扫码触屏 精彩随性

m.kaosee.cn

注册登录
首页 口译 笔译 MTI 面授 网上商城 天之聪翻译
您当前位置: > 口译 > 视译材料 >

刘晓明在牛津学联的演讲:“以史为鉴,可以知兴替”


来源: 中国驻英国使馆    作者: 中国驻英国使馆   时间:2012-10-21 12:26   点击: 次  


 
History Tells  Speech by H.E. Ambassador Liu Xiaoming at the Oxford Union

President-Elect John Lee,
Young friends,

It is a real pleasure for me to be invited to speak here today.

The Oxford Union is a prestigious debating society, with an unparalleled reputation for bringing international guests and speakers to Oxford and for the cut and thrust of its debate.

So, it is indeed an honour for me to be with you.

Also, I am delighted to have this opportunity to exchange ideas with you young friends here.

This is my second speech at Oxford. Two years ago I was invited to speak about contemporary Chinese foreign policy at the Said Business School. That was a straight forward task as obviously I should know about the subject!

Now back in Oxford, I face a tough challenge.

This is because President Lee has kindly suggested that I choose whatever topic for this speech. This is not an easy choice in such a famous forum!
Imagine that you walk into a restaurant. You then ask the chef to cook whatever tastes great. The chef will be at loss for he does not know what kind of food will please your palate.

So I have given some serious thought about how to appeal to your appetite!

In choosing today's topic, I have drawn inspiration from this great university.

Many people ask about what might be the most advantageous degree to study at Oxford University. Some say philosophy, politics and economics, commonly known as PPE.

But, I think one gentleman gave a truly authoritative answer.

He said that history was the best subject to study at Oxford. This answer has much authority as it comes from Lord Patten, Chancellor of Oxford University.

Perhaps Lord Patten gave that answer as he studied history here!

So I am going to talk about history - the history of China-Britain relations, not because I want to teach fish how to swim, but because I believe history tells a lot.

Relations between China and Britain started over two centuries ago.

It is a long and complicated relationship and has gone through many ups and downs.

But, in five phrases we can capture the headlines:
· It started with a failed diplomatic mission;
· There was an unjust war;
· Then a well-timed diplomatic upgrading;
· This led to a historic negotiation
· And finally, a new partnership.

Let me explain them one by one.

First, a failed diplomatic mission.

In 1792, King George III sent a delegation to China. This was the famous Macartney Mission.

It was the first ever diplomatic mission that Britain, and even the entire Western world, had dispatched to China. It was the prelude of official contacts between China and Britain.

The purpose of the Macartney Mission was to launch diplomatic relations between the two countries. The driving motivation of the British was commercial. The rising industrial might of the UK needed new markets. So it was an obvious step to try and open Chinese markets for British products.

Macartney made several requests to the Qing government. One request was the establishment of a permanent British embassy in China. Another petition was opening some Chinese ports for trade.

Lord Macartney failed to attain his goals. His requests and proposals were declined. Emperor Qianlong wrote in his reply letter to King George III:"Appointing a representative at my Court is a request contrary to our Imperial Dynastic rules and traditions, and is utterly impracticable."

Emperor Qian Long added:"Our Imperial virtue has penetrated into every country under heaven. Kings of all nations have offered their richest tributes by land and sea……and we have no use for your country's manufactures."

Lord Macartney attributed his failure to poor translation.

Of course the best known story about this diplomatic failure was the behavior of Lord Macartney. The court officials of the Emperor made great efforts to brief Lord Macartney about Chinese court etiquette. Despite this advice Lord Macartney refused to drop his knees when having an audience with Emperor Qian Long.

So was it a failure of communication as Lord Macartney thought?

Some compared this encounter to a dialogue between a blind man and a deaf man.

I think the answer is rather deeper. This was a failure of a fundamental clash of ideas. On one side was an established power and on the other was a rising power. There was no mutual respect or trust – a theme I will talk about later.

At that time, Britain was a capitalist country where industrial revolution was forging ahead. It had little knowledge about China at that time which was a closed and agrarian society.

In addition, China was proud of being a 'celestial imperial dynasty'. At that time China had no interest or motivation to deal with the rapidly ascending Britain. China's leaders did not think there was any need to adapt to the changing world.

