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上海市英语中级口译资格证书第一阶段考试


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 上海市英语中级口译资格证书第一阶段考试

 

SECTION 1: LISTENING TEST (45 minutes)
Part A: Spot Dictation
As crime skyrockets in many communities, people are finally beginning to look for long-lasting, effective answers to stem the tide of juvenile crime. Reaching the youth who have committed a crime before they become _______________(1) is an essential step in reversing the crime trend. One _______________(2) may be the establishment of teen court.

Teen court is known as a sentencing court for youths who have _______________(3). Teen courts primarily deal with first -time offenders. After arrest, the young offender must _______________(4) to the charge in juvenile court. With _______________(5), the offender agrees to be sentenced and abide by the decision of a peer jury _______________(6). Another essential component to teen court is that, as part of the sentence, the offender must sit in on one or more future peer juries to _______________(7) for other offenders. For example, a county teen court in Illinois gives young offenders a chance to _______________(8) their arrests from their permanent record by _______________(9) or other duties ordered by the court. Teen court is not a trial court. All teens admit their guilt and _______________(10) a sentence given to them by a jury of their peers. A judge is present to _______________(11) of the court.

The teen court alleviates the strain on the _______________(12) and has been implemented in _______________(13) since the first teen court opened in Odessa, Texas. Beside giving the offender a second chance, it gives the youth _______________(14) in the judicial process.
The purpose of the teen court, aside from sentencing youth offenders, is to _______________(15) both the offenders and the teen volunteers while simultaneously promoting _______________(16) between defendants, the community, and the police. By offering this _______________(17) system, teen court allows those teens who have made a bad decision an opportunity to _______________(19) and learn from it. At the same time those teens learn a respect for themselves, the police, the community, and the _______________(20).
Part B: Listening Comprehension
I . Statements
1. (A) You'd better buy a local newspaper to look through the classified ads.
   (B) You might put an ad in the local paper to find someone to fill the position.
   (C) You can come this afternoon to go through the application procedures.
   (D) You need to interview the well-known painter in our office this afternoon.

2. (A) David will be the general manager next week.
   (B) David will get a promotion and a pay rise.
   (C) David will work hard to be a general manager.
   (D) David will be transferred to the accounting manager's office.

3. (A) No one in this office is willing to do the translation except yourself.
   (B) The new secretary will ask someone to fix the date for you.
   (C) The new secretary can type and hand in the document for you.
   (D) The secretary is an able person to help you with the translation.

4. (A) I paid 4 dollars for the shrimp.   
   (B) I paid 6 dollars for the shrimp.
   (C) I paid 8 dollars for the shrimp.  
   (D) I paid 12 dollars for the shrimp.

5. (A) Although you pay more for the course, you have a better chance of securing a job.
    (B) You will not be enrolled in the course, unless you score high in the placement test.
    (C) Your job is to locate excellent students and urge them to enroll in our MBA course.
    (D) You will be awarded a scholarship for the MBA course if your high school record is excellent.

6. (A) It would be a win-win situation for both of us if we set up an agency for marketing your products.
    (B) We believe that marketing your products on your behalf in Shanghai would be rather costly in the beginning.
    (C) It is our firm belief that we will bring a lot of benefit to your agency in Shanghai.
    (D) We totally agree to market your products in Shanghai if your firm can set up an agency on our behalf.

7. (A) The customer must pay cash for his insurance.
    (B) The customer must pay for his insurance by credit card.
    (C) The customer must get a money order to pay for his insurance.
    (D) The customer must get a traveler's check to pay for his insurance.

8. (A) The accountant is to return 300,000 dollars to balance your account.
    (B) The check has bounced because of insufficient fund in the account.
    (C) The accountant has checked in for a conference on environmental protection.
    (D) The check is specially provided to make a balance on your bank account.

9. (A) We are likely to have further cooperation if the objective is achieved.
    (B) If the target is missed, we will discuss with you a long-term arrangement.
    (C) We will establish a cooperative base in the locality if this target is attained.
    (D) We are glad to have signed with you a long-term arrangement.

10. (A) The Investment Department submitted a survey report to the board of directors.
    (B) The Investment Department refuted the decision made by the board of directors.
    (C) The board of directors could not agree on the content of the survey report.
    (D) The board of directors were not concerned with the Department's survey report.

II. Talks and Conversations
11. (A) In London.
     (B) In Edinburgh.   
     (C) In Paris. 
     (D) In his friend's home.

12. (A) He went to sleep because he was very tired.   
     (B) He had a fight with his friends.
     (C) He did some shopping.                     
     (D) He went to a night club.

