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世行行长金镛在俄罗斯总统国民经济和公共管理学院的演讲


来源:WORLD BANK    作者:天之聪教育   时间:2013-02-17 10:51   点击: 次  


 
“What’s Next for Russia’s Economic Future and Global Role?” - Lecture by World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim
“未来的俄罗斯经济及其全球角色是怎样的?” ——世界银行行长金镛的演讲
 
World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim
世界银行行长金镛
 
Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration
俄罗斯总统国民经济和公共管理学院
 
Moscow, Russian Federation
莫斯科,俄罗斯联邦
 
February 14, 2013
2013年2月14日

 
Introduction
引言
 
Thank you, Professor Mau, distinguished faculty members and students.
 
毛教授、尊敬的老师和同学们,谢谢你们。
 
I am honored to speak to you today here at the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration.  Thank you for inviting me.
 
今天在俄罗斯总统国民经济和公共管理学院发表演讲,我深感荣幸。谢谢你们对我的邀请。
 
As a former president of an Ivy League School, Dartmouth College, home of the outstanding Tuck School of Business, I feel very much at home in this academic environment and highly value the work you do here at RANEPA in educating the next generation of Russian professionals.
 
我曾担任美国一所常青藤学校——达特茅斯学院——的校长,所以今天在这个学术环境里我非常自在。我也知道你们在俄罗斯总统国民经济和公共管理学院(RANEPA)为培养下一代俄罗斯专业人士所做的工作意义重大。
 
Today, I would like to challenge you – the students of RANEPA – to build on the great Russian traditions of intellectual curiosity to solve the challenges your country will face in the 21st Century.
 
今天,我想向你们——RANEPA的同学们——提出一个挑战:请你们发挥俄罗斯勤于思考的传统,解决你们的国家在21世纪将面临的各种挑战。
 
My challenge to you is to look ahead to the next 50 years in Russia and ask yourself the question, “What’s Next?”  More specifically, I ask you to think about this question: “What’s next for Russia’s economic future and its role in the global community?”
 
我对你们的挑战是:着眼于未来50年的俄罗斯,问你自己这样一个问题:“下一步怎么做?”更具体的,我请你们考虑这个问题:“如何发展未来的俄罗斯经济?俄罗斯在世界上应发挥怎样的作用?”
 
Tomsk Shows the Way on TB Fight
托木斯克的经验指出了战胜结核病的途径
 
First, let me just say that it is good to be back in Russia.
 
首先,我要说说为什么我很高兴再次回到俄罗斯。
 
Some of you may know that my commitment to Russia goes back 15 years, to when I worked in Siberia starting in the late 1990s.  I know your country, I admire your intellectual history, and I care about your people. 
 
你们当中一些人可能知道我在俄罗斯的工作可以追溯到15年以前——从90年代后期开始,我在西伯利亚开展了一些工作。我了解你们的国家,我钦佩你们的思想文化历史,我也关心你们的人民。
 
In 1987, I helped found Partners in Health, a non-profit organization that uses a community-based approach to health care and now is working in 12 countries around the world.
 
1987年,我推动成立了“健康伙伴”组织,这是一个用基于社区的办法开展医疗保健服务的非盈利组织,现在它在世界上12个国家开展工作。
 
In the 1990s, our group started working with Russian authorities in Tomsk Oblast, helping combat an epidemic of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
 
在90年代,我们这个组织开始与俄罗斯有关部门在托木斯克州开展合作,帮助当地抗击耐多药结核病的流行。
 
I am delighted that Oksana Ponomarenko, who is in charge of the Partners in Health project in Tomsk, is with us here today.
 
我非常高兴的是,负责“健康伙伴”组织托木斯克项目的奥克萨纳·波诺马仁科今天也在座。
 
This fight against TB in Tomsk is hard work. But, in the end, the collaboration between Russian experts and international partners brought the epidemic under control. What’s more, this collaboration generated scientific findings and delivery innovations that have gone on to strengthen practice in other settings around the world.
 