Maybe I should also mention the second-in-command of the Macartney Mission. This is Sir George Staunton. Two years before he set out for China, Oxford conferred on him an honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law.

Let me turn to the second historical headline - an unjust war.

In 1840 a war broke out between China and Britain. This war might be seen as a very minor incident in the British history of external relations. It is known to British people as the first Anglo-Chinese war. It was a war triggered by conflicting trade interests.

But, if British history books record this as a minor foot note – it does not excuse the major unjust nature of the war. This was a fight based on the British Government defence of the trade in opium smuggling. Even some UK politicians were appalled by the actions of the British Government. In a debate at the House of Commons, a young Tory MP, William Gladstone, spoke fervently against it. He said:

"I do not know a war more unjust in its origin, a war more calculated to cover this country with permanent disgrace."

This unjust war ended with the defeat of China. Britain imposed an unequal treaty and forced China to concede Hong Kong and open five ports for trade. Britain achieved with gunboats what the Macartney Mission failed to secure.

The Opium War has had a deep and long impact on China. It is widely accepted by historians as the beginning of China's contemporary history.

In the 100 years that followed China sank to appalling levels of poverty and chaos. In 1840 China had 30% share of global GDP; by 1940 this had collapsed to under 5%.

Following the Opium War China was plagued by both foreign aggression and civil war. Its sovereignty was violated. Its land was occupied. As a result, the China-Britain relationship for a long time was not on an equal footing.

Every coin has two sides, so does history.

The dire perils triggered by the Opium War helped wake up the Chinese people. They became aware that China must adapt to a changing world. The Industrial Revolution that started in Britain meant that every nation had to change.

After many bitter sufferings Chinese people learned the lesson:
· They started to 'open wide their eyes and look around the world'.
· They began the search for a way to save and revive the Chinese nation.

It was in this context that a revolution broke in China.

The monarchy was overthrown and a republic was born. But, it took another four decades before the foundations of stability were laid. This was with the foundation in 1949 of the People's Republic of China.

The struggle to win that foundation was a bitter battle:

· It required Chinese people to study and accept European and American modern science and ideas of democracy.

· Chinese people had to fight Japanese aggression for eight years to win national independence.

· China imported Marxism and established the Chinese Communist Party and under its leadership found the People's Republic.

The symbolism of this struggle is at the heart of Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The inscriptions on the massive Monument to the People's Heroes reads:

"Long live the people's heroes over the years since 1840 who had fallen in the fights against internal and external enemies and for the independence of the Chinese nation and happiness of the Chinese people! "

Note the specific reference to 1840 - the starting year by Britain of the unjust 'Opium War'.

We now reach the third historical headline - a well-timed diplomatic upgrading.

After the founding of the People's Republic in 1949, China and Britain exchanged charges d'affaires in 1954. It was not a normal diplomatic relationship. It was referred to by historians as "half diplomatic relationship". Such a relationship was the product of the 'Cold War.' It was also due to some obstacles caused by the question of Taiwan.

In 1972 great changes took place in the global landscape. A key event was the visit to China by President Nixon.

The visit meant that the thick ice between China and the US was broken. At the same time China-Britain relations were thawing.

Britain acknowledged the position of the Chinese Government that Taiwan was a province of the People's Republic of China. The two countries signed the Joint Communiqué. This document was of great moment. It raised China-Britain relations to ambassadorial level. This normalized China-Britain relations.

This was a vital turning point in Sino-UK ties. It symbolised a fresh start of mutual respect and equal exchanges between the two countries.

This year marks the 40 years since those full diplomatic relations between China and the UK were established. Both sides have hosted many celebrations.
When speaking at the reception hosted by the Chinese embassy, I particularly mentioned a British leader the former Prime Minister, Sir Edward Heath.

Sir Edward deserves great credit for his huge role in making China-UK ambassadorial relations a reality. He also visited China 26 times in his lifetime. His dedication to China-Britain friendship earned him in China the title 'people's envoy of friendship.'

You will know from the records and minutes of your Oxford Union that Sir Edward was both your Secretary and Librarian. In addition, I believe he made his mark as a debater here in the Union. Like so many others before, your Union was the political cradle for him – just as it has been for many great political leaders. Perhaps it was here that he learned the values that inspired his very significant contribution to Sino-UK relations.

