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双语对照:第十四个五年规划和2035年远景目标纲要

中国翻译研究院 2021-08-17 13236次

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共和国国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和2035年远景目标纲要

Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Economic and Social Development and Vision 2035 of the People's Republic of China

March 13, 2021

第一篇 开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程

Part I A New Journey Towards a Modern Socialist Country

第一章 发展环境

Chapter 1 Development Environment

第二章 指导方针

Chapter 2 Guidelines

第三章 主要目标

Chapter 3 Main Objectives

第二篇 坚持创新驱动发展 全面塑造发展新优势

Part II Innovation-Driven Development to Build New Strengths

第四章 强化国家战略科技力量

Chapter 4 A Strategic Vision for Building Strength in Science and Technology

第五章 提升企业技术创新能力

Chapter 5 Technological Innovation Capability of Enterprises

第六章 激发人才创新活力

Chapter 6 Creativity and Talent Development

第七章 完善科技创新体制机制

Chapter 7 Mechanisms for Scientific and Technological Innovation

第三篇 加快发展现代产业体系 巩固壮大实体经济根基

Part III Industrial Modernization and the Foundation of Real Economy

第八章 深入实施制造强国战略

Chapter 8 Strengthening Manufacturing

第九章 发展壮大战略性新兴产业

Chapter 9 Emerging Industries of Strategic Importance

第十章 促进服务业繁荣发展

Chapter 10 Development of the Service Sector

第十一章 建设现代化基础设施体系

Chapter 11 Modern Infrastructure

第四篇 形成强大国内市场 构建新发展格局

Part IV A Robust Domestic Market and a New Development Paradigm

第十二章 畅通国内大循环

Chapter 12 Greater Domestic Circulation

第十三章 促进国内国际双循环

Chapter 13 Domestic and International Circulation

第十四章 加快培育完整内需体系

Chapter 14 Strategies to Boost Domestic Demand

第五篇 加快数字化发展 建设数字中国

Part V An Initiative to Build a Digital China

第十五章 打造数字经济新优势

Chapter 15 Pole Position in the Digital Economy

第十六章 加快数字社会建设步伐

Chapter 16 A Digital Society

第十七章 提高数字政府建设水平

Chapter 17 Digital Government

第十八章 营造良好数字生态

Chapter 18 A Healthy Digital Ecosystem

第六篇 全面深化改革 构建高水平社会主义市场经济体制

Part VI Comprehensive and In-depth Reform to Develop a Well-functioning Socialist Market Economy

第十九章 激发各类市场主体活力

Chapter 19 Market Dynamism

第二十章 建设高标准市场体系

Chapter 20 A Unified Market that Adheres to High Standards

第二十一章 建立现代财税金融体制

Chapter 21 Fiscal Policy, Taxation, and the Financial System

第二十二章 提升政府经济治理能力

Chapter 22 The Government's Economic Governance Capacity

第七篇 坚持农业农村优先发展 全面推进乡村振兴

Part VII Agricultural and Rural Development and Rural Revitalization

第二十三章 提高农业质量效益和竞争力

Chapter 23 Quality Issues and Competitiveness in the Agricultural Sector

第二十四章 实施乡村建设行动

Chapter 24 Rural Development Initiatives

第二十五章 健全城乡融合发展体制机制

Chapter 25 Integrated Urban-Rural Development

第二十六章 实现巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果同乡村振兴有效衔接

Chapter 26 Rural Revitalization to Be Pursued by Building on Success in Poverty Alleviation

第八篇 完善新型城镇化战略 提升城镇化发展质量

Part VIII New Urbanization Strategy with a Focus on Quality Development

第二十七章 加快农业转移人口市民化

Chapter 27 Urban Residency Status for Rural Residents

第二十八章 完善城镇化空间布局

Chapter 28 Spatial Distribution of Urban Centers

第二十九章 全面提升城市品质

Chapter 29 Quality of Urban Living

第九篇 优化区域经济布局 促进区域协调发展

Part IX Improving Regional Economic Structures and Promoting Coordinated Regional Development

第三十章 优化国土空间开发保护格局

Chapter 30 Land Use Planning and Environmental Protection

第三十一章 深入实施区域重大战略

Chapter 31 Major Regional Development Strategies

第三十二章 深入实施区域协调发展战略

Chapter 32 Coordinated Regional Development Strategies

第三十三章 积极拓展海洋经济发展空间

Chapter 33 Development of the Marine Economy

第十篇 发展社会主义先进文化 提升国家文化软实力

Part X Socialist Cultural Development and China's Soft Power

第三十四章 提高社会文明程度

Chapter 34 Ethical Behavior

第三十五章 提升公共文化服务水平

Chapter 35 Public Cultural Services

第三十六章 健全现代文化产业体系

Chapter 36 Cultural Industries

第十一篇 推动绿色发展 促进人与自然和谐共生

Part XI Green Development and Harmonious Co-existence between Humanity and Nature

第三十七章 提升生态系统质量和稳定性

Chapter 37 Improving the Ecosystem

第三十八章 持续改善环境质量

Chapter 38 Continuous Environmental Improvement

第三十九章 加快发展方式绿色转型

Chapter 39 Faster Transformation for Green Development

第十二篇 实行高水平对外开放 开拓合作共赢新局面

Part XII Further Opening-up for Win-Win Cooperation

第四十章 建设更高水平开放型经济新体制

Chapter 40 A New Open Economy System

第四十一章 推动共建"一带一路"高质量发展

Chapter 41 Joint Pursuit of the Belt and Road Initiative

第四十二章 积极参与全球治理体系改革和建设

Chapter 42 Participating in the Reform and Development of the Global Governance System

第十三篇 提升国民素质 促进人的全面发展

Part XIII Promotion of Human Development

第四十三章 建设高质量教育体系

Chapter 43 Quality Education for All

第四十四章 全面推进健康中国建设

Chapter 44 A Healthy China

第四十五章 实施积极应对人口老龄化国家战略

Chapter 45 A National Strategy in Response to Population Aging

第十四篇 增进民生福祉 提升共建共治共享水平

Part XIV A Focus on the People's Wellbeing: a Participatory Approach

第四十六章 健全国家公共服务制度体系

Chapter 46 National Public Services

第四十七章 实施就业优先战略

Chapter 47 An Employment-First Strategy

第四十八章 优化收入分配结构

Chapter 48 Improving the Income Distribution Structure

第四十九章 健全多层次社会保障体系

Chapter 49 A Multi-Tiered Social Security System

第五十章 保障妇女未成年人和残疾人基本权益

Chapter 50 Basic Rights and Interests of Women, Children, and People with Disabilities

第五十一章 构建基层社会治理新格局

Chapter 51 Community-Level Participatory Governance

第十五篇 统筹发展和安全 建设更高水平的平安中国

Part XV An Integrated Approach to Development and Security

第五十二章 加强国家安全体系和能力建设

Chapter 52 National Security and Capacity-building

第五十三章 强化国家经济安全保障

Chapter 53 National Economic Security

第五十四章 全面提高公共安全保障能力

Chapter 54 Public Security

第五十五章 维护社会稳定和安全

Chapter 55 Social Stability and Security

第十六篇 加快国防和军队现代化 实现富国和强军相统一

Part XVI Modernization of National Defense and the Armed Forces as We Build National Prosperity

第五十六章 提高国防和军队现代化质量效益

Chapter 56 Modernization of National Defense and the Military

第五十七章 促进国防实力和经济实力同步提升

Chapter 57 Strengthening National Defense in Tandem with Economic Growth

第十七篇 加强社会主义民主法治建设 健全党和国家监督制度

Part XVII Socialist Democracy, the Rule of Law, and Party and State Oversight Mechanisms

第五十八章 发展社会主义民主

Chapter 58 Socialist Democracy

第五十九章 全面推进依法治国

Chapter 59 Promotion of the Rule of Law

第六十章 完善党和国家监督体系

Chapter 60 Party and State Oversight Mechanisms

第十八篇 坚持"一国两制" 推进祖国统一

Part XVIII The Principle of "One Country, Two Systems" and National Reunification

第六十一章 保持香港、澳门长期繁荣稳定

Chapter 61 Lasting Prosperity and Stability in Hong Kong and Macao

第六十二章 推进两岸关系和平发展和祖国统一

Chapter 62 Peaceful Development of Cross-Straits Relations and National Reunification

第十九篇 加强规划实施保障

Part XIX Implementation of This Plan

第六十三章 加强党中央集中统一领导

Chapter 63 The Overall Leadership Role of the CPC Central Committee

第六十四章 健全统一规划体系

Chapter 64 Unified Planning

第六十五章 完善规划实施机制

Chapter 65 Mechanisms for Implementing This Plan

中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年(2021-2025年)规划和2035年远景目标纲要,根据《中共中央关于制定国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和二〇三五年远景目标的建议》编制,主要阐明国家战略意图,明确政府工作重点,引导规范市场主体行为,是我国开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程的宏伟蓝图,是全国各族人民共同的行动纲领。

The Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Economic and Social Development and Vision 2035 of the People's Republic of China, compiled on the basis of the proposals of the CPC Central Committee for such a plan and vision, clarifies China's strategic intentions and the government's priorities, and guides market participants in their activities. It is a blueprint for China's new journey towards a socialist modern country and a joint action plan of the Chinese people.

第一篇 开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程

Part I A New Journey Towards a Modern Socialist Country

“十四五”时期是我国全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标之后,乘势而上开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程、向第二个百年奋斗目标进军的第一个五年。

The period covered by the 14th Five-Year Plan will be the first five years during which China begins its march towards the second Centenary Goal of building a modern socialist country by building on the success of achieving the first Centenary Goal of building a moderately well-off society.

第一章 发展环境

Chapter 1 Development Environment

我国进入新发展阶段,发展基础更加坚实,发展条件深刻变化,进一步发展面临新的机遇和挑战。

China has now entered a new stage of development on a stronger foundation, though profound changes have taken place in the conditions under which we pursue our development goals. We are facing new opportunities and challenges.

第一节 决胜全面建成小康社会取得决定性成就

I. A decisive victory in building a moderately well-off society

“十三五”时期是全面建成小康社会决胜阶段。面对错综复杂的国际形势、艰巨繁重的国内改革发展稳定任务特别是新冠肺炎疫情严重冲击,以习近平同志为核心的党中央不忘初心、牢记使命,团结带领全党全国各族人民砥砺前行、开拓创新,奋发有为推进党和国家各项事业。全面深化改革取得重大突破,全面依法治国取得重大进展,全面从严治党取得重大成果,国家治理体系和治理能力现代化加快推进,中国共产党领导和我国社会主义制度优势进一步彰显。

The 13th Five-Year Plan period was the decisive stage in building a moderately well-off society. In the face of the complicated international situation and formidable domestic issues related to advancing reforms and development while maintaining stability, particularly under the grave impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core, has stayed true to the CPC’s original aspiration and kept the Party’s missions firmly in mind. It has united and led the entire Party and the Chinese people of all ethnic groups to pioneer and forge ahead, and worked hard to advance various undertakings of the Party and the country. China has made major breakthroughs in deepening reforms in all areas, made substantial progress in law-based governance in all respects, and has achieved remarkable results in ensuring full and strict governance over the Party. China’s system and capacity for governance have been modernized at an accelerated pace. These achievements comprehensively demonstrate the strong leadership of the CPC and the institutional strengths of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