13. (A) The man missed his return flight.
     (B) The man watched a rugby match in the afternoon.
     (C) The man went to see some tourist attractions.
     (D) The man bought some gifts for his parents and friends.

14. (A) Because he wanted to buy more presents for her.
     (B) Because he had to pay for the French wine he bought for her.
     (C) Because he had spent all his money over the weekend.
     (D) Because he had planned to go to Edinburgh next weekend.

15. (A) They are built only for children or teenagers.
     (B) They provide scary and frightening experiences.
     (C) They never allow adults to participate.
     (D) They seldom help adults to reduce weight.

16. (A) Pay his telephone bills.          
     (B) Work out his daily agenda.
     (C) Consult a health-care worker.      
     (D) Enjoy food to his heart's content.

17. (A) Because they feel it necessary to set an example for their children.
     (B) Because they consider it to be the safest for their children.
     (C) Because they think the ride can help reduce their weights.
     (D) Because they want to prove themselves to be adventurous.

18. (A) They can have a guilt-free experience.
     (B) They can refrain from eating junk food.
     (C) They can keep their children company.
     (D) They can escape from their daily work and pressures.

19. (A) Shop-assistant and customer.      
     (B) Husband and wife.
     (C) Police and pedestrian.            
     (D) Travel guide and tourist.

20. (A) An item of clothing.             
     (B) A bottle of after-shave.        
     (C) An Olympic record               
     (D) A pair of socks.

21. (A) A book and a record.            
     (B) Perfume.
     (C) Skirts and socks.                
    (D) A ticket to see the circus.

22. (A) Go sightseeing at Piccadilly.       
     (B) Have a cup of English tea.
     (C) Enjoy a funny French show.       
     (D) Return to the hotel and take a rest

23. (A) Marketing does more harm than good to customers.
     (B) Marketing just means that businesses sell their products.
     (C) Marketing is something everyone of us does quite often.
     (D) Marketing includes a variety of business activities.

24. (A) When you are shortlisted for an interview.
     (B) When you are watching television at home.
     (C) When you have asked to borrow a bicycle.
     (D) When you have concluded a medical research.

25. (A) When you are applying for a job.
     (B) When you are paying your tuition fee.
     (C) When you are riding a bus.
     (D) When you are interviewing candidates.

26. (A) The promotion of ideas.             
     (B) The pricing of goods.    
    (C) The exchange process.              
    (D) The product distribution.

27. (A) They are bored.                     
     (B) They want a wage increase.
     (C) They demand shorter hours.          
     (D) They like to beat their rivals.

28. (A) Car making.  
     (B) Tourism.       
     (C) Cotton textile.  
     (D) Electronics.

29. (A) Fight for markets.           
     (B) Be more inventive and innovative.
     (C) Expand into IT industry.      
     (D) Be honest and fair in business dealings.

30. (A) Thank you.
     (B) Average.       
     (C) Quite good.  
     (D) Excellent.

Part C: Listening and Translation
I . Sentence Translation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

II Passage Translation
Passage 1
Passage 2
SECTION 2: STUDY SKILLS (50 minutes)
 
Questions 1-5
 
Pollution control is management of waste materials in order to minimize the effects of pollutants on people and the environment. The quality of human health and of the natural environment depends on adequate pollution control. In the United States much has been done to control the more noticeable pollutants since 1965; more subtle yet still hazardous pollutants, however, remain to be adequately controlled.

Four general approaches to pollution control are: the intermittent reduction of industrial activities during periods of high air-pollution conditions; wider dispersion of pollutants using such devices as taller smokestacks; reduction of pollutants in industrial emission; and change of an industrial process or activity in order to produce less pollution. Taller smokestacks may reduce the concentrations to which local people are exposed, but they are ineffective in reducing overall pollution.

Pollutants removed from waste flows to reduce emissions to air and water may be disposed of by burial or storage on land, practices that pose potential hazards. Recent legislation requiring extensive emissions reductions has resulted in large investments in pollution-treatment technologies.

The fourth approach-changing a manufacturing process or activity in order to produce less pollution-may involve either the production of fewer residuals, by means of an improved process, or the separation and reuse of materials from the waste stream. This method of pollution control is the most effective and, as the costs of pollution control and waste disposal increase, is considered one of the most efficient.

Pollution-treatment systems have been effective in reducing the massive quantities of water and air pollutants that have clogged and choked urban areas. Although the improvements have been significant, recent pollution-control legislation aims to go further in order to control the less visible but often hazardous chemical and gaseous pollutants that still contaminate many waterways and urban atmospheres.