在托木斯克抗击结核病是一项非常困难的工作,但最终俄罗斯专家与国际伙伴的协作使这一流行病得到了控制。不仅如此,通过这一协作项目,我们还获得了一些科学发现,在提供医疗服务方面进行了创新,这对后来在世界其他地区的工作有很大帮助。
 
In Tomsk, the ministry, the doctors, the nurses, and especially the patients committed themselves to achieving results. They showed that by respecting science and building a good health system you could break the back of a severe and dangerous form of TB. The policymakers examined the overwhelming evidence of success from the project, they accepted it, and applied that approach to their fight against TB.
 
在托木斯克项目中,卫生部、医生、护士、尤其是病人,都致力于取得良好的结果。他们尊重科学,建立了可以战胜这种严重且危险的结核病的医疗体系。决策者们审核了关于项目成果的有力证据,认可了项目的成功,并将项目的方法用于他们自己抗击结核病的工作。
 
Today, the patient-centered approach in Tomsk has been replicated in other parts of the Russian Federation, such as Novosibirsk, Voronezh, and Saratov Oblasts.
 
现在,托木斯克开创的这种以病人为中心的方法已经在俄罗斯联邦的其他地方加以复制,如新西伯利亚、沃罗涅日、萨拉托夫等州。
 
Partners in the Tomsk program have led training sessions for hundreds of clinicians, nurses and research staff across Russia.
 
参与托木斯克项目的合作伙伴为来自俄罗斯各地的数百名门诊医生、护士和研究人员举行了培训。
 
That’s not all. The research findings in Tomsk helped inform new global guidelines for treatment of multidrug-resistant TB in 2006. What happened in Tomsk helped to change the way the world thinks about this disease, and it has helped save hundreds of thousands of lives.
 
项目的影响不限于此。通过托木斯克项目得出的研究成果还为2006年全球耐多药结核病治疗指南的编写提供了参考。托木斯克开展的工作改变了国际上对这一疾病的认识,也拯救了成千上万人的生命。
 
Local success, as shown in Tomsk, can be scaled up and become part of a global solution.  I believe this is how we can tackle some of the world’s most difficult problems. As our TB project has shown, Russia can achieve extraordinary progress for its own people as well as for the international community, if it puts dedicated people on the job and finds the right partners to support them.
 
在一个地方取得的成功可以被推广扩大,成为全球性解决方案的一个组成部分。托木斯克的经验就说明了这一点。我认为我们可以用这种办法来解决世界上最为困难的一些问题。我们的结核病项目说明,只要让那些专注于工作的人负责相关工作,并找到合适的伙伴向他们提供支持,俄罗斯就可以为自己的国民、也为国际社会取得非凡的成就。
 
Perhaps most importantly, the Tomsk experience showed that Russia, with history that dates back to the year 862, with its giants through the ages in literature, the arts, sports, and science, is continuing to generate innovations that can solve today’s toughest problems.
 
可能最重要的一点是,托木斯克的经验表明,历史悠久、最早可追溯到公元862年的俄罗斯,不仅历史上在文学、艺术、体育运动和科学领域出现了诸多卓越人物,而且今天也在继续为解决世界上最为棘手的问题做出各种创新。
 
Continuous learning is at the heart of these solutions. As an old Russian proverb says, “There is no shame in not knowing; the shame lies in not finding out.”
 
This phrase captures the restless questioning and drive to expand knowledge that have characterized Russian science and culture at their best.
 
持续不断的学习是解决这些问题的核心。正如俄罗斯古谚所说:“不知不为耻;耻在不学不问。”这个谚语抓住了不懈追求新知的精神,而这种精神正是俄罗斯辉煌的科学文化成就的精髓。
 
What Next for Russia’s Economic Future?
如何发展未来的俄罗斯经济?
 
The faculty and the students here today can attest to the fact that Russia is known worldwide for its educational system, for pushing the boundaries of science, and for applying what we call the “science of delivery” to many issues.
 
今天在座的各位师生都是很好的证据,说明俄罗斯有享誉世界的教育体系,不断探求科学的最前沿,并将我们称为“交付科学”的知识应用于很多实际问题。
 
Knowledge, said Anton Chekhov, “is of no value unless you put it into practice.”
 
安东·契诃夫曾说过:“不用于实践的知识毫无价值。”
 
The challenge for those of you at RANEPA is how you can harness these great Russian academic traditions and apply them to the challenges your country will face in your lifetime.
 