经济运行总体平稳,经济结构持续优化,国内生产总值突破100万亿元。创新型国家建设成果丰硕,在载人航天、探月工程、深海工程、超级计算、量子信息、“复兴号”高速列车、大飞机制造等领域取得一批重大科技成果。决战脱贫攻坚取得全面胜利,5575万农村贫困人口实现脱贫,困扰中华民族几千年的绝对贫困问题得到历史性解决,创造了人类减贫史上的奇迹。农业现代化稳步推进,粮食年产量连续稳定在1.3万亿斤以上。1亿农业转移人口和其他常住人口在城镇落户目标顺利实现,区域重大战略扎实推进。污染防治力度加大,主要污染物排放总量减少目标超额完成,资源利用效率显著提升,生态环境明显改善。金融风险处置取得重要阶段性成果。对外开放持续扩大,共建“一带一路”成果丰硕。人民生活水平显著提高,教育公平和质量较大提升,高等教育进入普及化阶段,城镇新增就业超过6000万人,建成世界上规模最大的社会保障体系,基本医疗保险覆盖超过13亿人,基本养老保险覆盖近10亿人,城镇棚户区住房改造开工超过2300万套。新冠肺炎疫情防控取得重大战略成果,应对突发事件能力和水平大幅提高。公共文化服务水平不断提高,文化事业和文化产业繁荣发展。国防和军队建设水平大幅提升,军队组织形态实现重大变革。国家安全全面加强,社会保持和谐稳定。

Overall, China’s economy has performed stably and its structure has been consistently improved, with the country’s GDP now exceeding RMB 100 trillion. China has accomplished much towards becoming an innovative country and has made major advances in manned spaceflight, lunar exploration, deep-sea engineering, supercomputing, quantum information, “Fuxing” high-speed trains, large aircraft manufacture, and other fields. We have attained a decisive victory in the fight against poverty and the rural poor residents, 55.75 million in total, have been lifted out of poverty. The problem of absolute poverty, which had plagued the Chinese nation for thousands of years has been solved—a miracle in the history of mankind. Agricultural modernization has been steadily advanced, and the annual grain output has surpassed 650 million tons for several years. The goal of granting urban residency to 100 million people from rural areas and other permanent residents without local household registration has also been met. Solid steps have been taken to implement major regional development strategies. Pollution prevention and control efforts have been intensified, the target of reduction in the discharge of major pollutants has been exceeded, resources and energy have been used more efficiently, and there has been a notable improvement in the environment. Important progress has been made in addressing financial risks in this period. China has opened its door wider to the world, and the joint pursuit of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has yielded fruitful results. The living standards of the Chinese people have increased significantly. Considerable headway was made in ensuring the provision of equitable, quality education. Higher education is becoming universal. Over 60 million urban jobs were added, and the world’s largest social security system was established. China’s basic medical insurance covers 1.3 billion people and its basic old-age insurance covers nearly 1 billion people. More than 23 million housing units in urban shanty towns have now been renovated. The country has had major strategic success in the response to COVID-19, and the preparedness and capacity for coping with emergencies have been substantially improved. The country’s public cultural services have been consistently improved, and the cultural sector flourished. Notable advances have been made in the development of national defense and the armed forces, and the organizational structure of the military has undergone major changes. China’s national security has been comprehensively strengthened, and social harmony and stability have been maintained across the country.

“十三五”规划目标任务胜利完成,我国经济实力、科技实力、综合国力和人民生活水平跃上新的大台阶,全面建成小康社会取得伟大历史性成就,中华民族伟大复兴向前迈出了新的一大步,社会主义中国以更加雄伟的身姿屹立于世界东方。

The goals and tasks of the 13th Five-Year Plan have been successfully completed. China’s economic strength, scientific and technological strength, comprehensive national strength, and people’s living standards have now reached a new high. The country has made great and historic achievements in building a moderately well-off society and has taken a new and big stride towards the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Today, socialist China stands taller and stronger in the East.

第二节 我国发展环境面临深刻复杂变化

II. Profound changes in China’s development environment

当前和今后一个时期,我国发展仍然处于重要战略机遇期,但机遇和挑战都有新的发展变化。当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,新一轮科技革命和产业变革深入发展,国际力量对比深刻调整,和平与发展仍然是时代主题,人类命运共同体理念深入人心。同时,国际环境日趋复杂,不稳定性不确定性明显增加,新冠肺炎疫情影响广泛深远,世界经济陷入低迷期,经济全球化遭遇逆流,全球能源供需版图深刻变革,国际经济政治格局复杂多变,世界进入动荡变革期,单边主义、保护主义、霸权主义对世界和平与发展构成威胁。

China is now in an important period of strategic opportunity for development, and will remain so for some time to come, but the opportunities and challenges it faces are changing. The world today is undergoing major changes unprecedented in a century. The new round of technological revolution and industrial transformation is gaining momentum, and there is a profound shift in the balance of international power. Peace and development remain the themes of the times, and the concept of a community with a shared future for mankind is deeply rooted in people’s minds. At the same time, the international environment has become increasingly complex with obviously increased instability and uncertainty. The COVID-19 pandemic is exerting an extensive, far-reaching impact around the world—the global economy is in the doldrums, economic globalization is encountering headwinds, and dramatic changes are taking place in the global energy supply and demand landscape. The international economic and political landscapes are complex and changeable, and the world is entering a period of turbulent changes, with unilateralism, protectionism, and hegemonism posing a threat to world peace and development.

我国已转向高质量发展阶段,制度优势显著,治理效能提升,经济长期向好,物质基础雄厚,人力资源丰富,市场空间广阔,发展韧性强劲,社会大局稳定,继续发展具有多方面优势和条件。同时,我国发展不平衡不充分问题仍然突出,重点领域关键环节改革任务仍然艰巨,创新能力不适应高质量发展要求,农业基础还不稳固,城乡区域发展和收入分配差距较大,生态环保任重道远,民生保障存在短板,社会治理还有弱项。

China has moved to a stage of development with a focus on quality improvement. It has significant institutional advantages, improved performance in governance, sound long-term economic fundamentals, a solid material foundation, rich human resources, vast market potential, strong economic resilience, and social stability, thus enjoying favorable conditions and strengths for further development. At the same time, unbalanced and inadequate development is still a prominent problem, and reform in key links and major fields remains a formidable task. China’s capacity for innovation cannot yet meet the need of pursuing development with a focus on quality improvement. The foundation of agriculture is not yet solid. There are still disparities in development between urban and rural areas and between regions and in income distribution. We have a long way to go in protecting the environment. In work on public wellbeing and social governance, there are still areas where we fall short.

必须统筹中华民族伟大复兴战略全局和世界百年未有之大变局,深刻认识我国社会主要矛盾变化带来的新特征新要求,深刻认识错综复杂的国际环境带来的新矛盾新挑战,增强机遇意识和风险意识,立足社会主义初级阶段基本国情,保持战略定力,办好自己的事,认识和把握发展规律,发扬斗争精神,增强斗争本领,树立底线思维,准确识变、科学应变、主动求变,善于在危机中育先机、于变局中开新局,抓住机遇,应对挑战,趋利避害,奋勇前进。

We must keep in mind both the broad strategic goal of national rejuvenation and the profound changes unseen in a century in the world, and clearly understand the new features and requirements brought about by the changes in the principal contradictions in our society, as well as the new contradictions and challenges arising from the complicated international environment, while enhancing our awareness of opportunities and risks. We must keep in mind the basic fact that China is still in the primary stage of socialism, maintain a strategic resolve, and run our own affairs well. We should fully understand the laws governing development, be ready to fight, build our ability, evaluate worst-case scenarios, accurately perceive changes and scientifically respond to them, take the initiative to seek changes, be good at fostering opportunities amid crises and opening up new vistas in a shifting landscape, seize opportunities and deal with challenges while weighing up pros and cons, and forge ahead with confidence and courage.

第二章 指导方针

Chapter 2 Guidelines

“十四五”时期经济社会发展,必须牢牢把握以下指导思想、原则和战略导向。

During the period covered by the 14th Five-Year Plan, economic and social development will be guided by the following guidelines, principles, and strategic direction.

第一节 指导思想

I. Guidelines

高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,深入贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中、四中、五中全会精神,坚持以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观、习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻党的基本理论、基本路线、基本方略,统筹推进经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设的总体布局,协调推进全面建设社会主义现代化国家、全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党的战略布局,坚定不移贯彻创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,以推动高质量发展为主题,以深化供给侧结构性改革为主线,以改革创新为根本动力,以满足人民日益增长的美好生活需要为根本目的,统筹发展和安全,加快建设现代化经济体系,加快构建以国内大循环为主体、国内国际双循环相互促进的新发展格局,推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,实现经济行稳致远、社会安定和谐,为全面建设社会主义现代化国家开好局、起好步。

We must hold high the banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics; thoroughly implement the guiding principles of the 19th National Congress of the CPC and of the second, third, fourth, and fifth plenary sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee; and follow the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development, and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. We must fully act on the Party’s basic theory, line, and policy, coordinate efforts to achieve economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress, and implement the strategy to make comprehensive efforts to build a great modern socialist country, deepen reform, advance law-based governance, and ensure full and strict governance over the Party. We must be committed to the new development philosophy of innovation, coordination, green development, opening-up, and sharing; uphold the underlying principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability; pursue development with a focus on quality improvement; promote supply-side structural reforms as the main task; and make reforms and innovation the primary driving force in our endeavor to meet the fundamental goal of satisfying the people’s growing needs for a better life. We should ensure coordination in pursuing development and upholding security, accelerate the building of a modern economic system and expedite our efforts to create a new development paradigm with the domestic market as the mainstay and domestic and overseas markets reinforcing each other. We should also modernize China’s system and capacity for governance and realize long-term and stable economic development and social stability and harmony. By doing so, we will set the stage for building a modern socialist country in all respects.

第二节 必须遵循的原则

II. Principles to follow

——坚持党的全面领导。坚持和完善党领导经济社会发展的体制机制,坚持和完善中国特色社会主义制度,不断提高贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局能力和水平,为实现高质量发展提供根本保证。

—Uphold the overall leadership of the CPC. We will adhere to and improve the Party’s institutions and mechanisms for leading economic and social development, adhere to and improve the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, continuously boost our capacity for implementing the new development philosophy and building a new development paradigm, and provide a fundamental guarantee for development with a focus on quality improvement.

——坚持以人民为中心。坚持人民主体地位,坚持共同富裕方向,始终做到发展为了人民、发展依靠人民、发展成果由人民共享,维护人民根本利益,激发全体人民积极性、主动性、创造性,促进社会公平,增进民生福祉,不断实现人民对美好生活的向往。

—Commit to a people-centered approach. We must ensure the principal position of the people, and work towards common prosperity. We must insist that our development is for the people and depends on the people, and that its fruits are shared by the people. We must safeguard the fundamental interests of the people, stimulate their enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity, promote social equity, improve people’s wellbeing, and constantly help realize people’s aspiration for a better life.

——坚持新发展理念。把新发展理念完整、准确、全面贯穿发展全过程和各领域,构建新发展格局,切实转变发展方式,推动质量变革、效率变革、动力变革,实现更高质量、更有效率、更加公平、更可持续、更为安全的发展。

—Stay true to the new development philosophy. We must ensure the new development philosophy is applied in full, in both letter and spirit and in every stage and aspect of development. We must build a new development paradigm, effectively change the development model, work hard for better quality, higher efficiency, and more robust drivers of economic growth through reform, and strive to achieve higher-quality development that is more efficient, equitable, sustainable and secured.

——坚持深化改革开放。坚定不移推进改革,坚定不移扩大开放,加强国家治理体系和治理能力现代化建设,破除制约高质量发展、高品质生活的体制机制障碍,强化有利于提高资源配置效率、有利于调动全社会积极性的重大改革开放举措,持续增强发展动力和活力。

—Continue to deepen reform and opening-up. We must be fully committed to reform and opening-up and modernize China’s governance system and capacity. We must get rid of the institutional ailments that restrict development with a focus on quality improvement and high-quality life, strengthen major reform and opening-up measures that are conducive to improving the efficiency of resource allocation and mobilizing the enthusiasm of the whole society, and continuously enhance the driving force and vitality of development.