We now reach the fourth headline - a historic negotiation.

In spite of the establishment of ambassadorial relations, there was still an outstanding issue between the two countries-Hong Kong. This was an issue left over from the Opium War that I mentioned earlier.

The thrust of the issue was that China wanted Hong Kong back. But, Britain wanted to maintain its interests in Hong Kong.

After 22 rounds of hard negotiations, the two governments signed in Beijing in 1984 the Joint Declaration over Hong Kong. It provided that China would resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong on 1 July 1997. There was also the policy of "one country two systems" that would be applied in Hong Kong after its return.

The resolution of the Hong Kong question was a major milestone in China-UK relations. It is important in many ways:

· First, it resolved a big historical issue that went back to the Opium War. It laid the foundation for the long term growth of our relations.

· Second, it created a model for China's peaceful reunification. After the Hong Kong model, China and Portugal smoothly resolved the Macao issue.

· Third, it set a record of settling international disputes through peaceful negotiations.

For two countries like China and Britain, resolving a sensitive and complex territorial issue through peaceful negotiation was a remarkable achievement. It has far-reaching historical significance to China and Britain. It is also highly relevant and instructive to the world today.

For example, one Asian country is attempting to challenge the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and post-war international order.

Its unilateral actions have violated the consensus reached between the related countries on peaceful settlement of territorial disputes.

This Asian country should be inspired by the success story created by China and Britain.

In the historic settlement of Hong Kong question, another alumna of Oxford played a prominent role with her wisdom and decisiveness. This was Prime Minister Thatcher, the Iron Lady. I know that she also shared her wisdom here as a guest speaker at your Oxford Union.

Finally we have the fifth headline - a new type of partnership.

Since the dawn of the new century the world has witnessed extraordinary events in China. The result has brought about great changes in the economic strength, international status and role of China.

Thanks to the hard efforts over the three decades since reform and opening up, China has surged to be the world's second largest economy. For over three decades China has sustained an annual growth rate of 9.9%. This is an unmatched success that the world economy has ever known.

At the same time China has taken an active part in international affairs.

China has risen from a regional power, as the developed countries used to see it, to a global power.

As a result it is now inconceivable that any major global issue could be resolved without the active participation and support of China.

Against such a backdrop, despite the divergence in history, culture, development stage and social system, our two countries have come remarkably close in our relations. The breakthrough was the establishment of a new type of partnership.

In 1998 China and Britain embarked on a 'Comprehensive Partnership.'

In 2004 it was further enriched and elevated to a 'Comprehensive Strategic Partnership'.

Our relationship is based on our shared interests. This approach answers the call of the age we live in.

Today Sino-UK relations are flourishing.
· China and Britain have put in place:
· The Economic and Financial Dialogue;
· The Strategic Dialogue and High Level People-to-People Dialogue.

They are the three pillars of our relations.

Our economic ties are growing fast. In 2011 China-UK bilateral trade in goods totaled nearly 60 billion US dollars. That was 200 times of that in 1972.
Every year more than one million of our people visit each other's country for travel, work or study. China has become the number one source of foreign students in Britain.

Of course our two countries do not see eye to eye with each other on every issue. However, we can resolve issues as we maintain close communication and consultation. Our relationship has never been so deep and extensive.

Talking about our new partnership, I must mention another graduate of Oxford. This is former Prime Minister Tony Blair. I am told he was active in the Oxford Union and like Sir Edward an office holder.

During Tony Blair's 11 years as Prime Minister, development of China-UK relations was both fast and positive. He recognised the strategic significance by establishing his Prime Minister's China Task Force. Of course, we should not forget that the incumbent Prime Minister is also from Oxford.

Young friends,

So far I have given you an overview of the multi-faceted China-Britain relations with five headlines.

This year is the 220th anniversary of the Macartney Mission to China. From 220 years of China-Britain exchanges we witness an upward trajectory that moved from:
· estrangement to understanding;
· from hostility to friendship;
· from rivalry to cooperation
· and from negative to positive.

It is not a straight line, because our relations went through ups and downs. But this did not, and cannot change the overriding trend of Sino-UK ties.
A very famous ancient Chinese saying is:

"Take history as a mirror and you will understand why dynasties rise and fall."