对RANEPA的师生来说,你们要做的就是继承俄罗斯的伟大学术传统,解决你们所处的这个时代俄罗斯面临的这种挑战。
 
As I have traveled around the world as president of the World Bank, I have been very impressed at how many countries such as China and South Korea are thinking hard about their future and are constantly re-evaluating their strategy for the next five, ten and even 50 years.  Even though their growth in recent decades has been the envy of other countries, they are not sitting still. Instead, they are asking themselves the question, “What next?”
 
作为世界银行行长,我常在世界各地访问。我注意到很多国家——如中国和韩国——都在努力思考他们的未来,并不断调整他们在今后5年、10年、甚至50年的发展战略。这给我留下了很深的印象。尽管他们最近几十年的经济增长让其他国家艳羡,但他们并没有在成绩面前止步,而是不断地自问:“下一步怎么做?”
 
Given the challenges of globalization, every country needs to be asking itself this question – and Russia is no exception.
 
鉴于全球化带来的各种挑战,每个国家都需要向自己提出这个问题——俄罗斯也不例外。
 
Russia’s growth in the 2000s was impressive – but what happens in 20 to 25 years when the tap on the country’s oil pipeline starts to run dry or if no new fields are discovered?  What is the strategy for replacing oil and gas that currently account for two-thirds of the country’s exports?  What is next?
 
俄罗斯在2000年代的增长令人瞩目——但20-25年以后、国家现有输油管线的石油开始耗竭或是不再有新油田可供开采的时候又该怎么办呢?用什么来替代现在占总出口三分之二的石油和天然气?下一步怎样做?
 
Diversification Through Competitiveness
通过增强竞争力推动经济多元化
 
Just a few months ago, Prime Minister Medvedev talked about the need for Russia’s economy to diversify from – quote - “a raw-material dependent economy to an innovation-based economy” - End quote.
 
就在几个月前,梅德韦杰夫总理谈到俄罗斯的经济需要多元化发展,用他的话说就是“从一个依赖原材料的经济转变为一个以创新为基础的经济。”
 
We could not agree more.
 
对这一观点我们再同意不过。
 
In fact, the World Bank is advising Tomsk regional authorities on how to transform by 2025 a region that is driven mainly by extracting natural resources to one that extracts and applies global knowledge to pressing challenges.
 
实际上,世界银行正在为托木斯克地方当局出谋划策,力争到2025年将这个主要依靠开发自然资源的地区转变为一个通过开发和应用来自全球的知识应对迫切挑战的地区。
 
In Russia, as in all countries in the world, we strongly believe that the government has to unleash the growth potential of the economy.  For Russia, this means a better business climate that can pull in more private investment, and higher competitiveness leading to the diversification of the economy away from oil and gas.
 
在俄罗斯——和世界上所有国家一样,我们认为政府必须采取措施来释放经济增长的潜力。对俄罗斯来说,这意味着建立更好的营商环境以便吸引更多私人投资,同时要增强竞争力,以便减少对油气资源的依赖,促进经济多元化。
 
Our experience around the world shows us that when you put in place a better business climate, it clears the way for companies and individuals to innovate and for entrepreneurs to start new businesses.
 
我们在世界各地的经验表明,如果营商环境得到改善,就可以为企业和个人进行创新、创业者开办新企业扫清道路。
 
Russia made some gains last year in the rankings of the World Bank Group’s Doing Business report – but more can be done.
 
去年俄罗斯在世界银行集团《营商环境报告》中的排名有所提高,但还有很大的改善空间。
 
That is why we welcome President Putin’s goal of rapidly improving the investment climate so that Russia becomes one of the most business-friendly economies in the world by 2018.
 
正因为如此,我们非常欢迎普京总统所提出的迅速改善投资环境、到2018年使俄罗斯成为全球营商最为便捷的经济体之一的目标。
 
The question for you as RANEPA graduate students is – how can you be part of this and how can an economy like Russia’s become more diversified?
 
对在座的国民经济和公共管理学院的学生来说,问题就是——你怎样为实现这一目标而努力?俄罗斯的经济又该如何实现多元化?
 
Signs of Success in Russia’s Regions
俄罗斯各地区的成功范例
 
One good place to start changing the future and ensuring that Russia’s prosperity is widely shared is in Russia’s regions.
 