——坚持系统观念。加强前瞻性思考、全局性谋划、战略性布局、整体性推进,统筹国内国际两个大局,办好发展安全两件大事,坚持全国一盘棋,更好发挥中央、地方和各方面积极性,着力固根基、扬优势、补短板、强弱项,注重防范化解重大风险挑战,实现发展质量、结构、规模、速度、效益、安全相统一。

—Uphold system-based thinking. We must think ahead, plan the big picture, deploy strategically, and advance in a holistic manner. We must keep in mind both our internal and international imperatives, and balance development and security. By adhering to the national strategy, we need to give full play to the initiative of the central and local governments and people in various sectors, solidify our foundation, foster strengths, and tackle areas of weaknesses. We need to pay attention to preventing and resolving major risks and challenges, and ensure a balance between the quality, structure, scale, speed, efficiency, and security in terms of development.

第三节 战略导向

III. Strategic direction

“十四五”时期推动高质量发展,必须立足新发展阶段、贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局。把握新发展阶段是贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局的现实依据,贯彻新发展理念为把握新发展阶段、构建新发展格局提供了行动指南,构建新发展格局则是应对新发展阶段机遇和挑战、贯彻新发展理念的战略选择。必须坚持深化供给侧结构性改革,以创新驱动、高质量供给引领和创造新需求,提升供给体系的韧性和对国内需求的适配性。必须建立扩大内需的有效制度,加快培育完整内需体系,加强需求侧管理,建设强大国内市场。必须坚定不移推进改革,破除制约经济循环的制度障碍,推动生产要素循环流转和生产、分配、流通、消费各环节有机衔接。必须坚定不移扩大开放,持续深化要素流动型开放,稳步拓展制度型开放,依托国内经济循环体系形成对全球要素资源的强大引力场。必须强化国内大循环的主导作用,以国际循环提升国内大循环效率和水平,实现国内国际双循环互促共进。

To promote development with a focus on quality improvement during the 14th Five-Year Plan period, we must ground our efforts in the new stage of development, apply the new development philosophy and create a new development paradigm. Understanding the new development stage is the realistic basis for implementing the new development philosophy and creating the new development paradigm. Implementing the new development philosophy provides a guide for understanding the new development stage and fostering the new development paradigm. Building the new development paradigm is a strategic choice in response to the opportunities and challenges in the new development stage and for implementing the new development philosophy. We must continue to deepening supply-side structural reforms, foster new demand through pursuing innovation-driven development and ensuring high-quality supply, and enhance the resilience of the supply system and its adaptability to domestic demand. We must build an effective system to boost domestic demand, expedite the establishment of a complete demand system, strengthen demand-side management, and build a robust domestic market. We must unswervingly push forward reform, get rid of institutional obstacles to economic circulation, and promote the flows of production factors and the integration at the stages of production, allocation, distribution, and consumption. We must be fully committed to greater opening-up, continue to deepen the opening-up based on the flow of production factors, stably expand the institution-based opening-up, and leverage the flows of the domestic economy to make China a major magnet for global production factors and resources. We must strengthen the leading role of domestic circulation, improve its efficiency and level via international circulation, and realize the mutual reinforcement of domestic and international circulation.

第三章 主要目标

Chapter 3 Main Objectives

按照全面建设社会主义现代化国家的战略安排,2035年远景目标和“十四五”时期经济社会发展主要目标如下。

In accordance with the strategic arrangement for comprehensively building China into a modern socialist country, Vision 2035 and the main objectives for economic and social development during the 14th Five-Year Plan period are as follows.

第一节 2035年远景目标

I. Vision 2035

展望2035年,我国将基本实现社会主义现代化。经济实力、科技实力、综合国力将大幅跃升,经济总量和城乡居民人均收入将再迈上新的大台阶,关键核心技术实现重大突破,进入创新型国家前列。基本实现新型工业化、信息化、城镇化、农业现代化,建成现代化经济体系。基本实现国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,人民平等参与、平等发展权利得到充分保障,基本建成法治国家、法治政府、法治社会。建成文化强国、教育强国、人才强国、体育强国、健康中国,国民素质和社会文明程度达到新高度,国家文化软实力显著增强。广泛形成绿色生产生活方式,碳排放达峰后稳中有降,生态环境根本好转,美丽中国建设目标基本实现。形成对外开放新格局,参与国际经济合作和竞争新优势明显增强。人均国内生产总值达到中等发达国家水平,中等收入群体显著扩大,基本公共服务实现均等化,城乡区域发展差距和居民生活水平差距显著缩小。平安中国建设达到更高水平,基本实现国防和军队现代化。人民生活更加美好,人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕取得更为明显的实质性进展。

By 2035, China will basically achieve socialist modernization. Our economic and technological strength, and comprehensive national strength will increase significantly. We will make new strides in economic aggregate and the per capita income of urban and rural residents. Making major breakthroughs in core technologies in key areas, we will be a global leader in innovation, and will also achieve new industrialization, enhanced IT application, urbanization, and agricultural modernization, and complete building a modern economic system. We will have modernized the governance system and capacity, and the rights of the people to participate and to develop as equals will be adequately protected. The rule of law for the country, the government, and society will be comprehensively in place. China will become a powerful country in terms of culture, education, human capital, sports, and health. The well-rounded development of the people and social etiquette and civility will be significantly enhanced. China’s cultural soft power will grow much stronger. Eco-friendly work and lifestyle will be advanced to cover all areas of society. Carbon dioxide emissions will steadily decline after reaching a peak, and there will be a fundamental improvement in the environment after the goal of building a Beautiful China is met. The opening-up will reach a new stage with substantial growth in the country’s capabilities for participating in international economic cooperation and competition. The per capita GDP will reach the level of moderately developed countries and the size of the middle-income group will be significantly expanded. Equitable access to basic public services will be ensured. Disparities in development between urban and rural areas and between regions, and in living standards will be significantly reduced. The Peaceful China initiative will be pursued at a higher level. The modernization of national defense and the military will be achieved. People will lead a better life, and more notable and substantial progress will be achieved in well-rounded human development and in common prosperity for all.

第二节 “十四五”时期经济社会发展主要目标

II. Main objectives for economic and social development during the 14th Five-Year Plan period

——经济发展取得新成效。发展是解决我国一切问题的基础和关键,发展必须坚持新发展理念,在质量效益明显提升的基础上实现经济持续健康发展,增长潜力充分发挥,国内生产总值年均增长保持在合理区间、各年度视情提出,全员劳动生产率增长高于国内生产总值增长,国内市场更加强大,经济结构更加优化,创新能力显著提升,全社会研发经费投入年均增长7%以上、力争投入强度高于“十三五”时期实际,产业基础高级化、产业链现代化水平明显提高,农业基础更加稳固,城乡区域发展协调性明显增强,常住人口城镇化率提高到65%,现代化经济体系建设取得重大进展。

—China will strive to make new strides in economic development during the period. Development is the foundation and the key for solving all of China’s problems. We must be fully committed to the new vision for development and realize sustained and healthy economic development based on a marked improvement in quality and efficiency. We will fully tap China’s growth potential, keep the average annual growth of GDP within an appropriate range, set annual targets for GDP growth on the basis of actual conditions, and ensure that overall labor productivity grows faster than GDP. The domestic market will be stronger, the economic structure will be further optimized, and the innovation capacity will be significantly improved. China’s R&D spending will increase by more than 7% annually, and is expected to account for a higher percentage of GDP than that during the 13th Five-Year Plan period. The upgrade of the industrial base and modernization of the industrial chains will be significantly improved, and the agricultural foundation will be strengthened. The balance of development between urban and rural areas and between regions will be significantly enhanced. The permanent urban residents will increase to 65% of the population, and significant progress will be made towards a modernized economy.

——改革开放迈出新步伐。社会主义市场经济体制更加完善,高标准市场体系基本建成,市场主体更加充满活力,产权制度改革和要素市场化配置改革取得重大进展,公平竞争制度更加健全,更高水平开放型经济新体制基本形成。

—New steps will be taken in reform and opening-up. China will further improve its socialist market economy with a high-standard market system in place. Market entities will be increasingly dynamic, and major progress will be achieved in the reform of the property rights system and the market-based allocation of factors of production. A more robust system of fair competition will prevail, and a new system of higher-standard open economy will take shape.

——社会文明程度得到新提高。社会主义核心价值观深入人心,人民思想道德素质、科学文化素质和身心健康素质明显提高,公共文化服务体系和文化产业体系更加健全,人民精神文化生活日益丰富,中华文化影响力进一步提升,中华民族凝聚力进一步增强。

—China’s social etiquette and civility will be further enhanced. Core socialist values will be widely embraced, and significant improvement will be made in the intellectual, moral, scientific, cultural, and health standards of Chinese citizens. The systems for public cultural services and cultural industries will be further improved, the intellectual and cultural life of the Chinese people will become richer, the international influence of the Chinese culture will be further increased, and an even stronger bond will be forged among all the people of the Chinese nation.

——生态文明建设实现新进步。国土空间开发保护格局得到优化,生产生活方式绿色转型成效显著,能源资源配置更加合理、利用效率大幅提高,单位国内生产总值能源消耗和二氧化碳排放分别降低13.5%、18%,主要污染物排放总量持续减少,森林覆盖率提高到24.1%,生态环境持续改善,生态安全屏障更加牢固,城乡人居环境明显改善。

—New progress will be made in building an ecological civilization. The territorial space will be better developed and protected. Remarkable results will be achieved in a shift towards eco-friendly work and lifestyle. Energy and resources will be more rationally allocated and much more efficiently used. Energy consumption per unit of GDP and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP will be reduced by 13.5% and 18%, respectively. The total discharge of major pollutants will be consistently reduced. The forest coverage will reach 24.1%, and the environment will be consistently improved with a stronger defense for ecological security. The living environment in urban and rural areas will also be significantly improved.

——民生福祉达到新水平。实现更加充分更高质量就业,城镇调查失业率控制在5.5%以内,居民人均可支配收入增长与国内生产总值增长基本同步,分配结构明显改善,基本公共服务均等化水平明显提高,全民受教育程度不断提升,劳动年龄人口平均受教育年限提高到11.3年,多层次社会保障体系更加健全,基本养老保险参保率提高到95%,卫生健康体系更加完善,人均预期寿命提高1岁,脱贫攻坚成果巩固拓展,乡村振兴战略全面推进,全体人民共同富裕迈出坚实步伐。

—The well-being of people will be boosted. We will increase employment and create better quality jobs, while maintaining the surveyed urban unemployment rate within 5.5%. Per capita disposable income will grow in line with GDP growth, and the income distribution structure will be significantly improved. The access to basic public services will be much more equitable. All Chinese people will enjoy better education opportunities, with the average years of schooling among the working-age population rising to 11.3. The multi-tiered social security system will be improved, with basic old-age insurance covering 95% of the population. The health care system will be improved, and the average life expectancy will be increased by 1 year. What we have achieved in poverty alleviation will be consolidated and expanded, the rural revitalization strategy will be comprehensively carried forward, and solid strides will be made towards common prosperity for all.

——国家治理效能得到新提升。社会主义民主法治更加健全,社会公平正义进一步彰显,国家行政体系更加完善,政府作用更好发挥,行政效率和公信力显著提升,社会治理特别是基层治理水平明显提高,防范化解重大风险体制机制不断健全,突发公共事件应急处置能力显著增强,自然灾害防御水平明显提升,发展安全保障更加有力,国防和军队现代化迈出重大步伐。

—Further progress will be made in China’s governance capacity. Socialist democracy and the rule of law will be enhanced, so will be social fairness and justice. With improvements in the administration system, the government will better exercise its role, and its performance and credibility will be significantly enhanced. Social governance, especially primary-level governance, will be remarkably improved. Systems and mechanisms for forestalling and defusing major risks will be constantly improved, with the capacity to handle public emergencies significantly enhanced. Notable progress will be seen in preventing natural disasters, development security will be more effectively ensured, and major steps will be taken in the modernization of the national defense and armed forces.