The costs of pollution control-resulting from capital, maintenance, and labor costs, as well as from the cost of additional residuals disposal-generally go up rapidly as a greater percentage of residuals is removed from the waste stream. Damage from pollution, on the other hand, goes down as a greater amount of contaminants is removed. Theoretically, the level of treatment should correspond to a point at which total costs of treatment and of damage to the environment are minimized or the benefits of further treatment are proportionally much smaller than the increased cost. In reality, costs or damages resulting from pollution can rarely be assessed in terms of dollars.
 
1. According to the passage, all of the following can be objectives of pollution control EXCEPT ________..
(A) reducing polluting substances
(B) controlling all the pollutants
(C) restricting industrial activities
(D) improving the environment and human health
 
2. What does the author think of the second approach to pollution control?
(A) It is the most effective of the four.
(B) It is effective in some way.
(C) It is economical but not at all effective.
(D) It is not economical.
 
3. According to the passage, recent pollution-control legislation aims to________.
(A) control less visible as well as less hazardous chemical pollutants
(B) increase the costs of pollution control and waste material disposal
(C) have more strict control over less evident but often dangerous pollutants
(D) eliminate all the hazardous chemical and gaseous pollutants
 
4. Which of the following statements is NOT true, according to the passage?
(A) Laws have been made to develop pollution-treatment systems.
(B) Pollution-treatment systems have been effective in reducing the massive quantities of water and air pollutants.
(C) Materials from waste treatment processes can be made useful again.
(D) The cost of pollution treatment is proportionally smaller than that of damage to the environment.
 
5. The overall purpose of the passage is________.
(A) to discuss the ways of and problems in pollution control
(B) to give suggestions about pollution control legislation
(C) to compare and contrast the four approaches to pollution control
(D) to describe what has been achieved in pollution control
Questions 6-10
 
Democracy is so much a part of our national identity that it almost seems a birthright. But the irony is that, even as we hope to spread democracy elsewhere, we risk preaching the virtues of a form of government we no longer practice ourselves. The upcoming elections, our proudest celebration of democracy, will highlight some of the threats to our government "by the people".

Technically, every vote is counted. But will the ballot you cast really make a difference? Not likely, unless you live in one of about 17 battleground states where the contest between President Bush and Senator Kerry could easily go either way. If you come from a state that is already locked up by one of the parties-and most of us do-your vote won't carry much weight. That's because of our idiosyncratic electoral college system.

Rather than being elected directly by the people, the President would be chosen by a group of electors appointed, by the state legislatures-with the number of electors determined by the state's total number of representatives to Congress and U. S. Senators. By allotting two Senators to each state, our founders enabled small states to wield an influence greater than their populations alone would warrant, ensuring that the most populous states wouldn't decide every Presidential election. But here's the rub: When it comes to those electoral votes, it's winner-take-all (except in Maine, and Nebraska). Get more popular votes, even if only by one, and you grab all of the state's electoral votes.

There's yet another way that the electoral system undermines our vote. In 2000, the Presidential campaigns largely ignore the 33 states that weren't up for grabs. Even California, Texas and New York-states offering many electoral votes but little partisan competition-fell by the wayside. If victory or defeat depended on the popular vote, then candidates would have to work for each one. Instead, they decide which states are in play, and go after the voter there. They rarely visit other places and the majority of us don't experience a real campaign.

Here's one idea that could help us in future Presidential elections.

In a number of countries, they have a system of direct popular vote, but with a critical provision: in the event that no one wins by a majority, they hold an "instant runoff". That's done by allowing voters to register not only their first choice among the candidates, by also their second and third. If a runoff is needed (say, if the winner among several candidates has less than 50 percent of vote), you can eliminate the candidate with the lowest tally, and transfer his or her supporters to the second choice on their ballots. This process can play out until there is a clear victor. This system give weight to every person's vote-something our system of electors will never do. Only a Constitutional amendment, however, can bring about this change.
 
6. The function of the quotation mark in the last sentence of the 1st paragraph is to________.
(A) quote what somebody has said
(B) emphasize the threats
(C) achieve sarcasm
(D) create a sense of humor
 
7. The 17 states the candidates would visit in the campaign are those________.
(A) locked up by one of the parties
(B) offering many electoral votes
(C) that could easily fall by the wayside
(D) where the competition could easily go either way
 
8. The word "rub" in the 3rd paragraph most probably means________.
(A) the act of rubbing        (B) the trouble
(C) the solution         (D) the conflicting idea
 
9. Which of the following statements is NOT true, according to the passage?
(A) Some popular votes may carry more weight than others.
(B) The outcome of the election depends on the electoral votes.
(C) One can win the election only by getting more popular votes.
(D) The electoral system prevents the most populous states from deciding every election.
 
