人员再就业,城镇新增就业1322万人,年末城镇登记失业率4.09%。

2) The employment situation remained stable.

We continued to implement a more proactive employment policy, relying on reform, economic growth, and sound policy measures to create and secure jobs. A particular emphasis was placed on supporting university and college graduates in finding jobs or starting their own businesses, and on providing job seeking assistance for urban residents who are unemployed or having difficulty finding jobs. An additional 13.22 million urban jobs were created throughout the year. The registered urban unemployment rate stood at 4.09% at the end of 2014.

三是价格水平涨幅较低。居民消费价格上涨2%。加强市场价格监管和反垄断执法,查处价格违法案件2.5万件,实施经济处罚44.7亿元。清理银行业金融机构不合理收费,减轻企业负担超过400亿元。

3) Price growth slowed.

The consumer price index (CPI) rose by 2% for the whole year. We tightened oversight over market prices and stepped up efforts to counter monopolistic pricing, dealing with 25,000 cases of pricing irregularities and imposing economic penalties of 4.47 billion yuan. We abolished a host of unreasonable charges and fees levied by banks and other financial institutions, saving enterprises more than 40 billion yuan.

四是财政金融等风险总体可控。加强和规范地方政府性债务管理,开展存量债务的清理甄别,推行地方政府债券自发自还试点,强化风险评估预警。以产能过剩行业、地方政府性债务、民间借贷、互联网金融等领域为重点,加强风险监测、评估和排查,防止出现区域性系统性金融风险。根据房地产市场形势变化,及时调整完善住房金融政策,优化金融服务。

4) Fiscal and financial risks remained at a controllable level.

We strengthened and standardized the management of local government debt, reviewed and screened outstanding debts, launched trials for local governments to issue their own bonds and repay their own debts, and strengthened risk assessment and early warning initiatives. Focusing on industries with overcapacity, local government debt, informal credit, and Internet banking, we intensified efforts to monitor, assess, and identify risks with a view to preventing regional and systemic financial risks. In response to fluctuations in the real estate market, we promptly adjusted and improved housing-related financial policies and improved related financial services.

(二)全面深化改革开放,着力激发市场活力。深入推进行政审批、财税、金融、投资、价格改革,加快教育、医药卫生等领域改革,为经济社会发展注入了新的活力和动力。

2. We comprehensively deepened reform and opening up and greatly invigorated the market.

We continued to carry out a range of reforms related to government review and approval, fiscal and tax systems, banking, investment, and pricing. We also increased the pace of reform in education as well as medical and healthcare services. These initiatives enabled us to inject new vitality and impetus into economic and social development.

一是行政审批制度改革继续深化。以投资和生产经营领域为重点,又取消和下放246项行政审批事项,提前完成减少1/3行政审批事项的目标任务。商事制度改革全面推进,新登记注册市场主体1293万户。

1) The reform of the government review and approval system was continued.

Focusing on investment, production, and business operation, we canceled or delegated to lower-level governments the process of government review and approval for 246 items, achieving ahead of schedule the goal of cutting the number of items requiring government review and approval by one third. In addition, we pushed forward comprehensive reforms in the business system, and the number of newly registered market entities for the year totaled 12.93 million.

二是财税金融改革积极推进。深化财税体制改革总体方案制定实施。营改增试点范围扩大到铁路运输、邮政、电信等行业,煤炭资源税由从量计征改为从价计征。政府购买服务管理办法制定出台。存款利率上浮区间扩大、期限档次简化。人民币汇率浮动区间拓宽,双向波动弹性增强。有序放开金融机构市场准入,5家民营银行获准筹建。沪港通试点正式启动。跨境贸易和投资人民币结算规模增大。

2) Fiscal, tax, and financial reforms were actively pushed forward.

We formulated and implemented an overall plan for deepening fiscal and tax structural reforms. We extended the trials of replacing business tax with VAT to the railway transportation, postal, and telecommunications services industries, and replaced the quantity-based resource tax on coal with a price-based one. We introduced new measures on the procurement of services by the government. We raised the upper limit on the floating range for deposit interest rates and reduced maturity brackets. We also widened the floating range of the RMB exchange rate, allowing it to float more freely. We methodically approached the lifting of restrictions on the establishment of financial institutions, and approved the establishment of five private banks. The trial-run of the Shanghai and Hong Kong Stock Connect was officially launched. The scale of RMB settlement in cross-border trade and investment increased.