第二篇 坚持创新驱动发展 全面塑造发展新优势

Part II Innovation-Driven Development to Build New Strengths

坚持创新在我国现代化建设全局中的核心地位,把科技自立自强作为国家发展的战略支撑,面向世界科技前沿、面向经济主战场、面向国家重大需求、面向人民生命健康,深入实施科教兴国战略、人才强国战略、创新驱动发展战略,完善国家创新体系,加快建设科技强国。

Innovation remains at the heart of China’s modernization drive. The development of science and technology has increasingly assumed strategic importance for China’s national development. It is crucial to build cutting-edge technologies to spur economic growth, meet the country’s critical needs, and improve the people’s health. Indeed, success in building prosperity hinges on the development of science and education, talent building, and innovation, including institutional support for innovation.

第四章 强化国家战略科技力量

Chapter 4 A Strategic Vision for Building Strength in Science and Technology

制定科技强国行动纲要,健全社会主义市场经济条件下新型举国体制,打好关键核心技术攻坚战,提高创新链整体效能。

An action plan for building prosperity through science and technology will be developed, with a focus on strengthening institutional support on a national level and leveraging the advantages of our socialist market economy. It aims to encourage innovation and breakthroughs in core technologies in key areas and improve the overall efficiency of the innovation chain.

第一节 整合优化科技资源配置

I. More rational allocation of scientific and technological resources

以国家战略性需求为导向推进创新体系优化组合,加快构建以国家实验室为引领的战略科技力量。聚焦量子信息、光子与微纳电子、网络通信、人工智能、生物医药、现代能源系统等重大创新领域组建一批国家实验室,重组国家重点实验室,形成结构合理、运行高效的实验室体系。优化提升国家工程研究中心、国家技术创新中心等创新基地。推进科研院所、高等院校和企业科研力量优化配置和资源共享。支持发展新型研究型大学、新型研发机构等新型创新主体,推动投入主体多元化、管理制度现代化、运行机制市场化、用人机制灵活化。

We will promote an optimal combination of innovation systems oriented towards the strategic needs of the country and work faster to enhance our strategic scientific and technological capability based on the development of national laboratories. Focusing on quantum information, photonics, micro and nanoelectronics, network communications, artificial intelligence, biomedicine, modern energy systems, and other major innovation areas, we will establish a group of national laboratories and reorganize national key laboratories, thus establishing a laboratory system with a rational structure and efficient operation. We will optimize and upgrade national engineering research centers and national technology innovation centers among other innovation bases, promote the optimal allocation of research resources and sharing of resources among research institutes, higher-education institutions, and enterprises, and support the development of new forms of innovators such as research universities and R&D institutions. We will promote the diversification of investors, the modernization of management systems, market-based operation mechanisms, and flexible employment mechanisms.

第二节 加强原创性引领性科技攻关

II. Encouraging ground-breaking scientific and technological innovation

在事关国家安全和发展全局的基础核心领域,制定实施战略性科学计划和科学工程。瞄准人工智能、量子信息、集成电路、生命健康、脑科学、生物育种、空天科技、深地深海等前沿领域,实施一批具有前瞻性、战略性的国家重大科技项目。从国家急迫需要和长远需求出发,集中优势资源攻关新发突发传染病和生物安全风险防控、医药和医疗设备、关键元器件零部件和基础材料、油气勘探开发等领域关键核心技术。

We will formulate and implement strategic scientific programs and scientific projects in the basic and core areas concerning national security and development, and carry out pioneering and strategic national projects in artificial intelligence, quantum information, integrated circuits, life and health, brain science, biological breeding, aerospace science and technology, deep earth and deep sea, among other frontier fields. Based on the urgent and long-term needs of the country, we will concentrate our advantageous resources to make breakthroughs in core technologies in the key fields including new and sudden outbreak of infectious diseases, biosafety risk prevention and control, medicine and medical equipment, key components and parts and basic materials, and petroleum and natural gas exploration and development.

第三节 持之以恒加强基础研究

III. Strengthening basic research

强化应用研究带动,鼓励自由探索,制定实施基础研究十年行动方案,重点布局一批基础学科研究中心。加大基础研究财政投入力度、优化支出结构,对企业投入基础研究实行税收优惠,鼓励社会以捐赠和建立基金等方式多渠道投入,形成持续稳定投入机制,基础研究经费投入占研发经费投入比重提高到8%以上。建立健全符合科学规律的评价体系和激励机制,对基础研究探索实行长周期评价,创造有利于基础研究的良好科研生态。

We will strengthen the role of application-oriented research as a driving force, encourage free exploration, formulate and implement a 10-year action plan for basic research, and give priority to a group of research centers for fundamental disciplines. We will increase funding and improve the composition of spending for basic research, give preferential tax treatment to enterprises engaging in basic research, encourage the private sector to channel more resources to basic research through diverse means such as donations and investment, and form a mechanism for ensuring sustainable and stable funding. The spending on basic research will account for over 8% of total R&D spending. A sound evaluation system and incentive mechanism will be established and improved for long-term evaluation of basic research and for creating an environment conducive to basic research.

第四节 建设重大科技创新平台

IV. Building major platforms for scientific and technological innovation

支持北京、上海、粤港澳大湾区形成国际科技创新中心,建设北京怀柔、上海张江、大湾区、安徽合肥综合性国家科学中心,支持有条件的地方建设区域科技创新中心。强化国家自主创新示范区、高新技术产业开发区、经济技术开发区等创新功能。适度超前布局国家重大科技基础设施,提高共享水平和使用效率。集约化建设自然科技资源库、国家野外科学观测研究站(网)和科学大数据中心。加强高端科研仪器设备研发制造。构建国家科研论文和科技信息高端交流平台。

We will support the initiative of making Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area international centers for science and technology innovation, build comprehensive national science centers in Huairou in Beijing, Zhangjiang in Shanghai, Greater Bay Area, and Hefei in Anhui, and support the building of regional science and technology innovation centers in places where conditions permit. We will strengthen the innovation functions of national innovation demonstration zones, new and high-tech industry development zones, and economic and technological development zones. We will adopt an appropriate forward-thinking plan for major national science and technology infrastructure and ensure that it is better shared and more efficiently utilized. We will intensively build repositories of natural science and technology resources, national workstations (networks) for field observation and research and scientific big data centers; strengthen the R&D and manufacture of high-end research instruments and equipment; and build high-end national exchange platforms for research papers and scientific and technological information.

第五章 提升企业技术创新能力

Chapter 5 Technological Innovation Capability of Enterprises

完善技术创新市场导向机制,强化企业创新主体地位,促进各类创新要素向企业集聚,形成以企业为主体、市场为导向、产学研用深度融合的技术创新体系。

Market-oriented mechanisms for technological innovation will be in place to boost the role of enterprises in innovation, encourage the flow of resources to enterprises, and enable enterprises to play a major role in innovation with the support of universities, research institutes, and end-users.

第一节 激励企业加大研发投入

I. Encouraging enterprises to increase R&D spending

实施更大力度的研发费用加计扣除、高新技术企业税收优惠等普惠性政策。拓展优化首台(套)重大技术装备保险补偿和激励政策,发挥重大工程牵引示范作用,运用政府采购政策支持创新产品和服务。通过完善标准、质量和竞争规制等措施,增强企业创新动力。健全鼓励国有企业研发的考核制度,设立独立核算、免于增值保值考核、容错纠错的研发准备金制度,确保中央国有工业企业研发支出年增长率明显超过全国平均水平。完善激励科技型中小企业创新的税收优惠政策。

More efforts will be made to implement inclusive policies such as granting an extra tax deduction on R&D costs and offering preferential tax treatment to high-tech enterprises. We will expand and improve the insurance compensation and incentive policies for the application of newly developed major technical equipment, give play to the leading and demonstrative roles of major projects, and support innovative products and services with government procurement policies. We will enhance the enterprises’ motivation for innovation by improving standards, quality, and competition regulations and other measures; build a robust assessment system for encouraging R&D efforts of state-owned enterprises, and establish an R&D reserve system featuring independent accounting, exemption from value increase assessment, and fault tolerance and error correction, to ensure that the annual growth rate of R&D expenditure of central state-owned industrial enterprises is significantly higher than the national average. At the same time, we will enhance preferential tax policies that encourage innovation in small and medium-sized scientific and technological enterprises.

第二节 支持产业共性基础技术研发

II. Support for research and development of general-purpose technologies

集中力量整合提升一批关键共性技术平台,支持行业龙头企业联合高等院校、科研院所和行业上下游企业共建国家产业创新中心,承担国家重大科技项目。支持有条件企业联合转制科研院所组建行业研究院,提供公益性共性技术服务。打造新型共性技术平台,解决跨行业跨领域关键共性技术问题。发挥大企业引领支撑作用,支持创新型中小微企业成长为创新重要发源地,推动产业链上中下游、大中小企业融通创新。鼓励有条件地方依托产业集群创办混合所有制产业技术研究院,服务区域关键共性技术研发。

China will focus on integrating and upgrading key general-purpose technology platforms, support leading enterprises in the industry to work with universities, research institutes, and upstream and downstream industrial enterprises in building national centers for industrial innovation and in undertaking major national science and technology projects. Qualified enterprises will be supported to cooperate with research institutes that have been transformed into enterprises, to establish industry research institutes and provide common technology services for public welfare. China will build new general-purpose technology platforms to tackle key problems encountered in multiple industries and fields. We will give play to the leading and supporting roles of large enterprises, support the growth of innovative micro, small, and medium enterprises into important sources of innovation, and promote collaborative innovation among large, medium, and small enterprises in the upstream, mid-stream, and downstream of the industrial chain. We will also encourage the establishment of mixed-ownership industrial technology research institutes on the basis of industrial clusters in places where conditions permit, to facilitate research and development in key generic technologies.

第三节 完善企业创新服务体系

III. Innovation services for enterprises

推动国家科研平台、科技报告、科研数据进一步向企业开放,创新科技成果转化机制,鼓励将符合条件的由财政资金支持形成的科技成果许可给中小企业使用。推进创新创业机构改革,建设专业化市场化技术转移机构和技术经理人队伍。完善金融支持创新体系,鼓励金融机构发展知识产权质押融资、科技保险等科技金融产品,开展科技成果转化贷款风险补偿试点。畅通科技型企业国内上市融资渠道,增强科创板“硬科技”特色,提升创业板服务成长型创新创业企业功能,鼓励发展天使投资、创业投资,更好发挥创业投资引导基金和私募股权基金作用。

China will give enterprises greater access to national research platforms, scientific and technological reports, and research data, innovate the mechanisms for applying scientific and technological achievements, and encourage the licensing of eligible government-financed scientific and technological achievements to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). We will push forward the institutional reform for innovation and entrepreneurship and build specialized and market-oriented institutions for technology transfer and teams of technology managers. We will improve the financial support system for innovation, encourage financial institutions to develop fintech products such as intellectual property pledge financing and technology insurance, and carry out pilot projects of risk compensation for loans related to the application of scientific and technological achievements. We will also provide smooth financing channels for domestic listing of technology-based enterprises, enhance the “hard technology” characteristics of the Science and Technology Innovation Board as well as the function of the ChiNext stock market in serving growth-oriented innovative enterprises and startups, encourage the development of angel investment and venture capital, and give better play to the role of venture capital guide funds and private equity funds.

第六章 激发人才创新活力

Chapter 6 Creativity and Talent Development

贯彻尊重劳动、尊重知识、尊重人才、尊重创造方针,深化人才发展体制机制改革,全方位培养、引进、用好人才,充分发挥人才第一资源的作用。

It is important to foster a culture that respects knowledge, encourages hard work and creativity, and is conducive to talent development. Reform is necessary to improve a full spectrum of talent management practices, including training, recruitment, and placement, thus giving full play to the role of talent, the most essential resource.