10. Which of the following is the best title for this passage?
(A) Is Popular Vote More Democratic?
(B) Our Election System: A True Democracy
(C) How to Battle Threats to Our Democracy
(D) How Much Does Your Vote Really Count?
 
Questions 11-15
 
Americans are far more sophisticated about beverages than they were 20 years ago. Witness the Star bucks revolution and you'll know where the trend goes. Now, spurred on by recent studies suggesting that it can cut the risk of cancer and heart disease and retard the aging process, tea is enjoying a similar jolt. Enough chic tea salons are springing up to make even die-hard coffee drinkers consider switching beverages.

Tea is available in more places than ever. "Tea was one of the most prolific beverage categories in 1999," with 24 percent more products offered over the previous year, reports Tom Vierhile of Marketing Intelligence Service, which tracks food and beverage trends. And the Tea Association of the United States reports that from 1990 to1999, annual sales of the drink grew to $ 4. 6 billion from $ 1. 8 billion. Green tea is seen by consumers as a "functional food"-delivering health benefits beyond sustenance, says Vierhile.

Recently published studies point out that not all brews are created equal. Only teas that come from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis-which, in their raw state are brewed to make green tea, and, with curing, can be turned into oolong and black tea leaves-have been shown to contain health benefits. Other herbal teas and infusions may taste good, yet they do little more than warm up the drinker. But for Camellia sinensis, the evidence is powerful. In a 1998 study, Harvard University researchers found that drinking one cup of black tea a day lowered the risk of heart attack by as much as 44 percent compared with non-tea drinkers, and other studies have suggested that the antioxidants in these so-called real teas can also prevent cancer.

One such antioxidant in green tea is ECGC, a compound 20 times as powerful as vitamin E and 200 times as powerful as vitamin C. "When people ask me for something good and cheap they can do to reduce their cancer risk, I tell them drink real tea," says Mitchell Gaynor, director of medical oncology. at New York City's Strang-Cornell Cancer Prevention Centre.

Among those inspired to become a green-tea drinker is Tess Ghilaga, a New York writer who took it up after consulting a nutritionist six years ago. "I've never been a coffee drinker," says Ghilaga, 33, "She told me to start. drinking green tea for the antioxidant properties." Now Ghilaga and her husband routinely brew tea-they order theirs from InPursuitoftea. com, an Internet tea company, which sells a variety of ready-made and raw teas.

www.alitea.comAlongwithgreen.black.andoolongtea. this company sells a wide variety of herbal teas and offers a "Tea of the Month" club.www. teasofgreen. com This site sells higher-end green, black and oolong teas and has good tips on proper storage and preparation of tea.www. tea. com Tea drinkers can find links to sites offering tea lore, such as articles about tea ceremonies in foreign lands. An exhaustive" frequently asked questions" file rounds out the site.
 
11. What do recent studies reveal about tea drinking?
(A) Many tea houses have sprung up to meet the market demands.
(B) Drinking tea can cut the risk of lung cancer in particular.
(C) Tea is rather a magical drinking material to slow down the aging process.
(D) Many die-hard coffee brewers have developed strong sentiments towards tea.
 
12. What did Tom Vierhile of Marketing Intelligence Service do, according to the passage?
(A) He reported about the availability of all kinds of tea around the world.
(B) He tracked the sources of tea and other beverages in Asian countries.
(C) He gave a detailed analysis of professional categorization of tea and other beverages.
(D) He followed the trends of tea and other beverages and analyse them in a professional way.
 
13. The leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis________.
(A) can be used to make green tea or black tea after proper treatments
(B) are turned into oolong or black tea leaves for the purpose of curing
(C) have powerful evidence to show its healing power for certain illnesses
(D) taste good yet do little more than warm up the drinker
 
14. According to the passage, what is ECGC?
(A) A medicine made from green tea.
(B) A powerful substance in green tea.
(C) An additive essential to green tea.
(D) A special treatment to make green tea.
 
15. If you are interested in tea festivals, which website would you most probably surf on?
(A) www. tea. com     (B) www. teasofgreen. com
(C) www. Pursuitoftea. com        (D) www. alitea. com
 
Questions 16-20
 
A blue sedan nearly sides wipes my car. The driver gives me a weird look. No wonder: I'm at the wheel of a Ford Taurus, with a tangle of wires taped to my face and neck, a respiration monitor strapped around my chest, and a bunch of other gizmos sending data about my vital signs to computers stacked on the front and back seats. I look like the star of A Commuter's Clockwork Orange.