要想改变未来,确保俄罗斯的繁荣得到广泛分享,我们可以先来看一下俄罗斯各个地区的经验。
 
As President Putin said in his December annual address to the Russian Federal Assembly, there are extremely high differences between regional incomes in Russia.  People’s lives reflect this disparity – the average Muscovite lives to be 74 years old but a child growing up in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug can only expect to live to 58.4 years.
 
正如普京总统在12月对俄罗斯联邦议会所作的国情咨文中所说,俄罗斯各地区之间存在非常大的收入差异。人们的寿命也反映出这种差异——莫斯科市民的平均寿命是74岁,而一个在楚科奇自治区长大的孩子预期寿命只有58.4岁。
 
I met this morning with governors from several of Russia’s regions to discuss the challenges they face in improving the lives of their citizens.  The development issues they cited sounded similar to those faced in other upper-middle-income countries we work with.
 
今天上午我与俄罗斯一些地方领导人会面,讨论他们在改善人民生活的过程中所面临的挑战。他们所谈到的发展议题与其他上中等收入国家非常相似。
 
After having worked in Tomsk against the rise of TB, I believe that if Tomsk can partner with others and use its knowledge to solve local problems, other oblasts can do it as well.
 
我本人在托木斯克的工作经验告诉我,如果托木斯克州可以与其他机构开展伙伴合作,运用它们的知识解决本地的问题,那么其他州也可以做得到。
 
In fact, during the past few years of working in Russia’s regions, the World Bank Group has seen many promising stories of success from all over this vast country.
 
实际上,过去几年世界银行在俄罗斯这片辽阔土地上的很多地区开展的工作中,已经涌现了一些前景看好的成功例子:
 
· In four Russian regions, we have helped introduce international best practices of Local Initiative Support Programs and participatory decision-making.  So far, the project has helped 90,000 people through 700 micro-projects in Stavropol Krai, and the Kirov, Tver, and Nizhegorodskaya oblasts.
 
·在四个地区,我们帮助引入了关于“地方倡议支持计划”和参与式决策的国际最佳实践。迄今为止,这个项目已经通过在斯塔夫罗波尔边疆区以及基洛夫、特维尔和下诺夫哥罗德三个州的700个微项目使9万多人受益。
 
· We helped 30 Russian regions establish a baseline from which they can work to improve their business environment conditions, compare their respective performances and learn from one another's practical experiences in making it easier and less costly for small businesses to register and operate.
 
·我们帮助俄罗斯的30个地区建立了改善营商环境的基线,他们可以用这个基线来衡量自己取得的进展,并相互学习经验,使小企业可以更容易地、以更低成本进行登记和运作。
 
· In St. Petersburg, the World Bank Group advised the city government on the country’s first Public-Private Partnership at the Pulkovo Airport that brought in 1.2 billion euros in private investment.  In 2011, the project won an award for the “global Public-Private Partnership deal of the year” by Infrastructure Investor magazine.
 
·在圣彼得堡,世界银行集团向市政府就普尔科夫机场这个俄罗斯首个公私伙伴关系项目进行了咨询,这个项目带来了12亿欧元的私人投资。2011年该项目赢得了《基础设施投资人》杂志评选的“全球公私伙伴关系年度大奖”。
 
The scope for doing more in Russia’s regions is enormous– if the right knowledge can be matched to the right issue.
 
俄罗斯各地区开展进一步工作的潜力巨大——如果我们将所具备的知识和面临的问题良好对应起来的话。
 
· Take the issue of Russia’s ageing population.  By 2050, Russia will have almost twice the number of retirees that it has today.  This poses a huge challenge to Russia’s social services and a big burden on the state health system.  Can Russia learn from other countries such as Japan or European countries facing similar problems of ageing?
 
·比如俄罗斯的老龄化问题。到2050年,俄罗斯的退休人员数量将比现在多出近一倍。这对国家的社会服务形成了很大挑战,对医疗体系也是一个巨大负担。俄罗斯是否能从日本或欧洲国家等面临类似老龄化问题的国家借鉴一些经验?
 
· Another issue is roads, which cost twice as much to build in Russia as they do in countries with similar climates such as Canada or Germany.  What international experience can Russia learn from to cut down on this cost by improving contracting procedures or engineering design?
 