第一节 培养造就高水平人才队伍

I. Building a contingent of high-calibre personnel

遵循人才成长规律和科研活动规律,培养造就更多国际一流的战略科技人才、科技领军人才和创新团队,培养具有国际竞争力的青年科技人才后备军,注重依托重大科技任务和重大创新基地培养发现人才,支持设立博士后创新岗位。加强创新型、应用型、技能型人才培养,实施知识更新工程、技能提升行动,壮大高水平工程师和高技能人才队伍。加强基础学科拔尖学生培养,建设数理化生等基础学科基地和前沿科学中心。实行更加开放的人才政策,构筑集聚国内外优秀人才的科研创新高地。完善外籍高端人才和专业人才来华工作、科研、交流的停居留政策,完善外国人在华永久居留制度,探索建立技术移民制度。健全薪酬福利、子女教育、社会保障、税收优惠等制度,为海外科学家在华工作提供具有国际竞争力和吸引力的环境。

China will develop more world-class strategic talents and leading figures in science and technology and innovation teams in accordance with the laws of personnel development and research activities. The country will foster reserves of young scientists and engineers with international competitiveness, pay attention to developing and discovering talents through major scientific and technological tasks and major innovation bases, and support the establishment of post-doctoral innovation posts. The country will strengthen the training of innovative, skilled, and application-oriented personnel, implement knowledge renewal projects and skills upgrade initiatives, and build stronger teams of high-level engineers and highly skilled personnel. Efforts will be made to intensify the training of top students in basic disciplines, and build bases and frontier science centers for mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, and other basic disciplines. We will implement a more open talent policy and build a research and innovation center that brings together excellent personnel at home and abroad. We will improve the policies for foreign high-calibre personnel and professionals who stay or reside in China for work, research, and exchange, improve the permanent residence system for foreigners in China, and explore the establishment of a skilled migration system. We will also improve the systems concerning salary and welfare, children’s education, social security, and tax incentives to provide an internationally competitive and attractive environment for overseas scientists to work in China.

第二节 激励人才更好发挥作用

II. Incentives for researchers

完善人才评价和激励机制,健全以创新能力、质量、实效、贡献为导向的科技人才评价体系,构建充分体现知识、技术等创新要素价值的收益分配机制。选好用好领军人才和拔尖人才,赋予更大技术路线决定权和经费使用权。全方位为科研人员松绑,拓展科研管理“绿色通道”。实行以增加知识价值为导向的分配政策,完善科研人员职务发明成果权益分享机制,探索赋予科研人员职务科技成果所有权或长期使用权,提高科研人员收益分享比例。深化院士制度改革。

We will improve the evaluation and incentive mechanism, build a robust system to evaluate scientists and engineers based on the criteria of innovation ability, quality, effectiveness and contribution, and develop an income distribution mechanism that fully reflects the value of knowledge, technology, and other elements in innovation. We will carefully select leading and top-notch personnel, leverage their expertise and give them a greater say on technological routes and fund use. We will free up more space for researchers in an all-round manner and expand the “green channel” for research management. We will adopt a distribution policy oriented towards rewarding knowledge and improve the mechanism for researchers to share the benefits from their on-the-job inventions, vest in them the ownership or long-term right of use of their research results on a pilot basis, and increase their share of benefits. We will also deepen the reform of the academician system.

第三节 优化创新创业创造生态

III. An ecosystem for innovation, entrepreneurship, and creativity

大力弘扬新时代科学家精神,强化科研诚信建设,健全科技伦理体系。依法保护企业家的财产权和创新收益,发挥企业家在把握创新方向、凝聚人才、筹措资金等方面重要作用。推进创新创业创造向纵深发展,优化双创示范基地建设布局。倡导敬业、精益、专注、宽容失败的创新创业文化,完善试错容错纠错机制。弘扬科学精神和工匠精神,广泛开展科学普及活动,加强青少年科学兴趣引导和培养,形成热爱科学、崇尚创新的社会氛围,提高全民科学素质。

We will vigorously carry forward the spirit of scientists in the new era, strengthen research integrity, and improve the ethical system in science and technology. We will protect the property rights and innovation income of entrepreneurs according to law and give full play to the important role of entrepreneurs in steering innovation in the right direction, bringing together competent personnel and raising funds. We will promote the in-depth development of innovation, entrepreneurship, and creativity, and optimize the layout of the innovation and entrepreneurship demonstration bases. We will advocate an innovation and entrepreneurship culture of dedication, seeking better from best, concentration and tolerance of failure, and improve the trial-and-error mechanism that allows errors to be tolerated and corrected. To create a social climate that values science and innovation, and improve the scientific literacy of the people, we will uphold the spirit of scientists and craftsmanship, extensively carry out science popularization activities, and foster an interest in science among young people.

第七章 完善科技创新体制机制

Chapter 7 Mechanisms for Scientific and Technological Innovation

深入推进科技体制改革,完善国家科技治理体系,优化国家科技计划体系和运行机制,推动重点领域项目、基地、人才、资金一体化配置。

Institutional reforms will proceed at a deeper level to improve the national science and technology governance system and national planning for the development of science and technology, and allow a holistic approach to deploying projects, facilities, personnel, and funds in key sectors.

第一节 深化科技管理体制改革

I. Deeper reforms in the science and technology management system

加快科技管理职能转变,强化规划政策引导和创新环境营造,减少分钱分物定项目等直接干预。整合财政科研投入体制,重点投向战略性关键性领域,改变部门分割、小而散的状态。改革重大科技项目立项和组织管理方式,给予科研单位和科研人员更多自主权,推行技术总师负责制,实行“揭榜挂帅”、“赛马”等制度,健全奖补结合的资金支持机制。健全科技评价机制,完善自由探索型和任务导向型科技项目分类评价制度,建立非共识科技项目的评价机制,优化科技奖励项目。建立健全科研机构现代院所制度,支持科研事业单位试行更灵活的编制、岗位、薪酬等管理制度。建立健全高等院校、科研机构、企业间创新资源自由有序流动机制。深入推进全面创新改革试验。

We will accelerate the transformation of government functions in science and technology management, enhance the guiding role of planning and policies and the creation of an innovative environment, and reduce direct interventions in financial and physical resources and in projects. The government funding system for research will be consolidated, with an increased focus on strategic and key sectors, and the problems of compartmentalization and small and scattered funding will be effectively addressed. The approval, organization, and management of major scientific and technological projects will be reformed to grant more decision-making rights to research institutions and researchers. To this end we will implement a system of chief technology officers assuming responsibilities, implement a ranking system and a strong and open competition mechanism for selecting the best candidates to lead key research projects, and improve the funding mechanism to combine awards and subsidies. We will improve the evaluation mechanism of science and technology and the classified evaluation system for free exploration and task-oriented science and technology projects, establish an evaluation mechanism for science and technology projects on which a consensus is not yet achieved, and optimize science and technology award projects. We will establish and improve the modern research institution system and support the institutions to try out more flexible systems for human resources, post, and salary management. We will establish and improve the mechanism of free and orderly flow of innovation resources among institutions of higher learning, research institutions, and enterprises. In addition to these efforts, we will further promote pilot reforms for comprehensive innovation.

第二节 健全知识产权保护运用体制

II. Protection of intellectual property rights

实施知识产权强国战略,实行严格的知识产权保护制度,完善知识产权相关法律法规,加快新领域新业态知识产权立法。加强知识产权司法保护和行政执法,健全仲裁、调解、公证和维权援助体系,健全知识产权侵权惩罚性赔偿制度,加大损害赔偿力度。优化专利资助奖励政策和考核评价机制,更好保护和激励高价值专利,培育专利密集型产业。改革国有知识产权归属和权益分配机制,扩大科研机构和高等院校知识产权处置自主权。完善无形资产评估制度,形成激励与监管相协调的管理机制。构建知识产权保护运用公共服务平台。

We will implement a strategy to make China strong on intellectual property rights, implement a strict intellectual property protection system, improve the related laws and regulations, and accelerate the legislation in emerging fields and new forms of business. We will strengthen judicial protection and administrative enforcement related to intellectual property rights, improve relevant systems of arbitration, mediation, notarization, and assistance in the protection of rights, build a better system of punitive damages for intellectual property infringements, and increase the compensation. We will optimize the patent subsidy and incentive policies and evaluation mechanisms to better protect and encourage high-value patents and develop patent-intensive industries. By reforming the ownership and distribution mechanism of state-owned intellectual property rights, we will give research institutions and institutions of higher learning a greater say in the disposition of intellectual properties. The intangible assets evaluation system will be improved, a management mechanism that combines incentives and supervision will be established, and public service platforms will be built for intellectual property protection and application.

第三节 积极促进科技开放合作

III. Openness and cooperation in the field of science and technology

实施更加开放包容、互惠共享的国际科技合作战略,更加主动融入全球创新网络。务实推进全球疫情防控和公共卫生等领域国际科技合作,聚焦气候变化、人类健康等问题加强同各国科研人员联合研发。主动设计和牵头发起国际大科学计划和大科学工程,发挥科学基金独特作用。加大国家科技计划对外开放力度,启动一批重大科技合作项目,研究设立面向全球的科学研究基金,实施科学家交流计划。支持在我国境内设立国际科技组织、外籍科学家在我国科技学术组织任职。

We will implement a more open, inclusive, mutually beneficial, and shared international strategy for cooperation in science and technology and more actively integrate ourselves into the global innovation network. We will pragmatically promote international cooperation in the fields of global epidemic prevention and control and public health, boost joint research and development with researchers from various countries focusing on climate change, human health, and other issues, take the lead in designing and initiating international big science programs and projects, and give play to the unique role of science funds. We will step up the opening-up of the national science and technology programs, launch a group of major science and technology cooperation projects, explore and establish a global research fund, and implement scientist exchange programs. We will also support the establishment of international scientific and technological organizations in China, and welcome foreign scientists to serve in scientific and technological academic organizations in China.

第三篇 加快发展现代产业体系 巩固壮大实体经济根基

Part III Industrial Modernization and the Foundation of Real Economy

坚持把发展经济着力点放在实体经济上,加快推进制造强国、质量强国建设,促进先进制造业和现代服务业深度融合,强化基础设施支撑引领作用,构建实体经济、科技创新、现代金融、人力资源协同发展的现代产业体系。

The focus of economic growth should be on the development of the real economy. Building national strength requires, in particular, strengthening manufacturing and improving product quality. Further integration of advanced manufacturing and modern services is called for. Improving infrastructure provides support and paves the way for new growth. It is important to strengthen institutional support for symbiotic interaction between the real economy, scientific and technological innovation, financial services, and talent development.

第八章 深入实施制造强国战略

Chapter 8 Strengthening Manufacturing

坚持自主可控、安全高效,推进产业基础高级化、产业链现代化,保持制造业比重基本稳定,增强制造业竞争优势,推动制造业高质量发展。

It is crucial to build more secure, resilient, and efficient modern supply chains not subject to disruptions and outside interference. It is also crucial to ensure that the share of manufacturing in the economy remains stable, and to enhance the competitive advantages of the manufacturing sector with a focus on quality improvement.

第一节 加强产业基础能力建设

I. Strengthening basic industrial capacities

实施产业基础再造工程,加快补齐基础零部件及元器件、基础软件、基础材料、基础工艺和产业技术基础等瓶颈短板。依托行业龙头企业,加大重要产品和关键核心技术攻关力度,加快工程化产业化突破。实施重大技术装备攻关工程,完善激励和风险补偿机制,推动首台(套)装备、首批次材料、首版次软件示范应用。健全产业基础支撑体系,在重点领域布局一批国家制造业创新中心,完善国家质量基础设施,建设生产应用示范平台和标准计量、认证认可、检验检测、试验验证等产业技术基础公共服务平台,完善技术、工艺等工业基础数据库。

We will carry out projects to rebuild industrial foundation and promptly resolve bottlenecks and weaknesses in basic spare parts and components, basic software, basic materials, basic processes, and fundamental industrial technology. Leveraging the leading enterprises in relevant sectors, we will step up efforts to make major breakthroughs in important products and core technologies in key fields and work quickly to make groundbreaking progress in engineering and industrialization. We will ensure the success of projects launched to achieve breakthroughs in key technical equipment, improve the incentive and risk compensation mechanisms, and promote the demonstration and application of newly developed equipment, materials, and software. We will improve the basic industrial infrastructure support system, establish a group of national centers for manufacturing innovation in key sectors, improve national quality infrastructure, build production application demonstration platforms and standard measurement, certification and accreditation, inspection and testing, test verification, and other industrial technology public service platforms, and improve the industrial database for technology and processes.