Coming to Europe, Victor Hugo said:

"What is history? An echo of the past in the future, a reflex from the future on the past."

Both these Chinese and European quotations reflect similar thinking.

So taking a historical view, what lessons can we learn as we take stock of China-Britain relations over the past more than two centuries?

In my view, the most important lesson we should learn is mutual respect and treating each other as equals.

This is also a fundamental principle that China upholds and insists on in its foreign policy.

All unpleasant memories of China-Britain relations show lack of respect and equality. This is the basis of the failure of the Macartney Mission and the tragedy of the Opium War.

All positive progress of our relations were achieved through mutual respect and equality. These are seen in the diplomatic upgrading, the smooth handover of Hong Kong and the launch of a new partnership. So we may well conclude that respect and equality is the heart and soul of China-Britain relations.

Then how can China and Britain truly respect each other and treat each other as equals in the world today? I believe it is essential to do the following.

First, respect each other's national realities, such as history, culture, development stage and social system.

There are many differences in the evolution of our two nations:
· China has a history of 5000 years.
· Britain was the pathfinder of modern industrialisation.
· Confucianism is deep in Chinese people's genes.
· Britons have a tradition of pragmatism.
· Britain is the birthplace of modern capitalism and is a developed Western nation.
· China follows socialism with Chinese characteristics.
· China is the largest developing country.

These are the basic facts of the two countries.

We must be aware of and respect our differences. We should respect each other's development path. We should respect our respective choices.

Only through this kind of respect can China and Britain become equal partners.

Only through this kind of regard can our countries establish and develop a comprehensive strategic partnership between two countries like China and Britain that differ in history, culture, social and political systems.

The second essential as we move forward is, respect each other's interests, especially core interests.

You will all be familiar with the famous song Rule Britannia. This song is almost like a national anthem for Britons. In one of the verses the song says:

"Britons never, never, never shall be slaves."

Both our nations reflect pride in our culture and a resistance to domination by others. So it should not surprise that the first line of China's national anthem March of the Volunteers says:

"Arise, you people who refuse to be slaves!"

These words reflect how Chinese people refused to accept the humiliation and loss of sovereignty that followed from the Opium War.

Following the Opium War, China had been brought to its knees and the Chinese nation endured untold sufferings. Today's China and Chinese people cherish national independence and freedom. We value sovereignty and territorial integrity more than anything else.

China does not allow violation and interference from anyone on issues that concern China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, because these are our core interests. There were more than enough such historical lessons between China and Britain. We must prevent reoccurrence of such unfortunate incidents.
History is an essential guide. One famous British historian, Arnold Toynbee was also an alumnus of Oxford University.

Arnold Toynbee predicted that the 21st century would be the Chinese century.

Of course, this should not be interpreted as the 21st century belongs solely to China. Rather it means China will accomplish more in the 21st century.
I am confident that as China increasingly prospers, the future of China-Britain relations will have more opportunities.

We should be committed to a new type of China-Britain partnership I have described. In summary, these are the crucial points to define that relationship:
· Political mutual respect;
· Shared trust;
· An economic win-win cooperation;
· Reciprocal learning about each others cultures;
· And greater coordination and cooperation in international affairs.

If these goals are realised then the pattern of history suggests that our two countries and peoples will benefit enormously.

220 years ago, King George III wrote in his letter to Chinese Emperor Qianlong:

"No time can be so propitious for extending the bounds of friendship and benevolence, and for proposing to communicate and receive those benefits which must result from an unreserved and amicable intercourse, between such great and civilized nations as China and Great Britain."

Due to the confines of historical conditions, King George's wish did not come true!

But in this new era, great nations such as China and Britain have much to offer the world. Both countries should use their immense skills and resources to deliver a common goal. This is the shared objective of creating a sustainable and peaceful world for all humanity.

Oxonians have been critical to the past of China- Britain relations. I do believe you, students of Oxford, also have a huge role to play in this relationship's future. This is why I have joined you here.

I hope my reflections on history may inspire you to follow the spirit of the times and undertake your responsibilities and mission. I hope you will work with the young generation of China to compose new chapters of China-Britain relations.

Thank you ! I would be glad to take your questions.