三是投资体制改革实现新突破。项目核准制度改革迈出重要步伐。再次修订政府核准的投资项目目录,国家部门层面核准项目两年累计减少76%。外商投资项目由全面核准改为普遍备案和有限核准相结合,实行备案管理的超过95%。除敏感国家、敏感地区、敏感行业外,境外投资项目全部取消核准改为网上备案,核准项目占比不到2%。精简审批事项规范中介服务实行企业投资项目网上并联核准制度的工作方案出台。创新重点领域投融资机制鼓励社会投资的指导意见制定实施。铁路投融资体制改革积极推进。

3) Breakthroughs were made in the reform of the investment system.

Major steps were taken to reform the system for the review and approval of investment projects. Further revisions were made to the list of investment projects requiring government review and approval. The number of projects requiring approval at the ministerial level was cut by 76% over the past two years. The system of mandatory government review for all overseas-funded projects was replaced with a reporting-based system under which government review is only required in a limited number of cases. More than 95% of cases were only required to report to the government. With the exception of cases involving sensitive countries, regions, and industries, the requirement that overseas investment projects must be reviewed and approved by the government was replaced with new requirements under which projects only need to be reported online. The number of projects that required government review and approval accounted for less than 2% of the total. A work plan was introduced for reducing the number of items requiring government review and approval, regulating intermediary services for investment projects, and reviewing and approving enterprises’ investment projects online. Guidelines were formulated and implemented for revamping the systems of investment and financing in key sectors and encouraging nongovernmental investment. Positive headway was made in the reform of the investment and financing system for railways.

四是价格改革力度加大。放开了700多种医保目录内低价药品、非公立医疗机构医疗服务、电信业务资费等50项商品或服务价格。铁路货物运价改为政府指导价、实行上限管理,国铁货物统一运价再次提高。国内航线旅客运输基准票价由政府审批改为由航空公司按照政府制定的定价规则自行确定。新疆棉花、东北和内蒙古大豆目标价格改革试点启动。在深圳市和内蒙古西部电网开展输配电价改革试点。推行居民生活用水、用气阶梯价格,调整了非居民用存量天然气价格。

4) Pricing reform was intensified.

We lifted price controls over more than 700 low-priced medicines covered by medical insurance as well as 50 goods and services in other sectors, such as medical services provided by non-public medical institutions and telecommunications services. Railway freight transport prices were changed from being set by the government to being guided by the government and a ceiling was imposed. Unified national railway freight transport prices were raised once again. Benchmark passenger transport prices on domestic air lines were changed from being reviewed and approved by the government to being determined by airline companies in accordance with state pricing rules. We launched pilot projects of guaranteed base prices for cotton produced in Xinjiang and soybeans in northeast China and Inner Mongolia. We carried out trial reforms for the pricing of electricity transmission and distribution on power grids in Shenzhen and western Inner Mongolia. We introduced tiered pricing for residential water and gas consumption and adjusted the price of non-residential natural gas for use that was within 2013 levels.

五是国有企业改革探索推进。中央管理企业负责人薪酬制度改革意见出台。中央企业改组国有资本投资公司、发展混合所有制经济、建设规范董事会等改革试点推出。国有企业兼并重组继续推进。

5) Progress was made in the reform of State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs).

Guidelines for reforming the remuneration system for executives in central government enterprises were introduced. Pilot reforms were launched to reorganize central government enterprises as state-owned asset investment companies, develop a mixed-ownership economy, and standardize the boards of directors in central government enterprises. Further progress was made in the merging and reorganization of SOEs. (More)

六是社会领域改革有序展开。全面推进公务用车制度改革指导意见出台并在中央和国家机关率先实施。信用体系建设规划颁布实施,部门间信用信息共享和失信行为联合惩戒机制进一步健全。不动产统一登记制度建设取得重要进展。考试招生制度改革积极推进。机关事业单位养老保险制度改革方案顺利出台。大部分省份建立了医疗保险省内异地就医结算系统,县级公立医院综合改革试点覆盖50%以上的县(市)。

6) Social reforms proceeded in an orderly fashion.