第二节 提升产业链供应链现代化水平

II. Modernization of industrial chains and supply chains

坚持经济性和安全性相结合,补齐短板、锻造长板,分行业做好供应链战略设计和精准施策,形成具有更强创新力、更高附加值、更安全可靠的产业链供应链。推进制造业补链强链,强化资源、技术、装备支撑,加强国际产业安全合作,推动产业链供应链多元化。立足产业规模优势、配套优势和部分领域先发优势,巩固提升高铁、电力装备、新能源、船舶等领域全产业链竞争力,从符合未来产业变革方向的整机产品入手打造战略性全局性产业链。优化区域产业链布局,引导产业链关键环节留在国内,强化中西部和东北地区承接产业转移能力建设。实施应急产品生产能力储备工程,建设区域性应急物资生产保障基地。实施领航企业培育工程,培育一批具有生态主导力和核心竞争力的龙头企业。推动中小企业提升专业化优势,培育专精特新“小巨人”企业和制造业单项冠军企业。加强技术经济安全评估,实施产业竞争力调查和评价工程。

To establish more innovative, higher value-added, safer, and more reliable industrial chains and supply chains, we will pursue both economic efficiency and security, shore up our weaknesses, play to our strengths and do a good job in strategically designing supply chains and adopt targeted policies for different sectors. We will consolidate and improve the manufacturing chains, strengthen the support of resources, technology, and equipment, enhance international cooperation in industrial security, and drive the diversification of industrial and supply chains. Leveraging the industrial scale, supporting facilities, and first mover advantages in certain fields, we will consolidate and enhance the competitiveness of the whole industrial chain in sectors such as high-speed railway, electronic equipment, new energy, and shipbuilding, and create an industrial chain of overall strategic importance starting from complete machines that are in line with the direction of future industrial transformation. The plan for the regional industrial chains will be optimized to guide the key links in the chains to remain in China, and further enhance the capacity of the central and western regions and the northeast region as destinations of industrial relocation. We will implement production capacity reserve projects for emergency products and build regional bases for ensuring emergency material production. We will carry out programs to build leading enterprises that possess core competitiveness and can dominate in their respective ecosystems, support small and medium-sized enterprises to enhance their professional advantages, and foster “little giant” enterprises with high growth potential, advanced technology and strong market competitive edge as well as single-product specialists in the manufacturing industry. Technical and economic security assessment will be reinforced, and an industrial competitiveness investigation and evaluation program will be put into practice.

第三节 推动制造业优化升级

III. Upgrading the manufacturing industry

深入实施智能制造和绿色制造工程,发展服务型制造新模式,推动制造业高端化智能化绿色化。培育先进制造业集群,推动集成电路、航空航天、船舶与海洋工程装备、机器人、先进轨道交通装备、先进电力装备、工程机械、高端数控机床、医药及医疗设备等产业创新发展。改造提升传统产业,推动石化、钢铁、有色、建材等原材料产业布局优化和结构调整,扩大轻工、纺织等优质产品供给,加快化工、造纸等重点行业企业改造升级,完善绿色制造体系。深入实施增强制造业核心竞争力和技术改造专项,鼓励企业应用先进适用技术、加强设备更新和新产品规模化应用。建设智能制造示范工厂,完善智能制造标准体系。深入实施质量提升行动,推动制造业产品“增品种、提品质、创品牌”。

We will further implement intelligent manufacturing and green manufacturing projects, develop new service-oriented manufacturing models, and promote high-end, intelligent, and green manufacturing. We will foster advanced manufacturing clusters and promote the innovation and development of industries such as integrated circuits, aerospace equipment, high-tech ships and ocean engineering equipment, robots, advanced railway equipment, advanced power equipment, engineering machinery, high-end CNC machine tools, medicine and medical equipment. To transform and upgrade traditional industries, we will improve the layout and adjust the structure of petrochemical, iron and steel, nonferrous metals, building materials, and other raw material industries, expand the supply of high-quality products in light and textile industries, expedite the transformation and upgrade of enterprises in chemical, papermaking, and other key industries, and improve the green manufacturing system. We will continue to implement special projects to enhance the core competitiveness and technological transformation of the manufacturing industry, encourage enterprises to adopt advanced and readily applicable technologies, and strengthen equipment upgrading and large-scale application of new products. In terms of intelligent manufacturing, we will build demonstration factories and a better system of standards. Intensified efforts will be made to enhance quality, and to encourage manufacturers to increase the variety of products, raise their quality, and build the brands.

第四节 实施制造业降本减负行动

IV. Policy support for manufacturing cost reduction

强化要素保障和高效服务,巩固拓展减税降费成果,降低企业生产经营成本,提升制造业根植性和竞争力。推动工业用地提容增效,推广新型产业用地模式。扩大制造业中长期贷款、信用贷款规模,增加技改贷款,推动股权投资、债券融资等向制造业倾斜。允许制造业企业全部参与电力市场化交易,规范和降低港口航运、公路铁路运输等物流收费,全面清理规范涉企收费。建立制造业重大项目全周期服务机制和企业家参与涉企政策制定制度,支持建设中小企业信息、技术、进出口和数字化转型综合性服务平台。

We will intensify efforts to ensure the supply of factors of production, provide efficient services, consolidate and expand the results of tax and fee cuts, reduce the production and operating costs of enterprises, and enhance the embeddedness and competitiveness of the manufacturing industry. We will work to increase the plot ratio and use efficiency of industrial land and promote new industrial land use models. We will increase medium- and long-term loans and lines of credit for manufacturing, increase loans for technological transformation, and make sure equity investment and bond financing are more heavily weighted towards manufacturing. We will permit manufacturing enterprises to participate in market-oriented electricity transaction, regulate and reduce logistics charges in port shipping, road and railway transportation, and review and standardize charges related to enterprises. We will establish a mechanism to provide full cycle services for major manufacturing projects and build a system for entrepreneurs to participate in enterprise-related policy making. Support will be given to build comprehensive service platforms for information, technology, import and export, and digital transformation of SMEs.

第九章 发展壮大战略性新兴产业

Chapter 9 Emerging Industries of Strategic Importance

着眼于抢占未来产业发展先机,培育先导性和支柱性产业,推动战略性新兴产业融合化、集群化、生态化发展,战略性新兴产业增加值占GDP比重超过17%。

In response to emerging technology trends, it is essential to foster pioneering and pillar industries, and promote the integrated development of emerging technology clusters of strategic importance, so that the contribution of such industries to GDP will exceed 17%.

第一节 构筑产业体系新支柱

I. New pillars of the industrial system

聚焦新一代信息技术、生物技术、新能源、新材料、高端装备、新能源汽车、绿色环保以及航空航天、海洋装备等战略性新兴产业,加快关键核心技术创新应用,增强要素保障能力,培育壮大产业发展新动能。推动生物技术和信息技术融合创新,加快发展生物医药、生物育种、生物材料、生物能源等产业,做大做强生物经济。深化北斗系统推广应用,推动北斗产业高质量发展。深入推进国家战略性新兴产业集群发展工程,健全产业集群组织管理和专业化推进机制,建设创新和公共服务综合体,构建一批各具特色、优势互补、结构合理的战略性新兴产业增长引擎。鼓励技术创新和企业兼并重组,防止低水平重复建设。发挥产业投资基金引导作用,加大融资担保和风险补偿力度。

China will focus on the new generation of information technology, biotechnology, new energy, new materials, high-end equipment, new energy vehicles, environmental protection, aerospace, marine equipment, and other emerging industries of strategic importance, and accelerate the innovation and application of core technologies in key fields to enhance the country’s capacity of ensuring supply of productive factors and foster new drivers for industrial development. We will promote the integration and innovation of biotechnology and information technology, accelerate the development of biomedicine, biological breeding, biomaterials, bioenergy, and other industries, to enhance bioeconomy in size and strength. We will continue to promote and adopt the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and facilitate its high-quality industrial development. We will further promote projects to develop China’s strategic emerging industry clusters, improve the mechanisms for organization, management, and professional promotion of industrial clusters, build public service complexes for innovation, and create growth drivers for emerging industries of strategic importance which have different characteristics, complementary advantages, and a reasonable structure. We will encourage technological innovation and the merger and restructuring of enterprises and avoid low-level replication. We will give full play to the guiding role of industrial investment funds and increase financing guarantee and risk compensation.

第二节 前瞻谋划未来产业

II. Forward-looking technology planning

在类脑智能、量子信息、基因技术、未来网络、深海空天开发、氢能与储能等前沿科技和产业变革领域,组织实施未来产业孵化与加速计划,谋划布局一批未来产业。在科教资源优势突出、产业基础雄厚的地区,布局一批国家未来产业技术研究院,加强前沿技术多路径探索、交叉融合和颠覆性技术供给。实施产业跨界融合示范工程,打造未来技术应用场景,加速形成若干未来产业。

In brain-like intelligence, quantum information, genetic technology, future network, deep-sea and aerospace exploration, hydrogen energy and energy storage, and other areas of cutting-edge technology and industrial transformation, we will organize and implement the plan for incubating and accelerating industries of the future, and plan and create a layout for such industries. In areas where we have prominent advantages in science and education resources and strong industrial foundation, we will establish a number of national research institutes on industrial technology of the future to strengthen multi-path exploration and multidisciplinary integration of cutting-edge technology and supply of disruptive technology, implement cross-sector industry integration demonstration projects, create future technology application scenarios, and accelerate the formation of industries of the future.

第十章 促进服务业繁荣发展

Chapter 10 Development of the Service Sector

聚焦产业转型升级和居民消费升级需要,扩大服务业有效供给,提高服务效率和服务品质,构建优质高效、结构优化、竞争力强的服务产业新体系。

In tandem with industrial transformation, and in response to increased needs of consumers, expansion of the service sector is envisaged, requiring a major increase in service delivery, as well as in the efficiency and quality of services to build a new service sector system that is optimized and competitive.

第一节 推动生产性服务业融合化发展

I. Integrated development of producer services

以服务制造业高质量发展为导向,推动生产性服务业向专业化和价值链高端延伸。聚焦提高产业创新力,加快发展研发设计、工业设计、商务咨询、检验检测认证等服务。聚焦提高要素配置效率,推动供应链金融、信息数据、人力资源等服务创新发展。聚焦增强全产业链优势,提高现代物流、采购分销、生产控制、运营管理、售后服务等发展水平。推动现代服务业与先进制造业、现代农业深度融合,深化业务关联、链条延伸、技术渗透,支持智能制造系统解决方案、流程再造等新型专业化服务机构发展。培育具有国际竞争力的服务企业。

With the aim of developing high-quality manufacturing, we will promote the specialization of producer services and their movement towards the high-end of the value chain. Focusing on industrial innovation, we will accelerate the development of R&D design, industrial design, business consulting, inspection, testing, and certification services. To allocate factors of production more efficiently, we will promote the innovative development of supply chain finance, information and data, human resources, and other services. We will strengthen the complete industrial chain and improve modern logistics, procurement and distribution, production control, operation management, and after-sales service. We will promote the in-depth integration of modern services with advanced manufacturing and modern agriculture, deepen business connections, chain extension, and technology penetration, support the development of new professional organizations offering services such as intelligent manufacturing system and process re-engineering solutions, and foster internationally competitive service enterprises.