University of Iowa assistant professor of engineering Thomas Schnell is crammed into the seat behind me. Schnell created this lab-on-wheels to gauge how a motorist's body reacts to driving. He wants carmakers to use his findings to design "smart" cars that make driving less stressful. I' m taking his rolling research facility for a white-knuckle evening spin in Chicago--home to some of the nation's worst rush-hour traffic-to learn what happens to the human body during a long, frustrating commute.

So at 5:15 on a Monday, with a storm whipping in off Lake Michigan, I pull out of a downtown parking lot and begin creeping along Interstate 90, heading west behind a line of cars that stretches as far as the eye can see. Now and then, the pace picks up, but, just as quickly, it slows to a halt, red brake lights glowing in the twilight.

If I had to do this every day, I'd grind my teeth to dust. After 45 minutes, Schnell and I have gone just 10 miles. As the car crawls along, Schnell occasionally asks, "What is your level of fun?" He notes my responses, some of them unprintable, on a clipboard. Here's r what the computers I'm tethered to record:

I begin breathing harder and faster. My respiration rate leaps from 12 to 17 breaths per I minute. My heart rate jumps from 74 to 80 beats per minute. The electrodes taped to the muscles in my forehead show increased activity (Translation: My brow furrows and I squint a lot).

While I was in no danger of keeling over, my heart rate and other symptoms offered clear evidence that I was under stress, says Robert Bonow, MD, president of the American Heart Association (AHA). Over time, that stress could take a heavy toll.

If you are among the roughly 113 million Americans who drive to work each day, you're probably grimacing with recognition. With traffic congestion getting worse each year, anyone who travels by car to the office or plant, or who simply shuttles kids from school to violin lessons to slumber parties, may be exposing himself or herself to serious hidden health threats.

All that commuter combat is bound to produce casualties. "People are experiencing more congestion and we know that's stressful," says Colorado State University psychologist Jerry Deffenbacher. Some results are predictable. Reckless driving-sometimes in the form of so­-called road rage        is often spurred by traffic frustration. Consider 41-year-old Chris Heard. The mild-mannered engineer used to turn into Mad Max every day as he drove the nearly 50 miles of clogged roads between his home in Brookline, N. H. , and his office near Boston. "It turned me into a very aggressive driver," he says, "taking risks, cutting people off, driving fast on back roads to make up for time I lost. " The result of his congestion-fueled fury? A stack of speeding tickets and a number of near collisions. Finally he did something about it: He found a job closer to home.
 
16. According to the passage, Professor Thomas Schnell has created his lab-an-wheels________.
(A) to make heart jump from 74 to 80 beats per minute
(B) to make respiration rate leap from 12 to 17 breaths per minute
(C) to learn how to make driving enjoyable during rush-hour traffic
(D) to learn how a driver physically reacts to driving
 
17. Why was the author driving along Interstate 90 on a Monday?
(A) He was test-driving his smart car.
(B) He liked to pick up his driving skill.
(C) He did not want to be caught in the storm.
(D) He was dong it for a test.
 
18. The phrase "take a heavy toll" (Para. 6) is closest in meaning to________.
(A) grind one's teeth (B) damage one's health
(C) increase one's activity (D) pay more at the toll gate
 
19. Which of the following in NOT true about 41-year-old Chris Heard?
(A) He used to playa role in a movie.
(B) He got a stack of speeding tickets.
(C) He found a job closer to home.
(D) He had a number of near collisions.
 
20. What is the best title for the passage?
(A) Are You A Reckless Driver?
(B) How Do You Improve Your Driving Skill?
(C) Are You Driving Yourself Sick?
(D) How Do You Design Smart Cars?
 
Questions 21-25
 
Transportation is the movement or conveying of persons and goods from one location t< another. As human beings, from ancient times to the 21st century, sought to make their transport facilities more efficient, they have always endeavored to move people and property with the least expenditure of time, effort and cost. Improved transportation had helped make possible progress toward better living, the modern systems of manufacturing and commerce, and the complex, interdependent urban economy present in much of the world today.

Primitive human beings supplemented their own carrying of goods and possessions by starting to domesticate animals-training them to bear small loads and pull crude sleds. The invention of the wheel, probably in western Asia, was a great step forward in transport. As the wheel was perfected, crude carts and wagons began to appear in the Tigris-Euphrates valley about 3500 BC, and later in Crete, Egypt, and China. Wheeled vehicles could not use the narrow paths and trails used by pack animals, and early roads were soon being built by the Assyrians and the Persians.