驻英国大使刘晓明在牛津学联的演讲以史为鉴,可以知兴替

约翰·李主席,
青年朋友们,
女士们、先生们:

  很高兴来到牛津学联(Oxford Union)——牛津大学最大的辩论俱乐部(Debating Society),与青年朋友进行交流。这是我第二次来到牛津演讲。两年半前,我在贵校赛德商学院的报告厅谈了当代中国外交,那是我第一次在英国大学发表演讲,至今记忆犹新。

  今天再次来到牛津,约翰·李主席一开始就给我出了道难题,他出的题目是“任何想说的话题”。这就如同你进了一家餐馆,对厨师说,随便做点好吃的吧。厨师会很犯难,因为他不知道做什么才会合你的口味? 所以,我首先就要做一道很难的“选择题”——确定主题。

  有一件事给了我一些灵感。经常有人问这样的问题,牛津大学最好的专业是什么?我也很想知道答案。有人说是PPE(Philosophy, Politics and Economics)。不过,有人给了一个权威的回答:历史。之所以说权威,因为说这话的人是贵校彭定康校长,当然,这也可能是因为他当年在牛津大学学习的专业就是历史。因此,今天,我想选择一个历史话题。我这样做并不想在牛津“教鱼游泳”(Teach fish how to swim),而是因为“以史为鉴,可以知兴替”。所以,我想谈谈二百年来中国和英国之间交往史。

  中英关系历经风风雨雨二百多年,纷繁复杂,我想用五句话来浓缩、勾勒,那就是:一次不成功的外交使命、一场非正义的战争、一个顺应时代的外交“升格”、一场具有历史意义的谈判、一种新型的伙伴关系。

    首先,一次不成功的外交使命。1792年,英王乔治三世向中国派出一个代表团,这就是著名的马戛尔尼使团。这是英国,甚至是西方向中国派出的第一个外交使团,揭开了中英正式交往的序幕。

  马戛尔尼的使命是建立中英外交关系,并为英国商品开辟市场。因此马戛尔尼向当时的清政府提出了诸如建立使馆、开辟通商口岸等要求。马戛尔尼使华,无疑没有达到访问目的,其所提要求被一一驳回。乾隆皇帝毫不客气在给英王的复信中指出:派人留京“与天朝体制不合,断不可行”;“天朝德威远被,万国来王,种种贵重之物,梯航必集,无所不有。…无需尔国置办物件”。马戛尔尼自己总结使命失败的原因是“翻译水平过低”,也就是言语不通。当然,也有人说是礼节问题,即英使是否要向乾隆皇帝双膝下跪的争执。但从根本上来说,这是由于新兴大国和守成大国在观念上的冲突,是一次“聋子和瞎子的对话”。英国作为正在进行工业革命的资本主义强国,还不了解仍处于农耕社会、闭关锁国的中国,同时,以天朝自居的中国也还没有准备与迅速崛起的英国打交道,去认识正在变化的世界。

  或许我该提一下马戛尔尼使团的副使——乔治·斯当东男爵,就在启程去中国的两年前,他获得了牛津大学的名誉法学博士(D.C.L.)学位。

  第二,一场非正义的战争。1840年,中英间爆发了一场战争,这场战争可能在英国对外史上不算什么了不起的战争,英国人将它称作“第一次英中战争”(First Anglo-Chinese War),也将它说成是一场“商业战争”,但这样的措辞掩盖不了它的非正义性,因为它所捍卫的贸易是走私,推销的商品是鸦片。正如当时反对战争的托利党人格兰斯顿在英国议会下院辩论时所演讲的:“我不知道而且也没有读到过,在起因上还有比这场战争更加不义的战争。”

  这场非正义的鸦片战争的结果是中国战败,中英签署了不平等条约,英国强迫中国割让了香港,中国增开五口通商。马戛尔尼使团没有得到的东西,英国人通过坚船利炮得到了。

  鸦片战争对中国的影响是深远的,被历史学家公认为中国近代史的发端。鸦片战争后的一百年,中国可谓国运飘摇,积贫积弱。1840年中国的GDP约占世界30%,到了1940年已锐减至不到5%。同时,外患不断,内乱不已,主权沦丧,河山破碎,中英关系自然也长期处于一种不平等状态。