·另一个问题是道路建设。俄罗斯的道路造价是加拿大、德国等与之气候相似国家的两倍。俄罗斯可以学习哪些国际经验、通过改善承包程序或工程设计来降低成本?
 
· Or look at energy efficiency. The World Bank estimates that the energy Russia currently loses each year through old, inefficient buildings, factories, and heating systems equals the amount of energy that a country like France consumes each year.  If Russia takes immediate action on the issue of energy efficiency, it would help the world and it would also help Russia.  The energy saved can be either sold to enhance revenue or kept in the ground for future generations.
 
·再来看看能效问题。据世界银行估算,俄罗斯当前每年由于建筑、厂房和供暖系统老旧、能效低下而损失的能源相当于法国全国一年的能源消费。如果俄罗斯立即采取行动提高能效,这不仅对俄罗斯本国有利,也有利于全世界。而节省下来的能源或者可以出售来增加收入,或者可以留在地下供后代使用。
 
Building on 20 Years of World Bank and Russia Partnership
继续发展世界银行与俄罗斯20年以来的伙伴关系
 
The World Bank Group has learned a lot from working in Russia, and I believe that Russia has also learned much from its partnership with us. We bring experience to Russia from more than 100 countries around the world in which we work.
 
世界银行集团通过在俄罗斯的工作学到了很多,我相信俄罗斯也从与世行的伙伴合作中学到了很多。我们把在世界上100多个国家工作的经验带到俄罗斯。
 
In an increasingly globalized world, the challenge for each country, including Russia, is to find the best approaches to tackling pressing issues wherever they are.
 
在全球化日益加深的背景下,包括俄罗斯在内的每个国家面临的挑战就是找出解决各种紧迫问题的最佳方法。
 
Our 20-year collaboration with Russia’s regions shows that our partnership has evolved over time into a strong engagement. We are eager to deepen our work in all parts of the country.
 
我们与俄罗斯各地区20多年的合作表明,我们的伙伴关系已经逐渐演变为一种非常有力的接触。我们迫切希望在俄罗斯全国各地深化我们的工作。
 
On the national level, we would like to continue supporting the country’s development objectives.  On the regional level, Russia is important as a driver of growth in the CIS, and the Bank would like to partner more closely in supporting the region’s growth and development.
 
在国家层面,我们希望继续支持俄罗斯发展目标的实现。而在更广泛的地区层面,俄罗斯是推动独联体地区经济增长的重要动力,世界银行希望与俄罗斯开展更密切的合作,支持整个地区的增长和发展。
 
Russia’s Global Development Role
俄罗斯在全球发展中的角色
 
Perhaps most importantly, we’d like to build on our partnership with Russia on the global level.
 
可能最为重要的是,我们希望与俄罗斯在全球层面建立和发展伙伴关系。
 
While Russia seeks to improve the lives of its own people, how can Russia also look outward and share its traditions and knowledge with others to help build a more stable and prosperous world?
 
在俄罗斯努力改善本国人民生活的同时,它该如何与其他国家分享其传统和知识、推动建立一个更加稳定和繁荣的世界?
 
The world – and the World Bank -- needs Russia as a global development partner.  Russia has the history, capacity, and knowledge to play a large and responsible role as a development partner and donor country.
 
世界——以及世界银行——需要俄罗斯成为一个全球发展伙伴。俄罗斯有作为一个发展伙伴和捐助国在全球发挥重大作用的历史、能力和知识。
 
Its increased official development assistance to poor countries reflects well on this country and its values.  Russia’s help is already making a big difference – whether it is transforming health systems in CIS countries, improving schools in Africa, or making better farming systems in Central Asia.
 
俄罗斯对穷国的官方援助日益增长,这反映了它值得称道的价值观。俄罗斯的对外援助已经在发挥作用——不管是改造独联体国家的医疗体系,改善非洲的学校,还是改善中亚的农业体系。
 
With Russia playing its global role, and with other donors playing their roles, we can end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity at a much faster rate than ever before.
 
俄罗斯发挥全球性的作用,而其他捐助国也发挥各自的作用,这样我们就能以更快的速度消除极端贫困,共享繁荣。
 
Starting tomorrow, I will be taking part in the Group of 20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors meeting chaired by Russia this week in Moscow.  The G20 meeting is just the latest sign that Russia is shaping its own unique profile in addressing the major development challenges of the 21st century as a leader and participant in international fora such as the G8, WTO and APEC.
 