第二节 加快生活性服务业品质化发展

II. Development of consumer services

以提升便利度和改善服务体验为导向,推动生活性服务业向高品质和多样化升级。加快发展健康、养老、托育、文化、旅游、体育、物业等服务业,加强公益性、基础性服务业供给,扩大覆盖全生命期的各类服务供给。持续推动家政服务业提质扩容,与智慧社区、养老托育等融合发展。鼓励商贸流通业态与模式创新,推进数字化智能化改造和跨界融合,线上线下全渠道满足消费需求。加快完善养老、家政等服务标准,健全生活性服务业认证认可制度,推动生活性服务业诚信化职业化发展。

To enhance convenience and improve the service experience, we will push a shift of consumer services towards higher quality and greater diversity; accelerate the development of health, elderly care, child care, culture, tourism, sports, property management, and other services; strengthen the supply of basic services oriented towards public interests; expand the supply of all kinds of services covering the whole life cycle; and continue to improve the quality and expand the scale of domestic services, to integrate them into the development of smart communities, elderly care, and child care. We will encourage innovation of commercial circulation and business forms and models, promote the upgrade of digital and smart technologies and cross-border integration, and fulfillment of consumer demand through online and offline omni-channel services. We will work faster to improve the standards for elderly care, domestic services, and other services, improve the certification and accreditation system for consumer services and promote the integrity and professional development of the services.

第三节 深化服务领域改革开放

III. Reform and opening-up in the service sector

扩大服务业对内对外开放,进一步放宽市场准入,全面清理不合理的限制条件,鼓励社会力量扩大多元化多层次服务供给。完善支持服务业发展的政策体系,创新适应服务新业态新模式和产业融合发展需要的土地、财税、金融、价格等政策。健全服务质量标准体系,强化标准贯彻执行和推广。加快制定重点服务领域监管目录、流程和标准,构建高效协同的服务业监管体系。完善服务领域人才职称评定制度,鼓励从业人员参加职业技能培训和鉴定。深入推进服务业综合改革试点和扩大开放。

We will further open the service sector to the domestic and international markets, relax market access, comprehensively reduce unreasonable restrictions and encourage social forces to expand the provision of diversified service at various levels. We will improve the policy system supporting the development of the service sector, and develop new policies on land, taxation, finance, and pricing, which can adapt to the needs of new service business formats and models and industrial integration. We will improve the service quality standards and systems, push the implementation and promotion of the standards, accelerate the development of regulatory catalogs, processes and standards for key service industries, and build an efficient and collaborative regulatory system for the service sector. We will improve the system for appraisal of professional titles for people in the service sector, encourage employees to participate in vocational skills training and appraisal, and push forward the comprehensive pilot reform and opening-up of the service sector.

第十一章 建设现代化基础设施体系

Chapter 11 Modern Infrastructure

统筹推进传统基础设施和新型基础设施建设,打造系统完备、高效实用、智能绿色、安全可靠的现代化基础设施体系。

A holistic approach will be adopted to infrastructure development, which covers traditional and new types of infrastructure, so as to build a modern network of infrastructure that is efficient, practical, smart, eco-friendly, safe, and reliable.

第一节 加快建设新型基础设施

I. Construction of new types of infrastructure

围绕强化数字转型、智能升级、融合创新支撑,布局建设信息基础设施、融合基础设施、创新基础设施等新型基础设施。建设高速泛在、天地一体、集成互联、安全高效的信息基础设施,增强数据感知、传输、存储和运算能力。加快5G网络规模化部署,用户普及率提高到56%,推广升级千兆光纤网络。前瞻布局6G网络技术储备。扩容骨干网互联节点,新设一批国际通信出入口,全面推进互联网协议第六版(IPv6)商用部署。实施中西部地区中小城市基础网络完善工程。推动物联网全面发展,打造支持固移融合、宽窄结合的物联接入能力。加快构建全国一体化大数据中心体系,强化算力统筹智能调度,建设若干国家枢纽节点和大数据中心集群,建设E级和10E级超级计算中心。积极稳妥发展工业互联网和车联网。打造全球覆盖、高效运行的通信、导航、遥感空间基础设施体系,建设商业航天发射场。加快交通、能源、市政等传统基础设施数字化改造,加强泛在感知、终端联网、智能调度体系建设。发挥市场主导作用,打通多元化投资渠道,构建新型基础设施标准体系。

With the aim of strengthening the support for digital transformation, intelligent upgrade, and integrated innovation, we will build new types of infrastructure in such areas as information technology, integration, and innovation. We will build high-speed, ubiquitous, secure, and efficient information infrastructure with a space-ground integrated network and integrated interconnection, and enhance the capabilities of data sensing, transmission, storage, and computing. We will accelerate the large-scale deployment of 5G network with the user penetration rate increasing to 56%, promote the upgrade of gigabit optical network, and make arrangement for the 6G network technology reserve with foresight. We will expand the backbone network interconnection nodes, set up new international communication passageways, fully advance the commercial deployment of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), and implement projects for improving basic networks in small and medium-sized cities in the central and western regions. We will promote the all-round development of the Internet of Things (IoT) and build IoT access capability that supports fixed-mobile convergence with a combination of broad and narrow bands. We will accelerate the building of an integrated national system of big data centers, strengthen the overall planning and intelligent scheduling of computing power, build national hub nodes and big data center clusters as well as E-level and 10E-level supercomputing centers. We will dynamically and stably develop the Industrial Internet and Internet of Vehicles; build a highly efficient communications, navigation, and remote sensing space infrastructure network with a global coverage, as well as establish commercial space launch sites. We will accelerate the digital transformation of traditional infrastructure for transportation, energy, and urban utilities, and intensify our efforts in developing ubiquitous sensing, terminal networking, and intelligent scheduling system. We will give full play to the leading role of the market, open up diverse channels for investment, and create a system of standards for new types of infrastructure.

第二节 加快建设交通强国

II. Improving transportation

建设现代化综合交通运输体系,推进各种运输方式一体化融合发展,提高网络效应和运营效率。完善综合运输大通道,加强出疆入藏、中西部地区、沿江沿海沿边战略骨干通道建设,有序推进能力紧张通道升级扩容,加强与周边国家互联互通。构建快速网,基本贯通“八纵八横”高速铁路,提升国家高速公路网络质量,加快建设世界级港口群和机场群。完善干线网,加快普速铁路建设和既有铁路电气化改造,优化铁路客货布局,推进普通国省道瓶颈路段贯通升级,推动内河高等级航道扩能升级,稳步建设支线机场、通用机场和货运机场,积极发展通用航空。加强邮政设施建设,实施快递“进村进厂出海”工程。推进城市群都市圈交通一体化,加快城际铁路、市域(郊)铁路建设,构建高速公路环线系统,有序推进城市轨道交通发展。提高交通通达深度,推动区域性铁路建设,加快沿边抵边公路建设,继续推进“四好农村路”建设,完善道路安全设施。构建多层级、一体化综合交通枢纽体系,优化枢纽场站布局、促进集约综合开发,完善集疏运系统,发展旅客联程运输和货物多式联运,推广全程“一站式”、“一单制”服务。推进中欧班列集结中心建设。深入推进铁路企业改革,全面深化空管体制改革,推动公路收费制度和养护体制改革。

China will build a modern comprehensive transportation system, promote the integrated development of various modes of transportation, and improve the network effect and operational efficiency. We will improve the comprehensive transportation corridors, intensify the construction of strategic trunk corridors with improved access to Xinjiang and Tibet, the central and western regions, and regions along the coast, rivers, and border areas, promote in an orderly manner the upgrade and expansion of corridors in congested sections, and strengthen interconnectivity with neighboring countries. We will build a network of expressways, complete the network of “eight vertical and eight horizontal” high-speed railways, improve the quality of the national highway network, and accelerate the construction of world-class port and airport clusters. We will improve the network of trunk railways, accelerate the construction of standard rail lines and the electrification of existing railways, optimize the distribution of passenger and freight railways, make progress in breaking through and upgrading bottleneck sections in normal national and provincial highways, make progress in the expansion and upgrade of high-grade inland waterways, steadily build feeder airports, general airports, and freight airports, and actively develop the general aviation industry. China will strengthen the construction of postal facilities and implement the express delivery project to ensure villages’ access to the service, promote the integration between express delivery and manufacturing, and to encourage the development of international delivery service. We will promote the integration of transportation in city clusters and metropolitan areas, accelerate the construction of intercity and suburban railways, build systems of ring expressways, and develop urban rail transit in an orderly manner. We will improve the coverage of transportation services, promote the construction of regional railways and roads along the borders and leading to border areas, continue to ensure that rural roads are well built, managed, maintained, and operated, and improve road safety facilities. China will build a multi-tier and integrated transportation hub system, optimize the hub station layout, promote intensive and comprehensive development, improve the collection and distribution system, develop intermodal passenger and cargo transport, and promote the one-stop and “one bill of lading” services for the entire trip. We will also promote the construction of China-Europe Railway Express assembly centers. In addition, reforms will be thoroughly carried out in railway enterprises, the air traffic control system, and the highway toll system and maintenance mechanism.

第三节 构建现代能源体系

III. Building a modern energy system

推进能源革命,建设清洁低碳、安全高效的能源体系,提高能源供给保障能力。加快发展非化石能源,坚持集中式和分布式并举,大力提升风电、光伏发电规模,加快发展东中部分布式能源,有序发展海上风电,加快西南水电基地建设,安全稳妥推动沿海核电建设,建设一批多能互补的清洁能源基地,非化石能源占能源消费总量比重提高到20%左右。推动煤炭生产向资源富集地区集中,合理控制煤电建设规模和发展节奏,推进以电代煤。有序放开油气勘探开发市场准入,加快深海、深层和非常规油气资源利用,推动油气增储上产。因地制宜开发利用地热能。提高特高压输电通道利用率。加快电网基础设施智能化改造和智能微电网建设,提高电力系统互补互济和智能调节能力,加强源网荷储衔接,提升清洁能源消纳和存储能力,提升向边远地区输配电能力,推进煤电灵活性改造,加快抽水蓄能电站建设和新型储能技术规模化应用。完善煤炭跨区域运输通道和集疏运体系,加快建设天然气主干管道,完善油气互联互通网络。

We will promote the energy revolution and build a clean, low-carbon, safe, and efficient energy system to enhance energy supply capabilities. We will accelerate the development of non-fossil energy by balancing centralization and distribution, vigorously enhance the scale of wind power and photovoltaic power generation, accelerate the development of distributed energy in the central and eastern regions, ensure orderly development of offshore wind power, accelerate the construction of the southwest hydropower base, safely and steadily promote the construction of coastal nuclear power facilities, and build a number of clean energy bases featuring integrated energy development, and increase the proportion of non-fossil energy in total energy consumption to about 20%. We will promote the concentration of coal production in resource rich areas and reasonably control the scale and development pace of coal power projects to promote the replacement of coal with electricity. We will liberalize market access for petroleum and natural gas exploration and development in an orderly manner, accelerate the utilization of deep-sea, deep-seated, and unconventional petroleum and natural gas resources, and promote the increase of petroleum and natural gas reserves and production. We will develop and utilize geothermal energy according to local conditions and improve the utilization rate of UHV power transmission channels. We will accelerate the transformation of power grid infrastructure into smart infrastructure as well as the construction of smart microgrids. We will improve power system complementarity and intelligent regulation capabilities, strengthen the coordination of power source, grid, load and storage, enhance clean energy consumption and storage capabilities, and enhance transmission and distribution capacities to remote areas. We will promote flexible transformation of coal power, and accelerate the construction of pumped storage hydroelectric plants and large-scale application of new energy storage technology. We will improve cross-regional coal transportation channels and collection and distribution systems and accelerate the construction of the main natural gas pipelines and the petroleum and natural gas interconnection network.