  但历史有时就是这么辩证,事物总是有它的另一面。在中华民族走向危难之时,“东方睡狮”也逐渐苏醒,中国人痛定思痛,开始“睁眼看世界”,开始上下求索救国存亡之道。于是,中国爆发了革命,推翻了帝制,建立了共和;“西学东渐”,中国学习和接受西方近现代科学知识和民主思想;中国八年抗战,打败了日本侵略者,实现了民族独立;中国引进了马克思主义,成立了中国共产党,建立了中国共产党领导下的新中国。正因如此,在北京天安门广场的人民英雄纪念碑上,镌刻着“由此上溯到一千八百四十年,从那时起,为了反对内外敌人,争取民族独立和人民自由幸福,在历次斗争中牺牲的人民英雄们永垂不朽!”。中华民族奋发振兴的历史就是以鸦片战争为起点。

   第三,一个顺应时代的外交“升格”。1949年新中国成立后,中英之间在1954年建立了代办级外交关系,这不是一种正常的外交关系,被史学家称之为“半建交关系”。这是二战后冷战大环境使然,也是由于台湾问题上的一些障碍。

  直到1972年,国际格局发生了重大变化,中美关系发生了破冰,中英关系才迎来了解冻。英国承认中国政府关于台湾是中华人民共和国一个省的立场,中英签署了联合公报,将代办级外交关系升格为大使级外交关系,两国关系实现了正常化。这是中英关系的一个重要转折点,开启了两国相互尊重、平等交往的新起点。

  今年正是中英建立大使级外交关系40周年,中英双方搞了不少纪念活动。我在中国驻英使馆举办的纪念招待会的讲话中,特意提到了一位英国人,他就是时任英国首相希思先生。他不仅为中英建立大使级外交关系作出了贡献,而且一生中曾经26次访华,致力于中英友好,被中国誉为“人民友谊使者”。

  牛津学联的史料表明希思先生曾是这里的书记员和图书管理员。除此之外我相信他肯定还是这里一位出色的辩手。这里是他的政治摇篮,给他以思想启蒙。

  第四,一场具有历史意义的谈判。中英建立了大使级外交关系,但两国关系中还有一桩历史悬案,这就是我前面提到的鸦片战争遗留下的问题:香港。

  摆在中英双方面前的问题是,中国要收回香港,英国要维护在香港的利益。于是两国政府经过长达22轮会谈,1984年在北京签署关于香港问题的联合声明,中国于1997年7月1日对香港恢复行使主权,回归后香港实行“一国两制”。

  中英解决香港问题具有里程碑意义,一是扫清了中英间重大历史遗留问题,为两国关系的长期发展进一步奠定了基础。二是为中国实现和平统一创下了先例。按照香港模式,中国和葡萄牙此后顺利解决了澳门问题。三是创下了和平谈判解决国际争端的范例。中英两个大国之间,通过和平谈判解决敏感复杂的领土问题,不仅对两国具有深远的现实意义,而且对世界具有重要的现实意义,这应当给个别企图挑战《联合国宪章》宗旨和战后国际秩序、单方采取行动破坏国与国达成的有关和平解决领土争端共识的亚洲国家深刻启迪。

  在这一历史性事件中,牛津的又一位校友以其远见卓识和明智决策,在香港问题的解决上发挥了重要的作用,她就是“铁娘子”撒切尔夫人。

   第五,一种新型伙伴关系。世纪之交以来,中国的经济实力、国际地位和作用发生了巨大的变化。中国经过改革开放30多年的励精图治,年均增速达到9.9%,成为世界第二大经济体,创造了世界经济发展史上的新奇迹。中国积极参与国际事务,从过去西方眼中的地区性大国上升为全球性大国,许多国际热点问题和全球性事务的解决离不开中国的参与和支持。

  在这样的背景下,中英尽管历史文化、发展阶段和社会制度不同,但两国努力建立一种超越差异和分歧的互利共赢的新型伙伴关系。1998年时,两国将之称为“全面伙伴关系”,2004年时又升级为“全面战略伙伴关系”,赋予了更多内涵。它是建立在两国共同利益基础之上,深刻反映了两国关系的新时代要求。