The greatest improvements in transportation have appeared in the last two centuries, a period during which the Industrial Revolution has vastly changed the economic life of the entire world. Crude railways-horse-drawn wagons with wooden wheels and rails-had been used in English and European mines during the 17th century. Although it first appeared in England, the railroad had its most dramatic growth in the United States. By 1840 more than 4,800 km of railroad were already operating in the eastern states, a figure 40 percent greater than the total railroad mileage of Europe. Since World War I, however, the U. S. railroads have been in a decline, due partly to the rapid development of private automobiles, trucks,' buses, pipelines, and airlines.

The first new mode of transportation to challenge the railroad was the motor vehicle, which was made possible by the invention, in the 1860s and '70s, of the internal combustion engine. The automobile found its greatest popularity in the United States, where the first "horseless carriages" appeared in the 1890s. Two hundred million motor vehicles had been produced in the nation within 70 years of their first appearance. The automobile thus became in many ways as important to the 20th century as the railroads had been to the 19th.

During the same period intercity buses took over a large portion of commercial passenger travel, and trucks began carrying a great deal of the nation's freight.

Although the emphasis on fuel conservation waned in the 1980s, few doubt that the issue will emerge again when oil scarcities loom, as they did in the 1970s. Future possibilities include automobiles with far greater fuel efficiency and improved mass-transit systems. Both will occur not only in response to oil-supply disruption, but also as an answer to increasing demands for cleaner air. Improvements in mass transit offer the most promise for the future. Amtrak's 1993 introduction of the Swedish high-speed "tilting train" should cut travel time between some East Coast cities by almost half, once tracks are entirely electrified.
 
21. From the first paragraph, it can be inferred that transport exerts a great influence on all the following EXCEPT________. ­
(A) economic development
(B) living conditions
(C) industrial production
(D) political rights
 
22. The first significant progress in transport in ancient times was attributed to________.
 (A) the making of carts and wagons  (B) the construction of roads
 (C) the invention of wheels        (D) the building of tracks
 
23. According to the passage, the railroad first appeared in________.
  (A) China (B) England
  (C) Crete   (D) Egypt
 
24. It can be concluded from the passage that________.
(A) there had been oil crises in the 1970s
(B) the motor vehicles played a leading role in the decline of railroads
(C) automobiles were more important than railroads
(D) environmental protection was a major concern in developing transport
 
25. What does the passage say about the "tilting train"?
(A) It can carry more freight than other vehicles.
(B) It requires its tracks to be electrical.
(C) Its speed demands cleaner air.
(D) Its cost is very low.
 
Questions 26-30
 
A visitor from Barcelona arrives at a Madrid government office in mid-afternoon, and is surprised to find only the cleaning lady there, "Don't they work in the afternoons?" he asks. "No," she replies, "they don't work in the mornings. In the afternoons they don't come. "

Lazy Madrid, busy Barcelona: it is just one of many stereotypes about Spain's great rivals. Mostly, the stereotypes are born of Barcelona's bitterness at its second-class status. Barcelona is the capital of Catalonia, a proudly autonomous region, but Madrid is the capital of Spain. This causes resentment. It makes Barcelona the largest city in Western Europe not to be a national capital. Worse, Barcelona (Catalonia's capital since the ninth century) regards Madrid (a creation of Philip II in the 16th century) as an upstart.

And, after being bossed about for so long, who can blame them? Over the years governments in Madrid did their best to strip Barcelona of political power. They tried to squash the Catalan language. They even decided what the modern city should look like: in 1860 an order from Madrid overruled Barcelona's choice of plan for its big expansion, and opted for a grid layout.

Barcelona has the liberalism that often characterizes port cities. As Catalans see it, while Madrid bathes in bureaucracy, Barcelona gets on with business. An old-fashioned seriousness in Madrid, isolated high up on Spain's central plateau, contrasts with the light­heartedness of Barcelona, open to Europe and aggressively avant-garde.

Upon to a point, these old caricatures still hold true. No visitor to government buildings in the two cities can fail to be struck by the contrast between them. In Madrid, there are creaky wooden floors, antique furniture and walls covered with paintings by Spanish old masters. In Barcelona, the city of Gaudi and Miro, designer chairs and tables are evidence of the place's obsession with modernism. Meetings of the Catalan cabinet are held in a room with a large, modern painting by Antoni Tapies.

And yet, these days, the similarities between the two cities are at least striking as the contrasts. Madrid is hardly lazy any more. Visitors find it hard to keep up with the pace of the place. Nor is it old-fashioned. Indeed, it has become almost outrageously modern. To judge by the local cuisine, you would think the place was a port: although far from the sea, seafood is a miraculous Madrid speciality.