Guidelines for comprehensive reform of the system for the use of official vehicles were formulated, and were implemented first in the bodies of the CPC Central Committee and central government. Plans for a system of public credit records were promulgated and implemented, and mechanisms to enable different departments to share credit information and take joint punitive actions against those who act in bad faith were improved. Significant progress was made in the establishment of a unified registration system for immovable property. The reform of the school examination and enrollment systems was vigorously promoted. The plan for old-age insurance reform in Party and government bodies and public institutions was promulgated as expected. The majority of China’s provincial-level administrative areas have established systems enabling residents to settle medical bills incurred in any locality within that jurisdiction via their medical insurance accounts. Trials for the comprehensive reform of county-level public hospitals have been extended to over 50% of counties or county-level cities throughout the country.

七是对外开放展现新局面。“一带一路”战略开始实施,周边基础设施互联互通积极推进,沿边和内陆开放继续扩大。上海自由贸易试验区试点取得可复制可推广经验。利用外资质量提升、结构优化,非金融类实际使用外商直接投资1196亿美元,增长1.7%,服务业实际利用外资比重提升到55.4%。着力推进国际产能合作与中国装备“走出去”,铁路、电力、通信、能源等“走出去”项目取得积极成果,非金融类境外直接投资1029亿美元,增长14.1%。双向投资并驾齐驱格局初步形成。

7) A new phase of reform and opening up has been initiated.

The strategy of developing the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road entered the implementation phase, the construction of infrastructure was strengthened with a view to achieving better connectivity with neighboring countries, and the opening up of markets in border areas and inland areas was expanded. The operation of the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone yielded transferable experience that can be replicated in other reform projects. The utilization of foreign capital was enhanced in terms of both quality and structure. Non-financial foreign direct investment actually utilized in 2014 totaled US$119.6 billion, up 1.7% year on year. The proportion of foreign investment utilized in the service sector reached 55.4% of the total. Efforts were redoubled to promote international cooperation on production capacity and encourage Chinese equipment to “go global,” and good progress was made in initiatives to promote Chinese rail transit equipment, electricity generation, telecommunications, and energy on the international market. China’s non-financial outward direct investment reached US$102.9 billion for the year, up 14.1%. A pattern of synchronous growth in inward and outward investment began to take shape.

(三)加快产业结构调整,大力推进经济转型升级。充分发挥市场机制作用,加强政策引导,加快发展方式转变,促进产业结构优化升级。

3. We accelerated industrial structural adjustment and vigorously promoted economic transformation and upgrading.

Through exerting market forces and enhancing policy guidance, we sped up the transformation of the economic growth model and gave new impetus to the improvement and upgrading of the industrial structure.

一是自主创新有新突破。研究与试验发展经费支出与国内生产总值之比2.09%,企业研发经费支出占全社会支出的比例超过76%。“天河二号”、超级杂交水稻、“嫦娥”工程、卫星应用、载人深潜等重大创新成果世人瞩目。生物、智能制造装备、海洋工程装备、支线客机、移动互联网、宽带网络设备等领域突破一批关键核心技术和产业化瓶颈,云计算、物联网、大数据等战略性新兴产业发展迅速,微创新、众创等创新创业模式蓬勃兴起。高技术制造业增加值增长12.3%,比规模以上工业快4个百分点。

1) New breakthroughs were made in innovation.

Spending on R&D as a percentage of GDP reached 2.09% in 2014, with corporate R&D spending accounting for over 76% of the total. Cutting-edge innovations such as the Tianhe-2 supercomputer, super-hybrid rice, the Chang’e lunar lander, satellite applications, and the deep-sea manned submersible Jiaolong captured global attention. Breakthroughs were made in a number of key and core technologies and industrial applications, covering the fields of biology, intelligent manufacturing equipment, ocean engineering equipment, regional airliners, mobile Internet, and broadband network equipment. There was rapid development in strategic emerging industries, such as cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and big data. Micro-innovation, crowd innovation, and other innovative and entrepreneurial models showed robust growth. The value-added of the high-tech manufacturing sector rose by 12.3%, four percentage points higher than that of industrial enterprises with annual revenue of 20 million yuan or more from their main business operations.