  今天,中英已建立了经济财金对话、战略对话和高级别人文交流机制等双边关系“三大支柱”。双边经贸合作增长迅速,2011年双边货物贸易额近600亿美元,比1972年增长了近200倍。每年,中英有超过100万人次的民众到对方国家旅游、工作、学习,中国成为英国海外留学生最大来源国。两国在国际事务中尽管不是所有问题都持相同观点,但双方保持着密切磋商与协调。两国关系的广度和深度都达到了前所未有的水平。

  谈到中英新型伙伴关系,我又不得不提到另一位功不可没的牛津校友,这就是前首相布莱尔先生,而且据说他当年是牛津学联的活跃分子。他执政的11年里,中英关系发展可以说是“又快又好”。他高度重视中英关系,专门成立了“对华关系小组”。当然,我们也不应忘了,现任英国首相也是一名牛津校友。

  青年朋友们,

  刚才我用了“五个一”,将纷繁庞杂的中英关系大致作了一个简化、梳理。今年正好是马戛而尼使团赴华220周年,回顾中英220年交往史,我们不难看到这样的轨迹,它是从陌生到了解,从敌对到友好,从不平等到平等,从竞争到合作,从消极到积极,是一条不断向上的曲线。当然,它不是一条直线,中英关系并非总是一帆风顺,而是时有起伏,常有波折,但这没有也改变不了两国关系发展的总体趋势。

  中国古人说:“以史为鉴,可以知兴替”。雨果说:“历史是什么:是过去传到将来的回声,是将来对过去的反映。”总结中英关系二百多年历史,我们今天应该得到什么样的启示呢?

  我认为,最突出、最重要的启示就是要:相互尊重,平等相待。这也是今天中国外交奉行、坚持的一条原则。在中英关系史上,无论马戛尔尼使华的失败,还是鸦片战争的爆发,都可以发现正是由于缺乏相互尊重和平等相待;相反,无论中英外交关系的升格,香港问题的顺利解决,还是中英建立新型伙伴关系,都是由于中英相互尊重和平等相待。可以说,“相互尊重和平等相待”,是中英关系发展的内在之魂。

    今天,怎样才能做到相互尊重和平等相待?

  一是尊重对方的历史、文化、发展阶段和社会制度等基本国情。中国有五千年古老文明史,英国开创了近代工业文明;中国人深受儒家思想影响,英国人则有实用主义传统;英国是近代资本主义的诞生地,是西方发达国家之一,中国实行中国特色社会主义,是最大的发展中国家。这是两国的基本国情,了解是尊重的前提,我们必须了解这样的差异。我们更要尊重差异,尊重对方国家的发展道路和自主选择,只有这样,中英两个历史、文化和社会、政治制度不同的国家才能成为平等的伙伴,才能建立和发展全面战略伙伴关系。

  二是尊重对方的利益,特别是核心利益。英国皇家海军军歌《Rule, Britannia》中有一句:“英国人永远不会做奴隶”。中国国歌《义勇军进行曲》的第一句就是:“起来!不愿做奴隶的人们!”鸦片战争后,中国深受主权沦丧之辱,中华民族遭受了深重的苦难。今天的中国和中国人民,珍爱国家独立和民族自由,将国家主权和领土完整视作高于一切。在涉及主权和领土的核心利益问题上,中国不容许别人损害和干涉。中英之间,曾经有过太多这样的历史教训,我们必须避免这样的教训再次发生。

  牛津校友、英国著名历史学家汤因比曾预言:“21世纪将是中国人的世纪”。当然,这句话不能片面理解为21世纪仅仅属于中国,而是说中国在21世纪将有更大作为。我相信,在中国日益繁荣富强基础上,中英关系的未来将更加充满机遇。我们应当进一步发展政治上更加互尊互信、经贸上更加互利共赢,文化上更加互知互鉴,国际上更加协调合作的新时期中英新型伙伴关系,造福两国和两国人民。

  220年前,乔治三世在致乾隆皇帝的国书中如此写道:“现在正是中国和英国这两个伟大和文明的国家,传输善意和缔结友谊,相互从和睦的关系中获益的最佳时机。”由于历史条件所限,这样的愿望当时没有成为现实。