从明天开始,我将出席由俄罗斯主持、本周在莫斯科举行的20国集团(G20)财政部长和央行行长会议。俄罗斯是八国集团、世界贸易组织和亚太经合组织等国际论坛的领导者和参加者,G20会议是表明它正在为解决21世纪的重大发展问题发挥独特作用的又一个标志。
 
What is next for Russia’s global role?  We have talked about the need for Russia to learn from best practices in other countries and apply them in Russia.  But how can Russia best export its skills and know-how to others?  And how can you as graduates from one of Russia’s most prestigious academies play a part in helping change the world?
 
俄罗斯今后将在全球扮演怎样的角色?前面我们说到俄罗斯需要学习其他国家的最佳经验并将其用于本国。但俄罗斯怎样能最好地将自己的技巧和知识传递到其他国家?而你们作为俄罗斯一个顶尖学校的毕业生,又应当如何来改变世界?
 
Closing
结语
 
In closing, I want to turn back again to a figure from Russia’s literary history whom I have mentioned briefly, and who for me embodies the complexity and richness of Russian tradition. I am referring to Anton Chekhov.
 
在即将结束我的讲话时,我想再次回到我前面曾提到的这个俄罗斯文学史上的重要人物——在我看来,他很好地代表了俄罗斯传统的复杂性和丰富性。我说的是安东·契诃夫。
 
Chekhov’s life and work speak to me on many levels. As you know, in addition to his exceptional literary gifts, Chekhov was a practicing physician. He grew up in a family that suffered the indignity of poverty. Later, having become a doctor, he provided medical care to poor patients free of charge, often paying for indigent patients’ medications out of his own pocket. In 1904, at the age of 44, Chekhov died of tuberculosis—the disease we fought in Tomsk.
 
契诃夫的生活和工作经历在很多层面都让我深有感触。如你们所知,他不仅在文学上有超常天分,而且也是一名执业医师。他出生于一个贫困卑微的家庭;成为医生后,他向穷困的病人提供免费服务,常常自己掏钱为病人买药。1904年,也就是他44岁的时候,死于结核病——就是我们在托木斯克努力抗击的那种疾病。
 
Chekhov united the scientific rigor; the passion for beauty; and the commitment to fight unjust suffering that are, equally, dimensions of the Russian spirit. And he joined these qualities not as principles that merely coexist, but as values that mutually reinforce each other.
 
契诃夫的身上结合了科学的严谨、对美的追求以及为消除因不公正引发的痛苦而斗争的信念,它们代表了俄罗斯精神的各个方面。他把这些方面结合在一起,不是把它们当作各自孤立的原则,而是将它们作为相互强化的价值观。
 
The beauty of Chekhov’s writing emerged from his capacity to view the world both as a scientist, with unflinching lucidity, and as a compassionate witness always in revolt against the forces that diminish our humanity.
 
契诃夫文学作品中的美既来自他作为一个科学家清晰观察世界的能力,也来自他作为一个具有同情心、不断与那些违背人道精神的势力进行抗争的见证者的能力。
 
Chekhov’s action as a physician showed his conviction that our responsibility is not merely to see the world objectively; nor even to empathize with those who suffer; but instead to change the world through deliberate action, for and with those who face poverty, disease and exclusion.
 
契诃夫作为一个医生的所为显示,他认为我们的职责不仅是要客观地观察世界,也不是仅仅对那些苦难中的人加以同情理解,而是要通过目标明确的行动来谋求改变,与那些面临贫困、疾病和排斥的人一同努力,为他们创造更好的世界。
 
My hope is that Russia’s answer—your answer—to the question of “What’s next?” will emerge from this country’s capacity to unite—as Chekhov did—reason, the love of beauty, and the courage to act.
 
我希望俄罗斯对“下一步怎么做”这个问题的回答——也就是你们的回答——将显示这个国家将理性、对美的热爱以及行动的勇气结合在一起的能力——就像契诃夫所做的那样。
 
The future of your country—and with it the world—is in your hands.
 
你们的国家——以及世界——的未来在你们手中。
 
Thank you very much.
 
谢谢大家。


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