二是传统产业转型升级积极推进。企业技术改造深入展开。重点产业布局调整和产业转移步伐加快。化解产能过剩有序展开,年初确定的15个重点行业淘汰落后产能任务完成,产能盲目扩张得到遏制。煤炭行业脱困取得阶段性成效。

2) Good headway was made in transforming and upgrading traditional industries.

The technological upgrading of enterprises in traditional industries was carried out vigorously. Initiatives to adjust the distribution of key industries and relocate industries gathered pace. Steady progress was made in the elimination of excess production capacity. Tasks set out at the beginning of last year to eliminate excess production capacity in 15 key industries were completed as planned, effectively curbing the blind expansion of production capacity. Important gains were made in turning the coal industry around.

三是服务业增长保持良好势头。新业态、新模式蓬勃发展,文化创意和设计服务与相关产业融合发展,物流业发展中长期规划和三年行动计划出台。第三产业(服务业)增加值30.7万亿元,增长8.1%,占国内生产总值比重达到48.2%,超过第二产业5.6个百分点。

3) The service sector sustained rapid growth.

New business types and models displayed robust development. Cultural and creative industries and design services were further integrated with related industries, and a mid-to-long-term development plan and three-year action plan were introduced for the logistics industry. The value-added of tertiary industry (the service sector) amounted to 30.7 trillion yuan, increasing by 8.1% over the previous year and accounting for 48.2% of the GDP, 5.6 percentage points higher than that of secondary industry.

四是基础产业和基础设施快速发展。综合交通运输体系进一步完善,全国铁路营业里程和高速公路通车里程双双突破11万公里。新增7个国家级互联网骨干直联点,又有近3000万个家庭实现光纤到户。水电总装机突破3亿千瓦,页岩气、煤层气和深海油气勘探开发取得重大进展。规划建设的172项重大水利工程,已开工建设57项。南水北调中线一期工程通水,京津冀等地6000万群众喝上了长江水。

4) Basic industries and infrastructure developed quickly.

The country’s comprehensive transportation system was further improved, with the total length of railway lines and expressways open to traffic both exceeding 110,000 kilometers. National internet backbone access points were built in seven more cities, and fiber optic broadband was made available to another 30 million households or so. The installed capacity of hydropower facilities nationwide exceeded 300 million kilowatts. Major progress was made in the exploration and exploitation of coal seam gas, shale gas, and deep-water oil and gas. Construction began on 57 of 172 major water conservancy projects that have been planned. The first phase of the central route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project was put into operation, providing drinking water from the Yangtze River to 60 million residents in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

(四)夯实农业农村发展基础,促进城乡区域协调发展。积极发展现代农业,扎实推进以人为核心的新型城镇化,优化经济发展空间格局,城乡区域协调发展迈出新的步伐。

4. We bolstered the foundations of agricultural and rural development and made advances toward balanced development between urban and rural areas and between regions.

Throughout the year we vigorously developed modern agriculture, steadily promoted a new type of people-centered urbanization, optimized the spatial planning of economic development, and took new steps in balancing development between urban and rural areas and between different regions.

一是农业农村发展态势良好。继续加大“三农”投入,支持农业基础设施建设。引导土地经营权有序流转,农村承包耕地流转比例达到30%左右。农业环境突出问题治理总体规划、生态保护与建设示范区实施意见、国有林场改革方案和国有林区改革指导意见制定完成。粮食总产量达到6.07亿吨,实现“十一连增”。肉蛋奶、果蔬鱼等农副产品生产稳定。解决6600多万农村人口饮水安全问题,改造农村危房266万户,农村贫困人口减少1232万人。

1) Agriculture and rural areas showed good development momentum.