  今天,在新的时代,中国和英国这两个伟大的国家可以为世界做出许多贡献。我们两国应竭尽所能为建设持久和平的世界这一共同目标而奋斗。

  在中英关系的过去,牛津校友起到了举足轻重的作用。对中英关系的未来,牛津学子也一定会大有作为。所以我今天来到你们中间,希望你们顺应时代,承担起使命与责任,与中国的青年一代一道努力,谱写中英关系未来的新篇章。

  谢谢。下面我愿回答你们的问题。


    最新优惠 350元《韩刚口译入门学习法》DVD| 350元《韩刚口译实战训练法》DVD |498元李长栓周蕴仪《汉英笔译实战课程》| 498元《李慧CATTI二级口译课程》|598元《夏倩英语口译同传课程》 |398元《俄语口译实战课程》 |

    想快速提高翻译水平吗?

    关注‘天之聪教育’微信,每天都有免费双语学习素材,以及CATTI报考、备考、真题、模拟试题等

    针对口译、笔译学习的精品资料推送, 您可以随时随地通过手机学习!

    打开微信“通讯录”-“添加”-“查找公众号”-输入“kaosee_4008112230”,然后关注;或者来

    扫一扫二维码,速速添加吧!免费口译、笔译课都有机会获得哦~

    课程 课时 优惠价 试听 购买
    CATTI笔译全科通关VIP课程【186课时】【韩刚主讲】 186 ¥798 试听
    马茜口译笔记速记【外交部译员T型笔记体系】 49 ¥398 试听
    备考2018年11月CATTI三级口译全科通关VIP课程【韩刚、底静、马茜 187 ¥698 试听
    2018年11月CATTI二级口译全科VIP通关班【技巧+实操+真题+模拟】 170课时 ¥798 试听
    CATTI二级口译全科通关VIP课程【韩刚、马茜主讲】 170 ¥798 试听
    来北外高翻听李长栓、周蕴仪讲笔译【备考MTI/CATTI必备课程】 30 ¥498 试听
    CATTI二级口译课程【天之聪明星老师李慧主讲】 47 ¥498 试听
    CATTI三级口译真题精讲【考前冲刺】课程(马茜、韩刚主讲) 74 ¥398 试听

    口译入门未必需要太过深厚的英语功底和太过虚华的学历...
    巩固基本技能,强调学习方法,凝练精妙表达,提升全盘备战 ...
    新概念小语种:无需任何外语基础,会中文就能学!原汁原味实用情景对话,学地道外语!
    西雅图工作英语,好英语,好工作!外企白领必备教程,15CD+2教材!

    顶一下
    (0)

    您可能还感兴趣的英语文章

    音频:李慧详解视译技巧
    (音频)视译训练是口译学习重要的组成部分;特别是同传,现在很多的同传会议不会提前先给材料,都是在会前给译员材料,这就要求译员有很强的视译能力! Managers for a nuclear future It is too early to sa~~
    音频:韩刚CECE逆向翻译法
    韩刚老师解读CECE逆向翻译学习法,现在网上双语的材料繁多,很多学员不知道选择什么样的双语素材,怎么学习?今天,韩刚老师选了一段China Daily的材料,结合CECE学习法,教学员怎么利用双语材料进行~~
    视译资料:刘晓明解析五热词:中国发展前景光明
    3月6日,刘晓明大使在英国《名流》杂志发表署名文章《解析五热词:中国发展前景光明》,全文如下: On 6 March, H.E. Ambassador Liu Xiaoming wrote an article in the FIRST Magazine entitled Why the Pessimists Are Wrong on China. The full text is as follows: 关于中~~
    视译资料:米歇尔•欧巴马将访问中国
    白宫:第一夫人米歇尔欧巴马(Michelle Obama)预定2014年3月19-26日前往中国 THE WHITE HOUSE Office of the First Lady March 3, 2014 White House: First Lady Michelle Obama to Travel to China March 19-26, 2014 第一夫人预定2014年3月19-26日前往中国,3月20-23日访问北京~~

    发表评论:

    表达一些您的想法吧! 已有条评论>>
    文明评论,理性发言!

    最新评论(时间排序)

    视频推荐

    关于天之聪 | 网站动态 | 讲师招聘 | 商务合作 | 联系我们 | 下载专区
    ©2007-2018 中视天之聪教育科技(北京)有限公司 All rights reserved. 版权所有 京ICP备12005225号 京公网安备11010802011421