As banks and business have been drawn to Madrid, it has become as much a commercial and industrial centre as an administrative one. Barcelona, meanwhile, in Spain's traditional industrial heartland, has been experiencing a rise in bureaucracy.

The rivalry between Madrid and Barcelona is bound to remain fierce, not least on the soccer field, where Real Madrid and Barcelona compete for Spanish supremacy. Barcelona will continue to press for yet more power to be devolved to it from Madrid: it is calling for the Senate, Spain's upper house of parliament, to be moved to the Catalan capital. But with a lot of local autonomy restored, and with the success of the 1992 Olympics behind it, the chip on Barcelona's shoulder is becoming ever harder to detect.
 
26. Which of the following best illustrates the stereotypes about Madrid and Barcelona?
(A) Madrid government officials never come to the office in the afternoon.
(B) Barcelona is an efficient and less bureaucratic place for business dealings.
(C) People in Barcelona are very resentful at Madrid's being the capital city.
(D) Barcelona is the largest city in Western Europe but it failed to claim its right status.
 
27. Historically, Barcelona has regarded Madrid as________.
 (A) less bureaucratic          (B) inferior
 (C) a newcomer                 (D) less funny
 
28. How did governments in Madrid deliberately strip Barcelona of political power?
(A) They strongly opposed a grid layout in Barcelona which confines the city in its original space.
(B) They gave the priority to the Catalan language rather than Spanish.
(C) They turned down Barcelona's proposal for its expansion.
(D) They ridiculed Barcelona's second-class status.
 
29. Which of the following is the most likely caricature of Spain's 'capital city?
(A) Government houses have dilapidated wooden floors, antique furniture and old paintings.
(B) The polished wooden floors and designer chairs and tables are the symbols of government houses.
(C) Meetings of the Cabinet are held in a room with a large, modern painting by Antoni Tapies.
(D) It has all the hustle and bustle because of its political superiority.
 
30. Nowadays people in Barcelona feel more________ Madrid as they used to.
(A) afraid of
(B) hateful of
(C) obsessed with
(D) competitive with
 
SECTION 3: TRANSLATION TEST (1) (30 minutes)
Americans have come to expect a lot of their presidents, more perhaps than any man can deliver. We say that the president runs the country, but in practice, presidents have trouble running large parts of the government. We hold the president responsible for the economy, even though he has few economic levers at his command. We expect the commander in chief to lead us to victory in war, and then we complain when we think he is micromanaging the military.

And we tend to think of the president as the personification of the nation he leads. Few other democracies combine the position of head of government and head of state. We do, and some of the bitterness of our politics springs from the conviction of many Americans that this or that president does not really represent their country. Yet as we look back at our presidents, we see them less as partisan politicians than as national leaders, who in different ways have helped develop the strengths and virtues of our nation.

SECTlON3:TRANSLATlON TEST (2)
有人把香港说成是 "文化沙漠"。实际上, 香港有着其独特的文化氛围。在电影制作方面, 香港名列世界前茅。其流行歌曲在全球华人中有着广泛的影响。而且还有 8 所知名的大学。

这座城市特殊的历史和地理因素造就了一种多样化的文化。每年一度由政府主办的艺术嘉年华为当地艺术家展示其独创性提供了一个广阔的平台, 并鼓励更多人参与文化艺术创作, 为中国的文化繁荣做出了许多创新和突破。

参考答案:
SECTION 1: LISTENING TEST (45 minutes)
Part A: Spot Dictation
As crime skyrockets in many communities, people are finally beginning to look for long-lasting, effective answers to stem the tide of juvenile crime. Reaching the youth who have committed a crime before they become hardened criminals is an essential step in reversing the crime trend. One possible solution may be the establishment of teen court.
Teen court is known as a sentencing court for youths who have committed an offense. Teen courts primarily deal with first -time offenders. After arrest, the young offender must plead guilty to the charge in juvenile court. With the juvenile court's permission, the offender agrees to be sentenced and abide by the decision of a peer jury of the same age. Another essential component to teen court is that, as part of the sentence, the offender must sit in on one or more future peer juries to determine a sentence for other offenders. For example, a county teen court in Illinois gives young offenders a chance to clear their arrests from their permanent record by performing community service or other duties ordered by the court. Teen court is not a trial court. All teens admit their guilt and agree to accept a sentence given to them by a jury of their peers. A judge is present to oversee the proceedings of the court.
The teen court alleviates the strain on the regular court system and has been implemented in 426 communities since the first teen court opened in Odessa, Texas. Beside giving the offender a second chance, it gives the youth a chance to participate in the judicial process.
The purpose of the teen court, aside from sentencing youth offenders, is to educate and motivate both the offenders and the teen volunteers while simultaneously promoting better communication between defendants, the community, and the police. By offering this alternative system, teen court allows those teens who have made a bad decision an opportunity to recognize their mistake and learn from it. At the same time those teens learn a respect for themselves, the police, the community, and the legal system.
 