Investment related to agriculture, rural areas, and farmers was further increased, and the development of agricultural infrastructure was supported. We oversaw the orderly transfer of land operation rights, leading to the transfer of around 30% of contracted land-use rights in rural areas. We formulated an overall plan to control serious agricultural environmental pollution, guidelines on establishing demonstration zones for ecological conservation and improvement, a plan to reform state forestry farms, and guidelines on reforming state forestry areas. Total grain output grew for the 11th consecutive year, reaching 607 million metric tons. Production of agricultural and sideline products, including meat, eggs, milk, fruit, vegetables, and fish, remained stable. We guaranteed the provision of safe drinking water for over 66 million more rural residents, renovated dilapidated houses for 2.66 million rural households, and reduced the number of rural population living in poverty by 12.32 million.

二是新型城镇化积极稳妥推进。国家新型城镇化规划及户籍制度改革、“三个1亿人”实施方案等配套政策出台实施,包括2个省和62个城市(镇)的国家新型城镇化综合试点启动,城市规模划分标准优化调整。常住人口城镇化率为54.77%,户籍人口城镇化率预计为36.7%。

2) A new type of urbanization was advanced in an active yet prudent way.

We issued and implemented a national plan on a new type of urbanization, and carried out supporting policies such as a plan to reform the household registration system and a scheme for fulfilling the three tasks, each concerning 100 million people: granting urban residency to around 100 million people who have moved to cities from rural areas, rebuilding run-down areas and “villages” inside cities where around 100 million people live, and guiding the process of urbanization of around 100 million rural residents in the central and western regions. Comprehensive trials for a new type of urbanization were launched in two provinces and 62 cities or towns. Standards for classifying cities based on their population were fine-tuned. The percentage of the population residing permanently in urban areas was 54.77%. The percentage of the population registered as permanent urban residents is estimated to have reached 36.7%.

三是区域发展协调性增强。“三大战略”布局加快展开。推进“一带一路”建设的有关规划编制完成,各领域务实合作有序展开。京津冀协同发展区域功能定位和规划纲要确定,交通一体化、生态环保、产业升级转移三个重点领域率先突破积极推进。依托黄金水道推动长江经济带发展的指导意见和长江经济带综合立体交通走廊规划颁布实施。西部大开发新开工重点工程33项、总投资8353亿元,西部地区鼓励类产业目录发布实施。近期支持东北振兴若干重大政策举措的意见出台,资源枯竭城市转型取得阶段性成果。中部地区“三基地、一枢纽”建设深入推进,“两横两纵”空间发展格局得到优化。东部地区经济转型加快,在全国经济发展中继续发挥引领作用。对革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区、贫困地区特别是集中连片特殊困难地区的支持力度加大。

3) Regional development became more balanced.

We accelerated the implementation of the “Three Major Strategies”: the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road (“One Belt and One Road” strategy); the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region; and the development of the Yangtze River economic belt. We finalized plans for advancing the “One Belt and One Road” strategy, steadily launching pragmatic cooperation in a wide range of areas. We completed the functional zoning of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and established the plan for its coordinated development, and made initial breakthroughs in three key areas of integrated transportation, environmental protection, and industrial upgrading and relocating. We issued and implemented guidelines on stimulating the development of the Yangtze River economic belt, which revolve around making use of the Yangtze’s role as a golden waterway, and launched the plan to build an integrated multidimensional transportation corridor along the Yangtze River economic belt. A total of 33 key projects for the large-scale development of China’s western region were launched, representing a total investment of 835.3 billion yuan; and a list of industries encouraged for development in the western region was released and put into effect. Guidelines concerning a number of major policies and measures to support the revitalization of northeast China in the near future were issued, and progress was made in the transformation of cities once dependent on resources that are now depleted. Continued efforts were made to establish the central region as a national integrated transport hub and as a center for production of grain, energy, and raw materials, and the development of modern equipment manufacturing and high-tech industries. The regions’ developmental layout consisting of two east-west and two north-south economic belts was further improved. The economic transformation of the eastern region gained momentum, and continued to spur on the development of the Chinese economy. Increased economic support was provided for old revolutionary base areas, ethnic minority areas, border areas, poor areas, and especially contiguous areas with acute difficulties.


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