Part B: Listening Comprehension
CBDCA  ACBAC
CDACA  DDBDA
CBBBA  CDCAD

Part C: Listening and Translation
I . Sentence Translation
1. 人们现在可以通过因特网定购几乎任何物品。网站可供应书、光盘 / 碟片 /CD、甚至股票 / 证券 / 债券, (那些网站)看起来每天都在出现。
2. (这) 应该是一个短会, 但却开了三个小时。我们离开会议室时, 除了 (会议) 主席外, 全都是疲惫不堪。
3. 我已经 (努力) 寻求给我们国家带来一个新的政府: 更精简 / 更小, 更现代化, 更有效 (率), 始终将人民 (利益) 放在首位, 始终关注着未来。
4. 由于在证券市场上技术股的不断上升, 本年度最富人 / 人群的财产增值了50个亿。
5. 根据最近的 (一个) 调查, 大约65%的英国夫妇在教堂 (进行) 结婚 (仪式)。大多数人死后会有 (一个) 基督教 (式的) 葬礼。但只有不到20%会常常 / 固定的去教堂 (礼拜)。

II Passage Translation
Passage 1
如果你出生在一个其收入占前10位的美国家庭, 你会有二分之一 / 三成的机会继续留在那儿 / 占前 10 位。然而, 如果你出生在一个 (收入) 占倒数10位的家庭, 你会上升到 / 到达顶部 的机会就要少得多 / 非常渺茫。这就是 (所谓的) 机会 / 机遇平等。在美国, 如同在世界上其他地方一样, 富人总是越来越富, (而) 穷人却几乎无法维持生计。富人与穷人之间越来越大的差距是每个人的问题, 也是每个人 / 大家的责任。

Passage 2
信用卡业只有 50 年的历史, 有些信用卡提供真正的便利 / 的确很方便。那些接受信用卡包括在医院做开胸手术和到联邦政府交收入税。有些人不再为 (购买) 洗衣机或电脑去存钱, (他们) 只要记账就行。他们没有意识到记账要比付现款贵 / 多付钱。由于赊账 / 赊购 / 用信用卡很容易, 当前许多美国人深深地陷入债务中。
 
SECTION 2: STUDY SKILLS (50 minutes)
CBCDA  ADBCD
CDABA  DDBAC
DCBAB  BCCAD
SECTION 3: TRANSLATION TEST (1) (30 minutes)
美国人 (开始) 对他们的总统寄予很多期望, 也许多得无人能够实现。我们说总统治理国家, 但实际上总统难以管理政府的大部分事务。即使他在治理经济上难有作为。即使他没有多少他可以支配的经济手段, 我们还认为总统应为国家的经济负责。我们指望总统作为武装部队总司令领导我们打赢战争, 但是当我们思忖他的治军细节, 认为他统揽军务管得过细时却总有抱怨。
我们还倾向于把总统视为他所领导的国家的象征。很少有其他民主国家把政府首脑和国家元首的职位合而为一。我们却是这样做的, 因此我们政治生活中的一些苦涩是来自许多美国人的这样一个信念, 即任何一位总统并不真正代表他们的国家。然而, 当我们回过头来审视我们的各位总统时, 我们并不把他们看作是代表党派利益的政客, 而是看作全国的领袖, 他们都曾以不同的方式促进国家建立起强盛国力和优势。

SECTlON3:TRANSLATlON TEST (1)
Some people disparage/describe Hong Kong as a "cultural desert." Hong Kong has actually exhibited a unique cultural landscape embedded with Hong Kong characteristics / a unique culture with Hong Kong characteristics. Hong Kong's film production stays ahead / ranks high in the world, and its pop songs have a wide impact on Chinese around the world. Besides, it has (established) 8 famous universities. / /
The city's special historical and geographical traits have contributed to a diverse culture. The annual Art Carnival sponsored by the (SAR) government provides a wide / broad platform for local artists to showcase their originality and encourages more people to be involved in cultural and artistic endeavors / activities. Hong Kong has made a lot of innovations and breakthroughs for the prosperity / enrichment of Chinese culture.

 


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