第四节 加强水利基础设施建设

IV. Construction of water conservancy infrastructure

立足流域整体和水资源空间均衡配置,加强跨行政区河流水系治理保护和骨干工程建设,强化大中小微水利设施协调配套,提升水资源优化配置和水旱灾害防御能力。坚持节水优先,完善水资源配置体系,建设水资源配置骨干项目,加强重点水源和城市应急备用水源工程建设。实施防洪提升工程,解决防汛薄弱环节,加快防洪控制性枢纽工程建设和中小河流治理、病险水库除险加固,全面推进堤防和蓄滞洪区建设。加强水源涵养区保护修复,加大重点河湖保护和综合治理力度,恢复水清岸绿的水生态体系。

Based on the overall and spatially balanced allocation of water resources in the drainage basins, we will strengthen the coordination between administrative divisions in river system management and protection and key project construction, and strengthen the coordination of small, medium, and large water conservancy facilities to enhance the optimal allocation of water resources as well as flood and drought disaster prevention capabilities. By prioritizing water conservation, we will improve the water resources allocation system, build key water resource allocation projects, and strengthen the development of key water sources and urban emergency backup water projects. We will implement flood control improvement projects to solve weak links, accelerate the construction of pivotal flood control projects, enhance the management of small and medium rivers, reinforce dilapidated reservoirs, and fully advance the construction of dikes and flood storage and detention basins. We will strengthen the protection and restoration of water conservation areas and the protection and comprehensive management of key rivers and lakes and restore the water ecosystem to ensure clear waters and green shores.

第四篇 形成强大国内市场 构建新发展格局

Part IV A Robust Domestic Market and a New Development Paradigm

坚持扩大内需这个战略基点,加快培育完整内需体系,把实施扩大内需战略同深化供给侧结构性改革有机结合起来,以创新驱动、高质量供给引领和创造新需求,加快构建以国内大循环为主体、国内国际双循环相互促进的新发展格局。

Expanding domestic demand is of strategic importance, and should occur in lockstep with supply-side structural reforms, with innovation and quality improvement driving new demand. A new “dual circulation” development paradigm will assign a central role to the domestic market, with domestic and overseas markets complementing each other.

第十二章 畅通国内大循环

Chapter 12 Greater Domestic Circulation

依托强大国内市场,贯通生产、分配、流通、消费各环节,形成需求牵引供给、供给创造需求的更高水平动态平衡,促进国民经济良性循环。

More reliance on the strong domestic market, and more seamless connection of economic processes, such as production, distribution, circulation, and consumption, will help remove impediments to rational flows of factors of production, and contribute to supply-demand equilibrium, conducive to creating a virtuous economic circle.

第一节 提升供给体系适配性

I. Supply chain adaptability

深化供给侧结构性改革,提高供给适应引领创造新需求能力。适应个性化、差异化、品质化消费需求,推动生产模式和产业组织方式创新,持续扩大优质消费品、中高端产品供给和教育、医疗、养老等服务供给,提升产品服务质量和客户满意度,推动供需协调匹配。优化提升供给结构,促进农业、制造业、服务业、能源资源等产业协调发展。完善产业配套体系,加快自然垄断行业竞争性环节市场化,实现上下游、产供销有效衔接。健全市场化法治化化解过剩产能长效机制,完善企业兼并重组法律法规和配套政策。建立健全质量分级制度,加快标准升级迭代和国际标准转化应用。开展中国品牌创建行动,保护发展中华老字号,提升自主品牌影响力和竞争力,率先在化妆品、服装、家纺、电子产品等消费品领域培育一批高端品牌。

China will deepen the supply-side structural reform and improve the ability of supply to adapt to and lead the creation of new demand. By adapting to the customized, differentiated, and quality consumption demand, and by promoting innovation in production models and industrial organization models, the country will continue to expand the supply of high-quality consumer goods, medium and high-end products, and services in education, medical care, and elderly care, and improve product service quality and customer satisfaction to promote supply and demand coordination and matching. By optimizing and improving the supply structure, we will facilitate the coordinated development of agriculture, manufacturing, services, energy resources, and other industries; accelerate the marketization of competitive links in naturally monopolistic industries and achieve effective convergence of upstream and downstream industries in production, supply, and marketing by completing the industry support system. We will improve the long-term mechanism of marketization and the rule of law to resolve excess capacity, as well as the laws, regulations, and supporting policies for enterprise mergers and acquisitions as well as restructuring; establish and improve the quality classification system, accelerate the upgrade and iteration of standards and transformation and application of international standards; and launch the Chinese brands program, including the protection and development of China Time-Honored Brands, enhance the influence and competitiveness of our own brands, take the lead to foster a number of high-end brands in cosmetics, clothing, home textiles, electronic products, and other consumer goods.

第二节 促进资源要素顺畅流动

II. Smooth flows of resources

破除制约要素合理流动的堵点,矫正资源要素失衡错配,从源头上畅通国民经济循环。提高金融服务实体经济能力,健全实体经济中长期资金供给制度安排,创新直达实体经济的金融产品和服务,增强多层次资本市场融资功能。实施房地产市场平稳健康发展长效机制,促进房地产与实体经济均衡发展。有效提升劳动者技能,提高就业质量和收入水平,形成人力资本提升和产业转型升级良性循环。健全城乡要素自由流动机制,构建区域产业梯度转移格局,促进城乡区域良性互动。

China will remove impediments to the rational flow of the factors of production, rectify the imbalance and mismatch of resource factors, and facilitate the circulation of national economy at the source. We will improve the ability of financial services serving the real economy and the institutional arrangements for medium- and long-term capital supply in the real economy, innovate financial products and services that directly impact the real economy, and enhance the financing function of the multi-tier capital market. We will implement a long-term mechanism for the steady and healthy development of the real estate market and promote the balanced development of real estate and the real economy. We will effectively improve the skills of workers, improve the quality of employment and income level, and form a virtuous circle of human capital promotion and industrial transformation and upgrade. We will improve the mechanism of free flow of factors in urban and rural areas, build a cross-region industrial transfer pattern, and promote positive interaction between urban and rural areas.

第三节 强化流通体系支撑作用

III. Strengthening the supporting role of the circulation system

深化流通体制改革,畅通商品服务流通渠道,提升流通效率,降低全社会交易成本。加快构建国内统一大市场,对标国际先进规则和最佳实践优化市场环境,促进不同地区和行业标准、规则、政策协调统一,有效破除地方保护、行业垄断和市场分割。建设现代物流体系,加快发展冷链物流,统筹物流枢纽设施、骨干线路、区域分拨中心和末端配送节点建设,完善国家物流枢纽、骨干冷链物流基地设施条件,健全县乡村三级物流配送体系,发展高铁快运等铁路快捷货运产品,加强国际航空货运能力建设,提升国际海运竞争力。优化国际物流通道,加快形成内外联通、安全高效的物流网络。完善现代商贸流通体系,培育一批具有全球竞争力的现代流通企业,支持便利店、农贸市场等商贸流通设施改造升级,发展无接触交易服务,加强商贸流通标准化建设和绿色发展。加快建立储备充足、反应迅速、抗冲击能力强的应急物流体系。

We will deepen the reform of the circulation system, improve the circulation channels of goods and services, increase the circulation efficiency, and reduce the transaction costs of the whole society. We will accelerate the development of a unified domestic market, optimize the market environment according to internationally advanced rules and best practices, promote the coordination and unification of standards, rules, and policies of different regions and industries, and effectively break down local protection, industry monopolies, and market segmentation. We will build a modern logistics system, accelerate the development of cold chain logistics, coordinate the construction of logistics hub facilities, key lines, regional distribution centers, and terminal distribution nodes, improve the facilities of national logistics hubs and key cold chain logistics bases, improve the logistics distribution system at county, township, and village levels, develop high-speed rail express and other railway express freight products, and strengthen the development of international air freight capacity and the competitiveness of international ocean shipping. We will optimize the international logistics channels and accelerate the formation of an interconnected, safe and efficient logistics network. We will improve the modern commercial circulation system, foster globally competitive modern circulation enterprises, support the transformation and upgrade of commercial circulation facilities such as convenience stores and farmers’ markets, develop contactless trading services, and strengthen the standardization and green development of commercial circulation. We will accelerate the establishment of a resilient emergency logistics system featuring sufficient reserves and rapid responses.

第四节 完善促进国内大循环的政策体系

IV. Policies to facilitate domestic circulation

保持合理的财政支出力度和赤字率水平,完善减税降费政策,构建有利于企业扩大投资、增加研发投入、调节收入分配、减轻消费者负担的税收制度。保持流动性合理充裕,保持货币供应量和社会融资规模增速同名义经济增速基本匹配,创新结构性政策工具,引导金融机构加大对重点领域和薄弱环节支持力度,规范发展消费信贷。推动产业政策向普惠化和功能性转型,强化竞争政策基础性地位,支持技术创新和结构升级。健全与经济发展水平相适应的收入分配、社会保障和公共服务制度。

China will maintain a reasonable level of fiscal expenditure and deficit ratio, improve tax and fee reduction policies, and build a tax system that is conducive to increasing investment by enterprises, increasing R&D investment, adjusting income distribution, and reducing the burden on consumers. We will maintain reasonably adequate liquidity, ensure the increases in money supply and aggregate financing are generally in step with economic growth in nominal terms, innovate structural policy tools to guide financial institutions in increasing support for key areas and weak links, and standardize the development of consumer credit. We will develop more inclusive  industry policies with a greater emphasis on functions, strengthen the fundamental role of competition policies, and support technological innovation and structural upgrade. We will improve the systems of income distribution, social security, and public services to be commensurate with the level of economic growth.

第十三章 促进国内国际双循环

Chapter 13 Domestic and International Circulation

立足国内大循环,协同推进强大国内市场和贸易强国建设,形成全球资源要素强大引力场,促进内需和外需、进口和出口、引进外资和对外投资协调发展,加快培育参与国际合作和竞争新优势。

Greater domestic circulation creates a dynamic domestic market, spurs trade, attracts global resources, and stimulates internal and external demand, import and export, and inbound and outbound investment. It contributes to international cooperation and helps sharpen China’s competitive edge.

第一节 推动进出口协同发展

I. Import and export

完善内外贸一体化调控体系,促进内外贸法律法规、监管体制、经营资质、质量标准、检验检疫、认证认可等相衔接,推进同线同标同质。降低进口关税和制度性成本,扩大优质消费品、先进技术、重要设备、能源资源等进口,促进进口来源多元化。完善出口政策,优化出口商品质量和结构,稳步提高出口附加值。优化国际市场布局,引导企业深耕传统出口市场、拓展新兴市场,扩大与周边国家贸易规模,稳定国际市场份额。推动加工贸易转型升级,深化外贸转型升级基地、海关特殊监管区域、贸易促进平台、国际营销服务网络建设,加快发展跨境电商、市场采购贸易等新模式,鼓励建设海外仓,保障外贸产业链供应链畅通运转。创新发展服务贸易,推进服务贸易创新发展试点开放平台建设,提升贸易数字化水平。实施贸易投资融合工程。办好中国国际进口博览会、中国进出口商品交易会、中国国际服务贸易交易会等展会。

We will improve the integrated regulatory system for internal and external trade, and better coordinate the laws and regulations, regulatory systems, business qualifications, quality standards, inspection and quarantine, certification, and accreditation in both areas. We will ensure that products sold in the home market have been produced on the same production lines, meet the same standards, and are of the same quality as those exported. We will reduce import tariffs and institutional costs, expand imports of high-quality consumer goods, advanced technology, important equipment, and energy resources, and promote the diversification of import sources; and improve export policies, optimize the quality and structure of exports, and steadily increase the added-value of exports. We will optimize the plan for the international market, guide enterprises to better explore traditional export markets, expand their presence in emerging markets and boost trade with neighboring countries, and stabilize their international market share. We will promote the transformation and upgrade of processing trade, enhance the construction of foreign trade transformation and upgrade bases, special customs supervision areas, trade promotion platforms, and international marketing service networks, accelerate the development of new models such as cross-border e-commerce and market procurement, and encourage the construction of overseas warehouses to ensure the smooth operation of the industrial and supply chains for foreign trade. We will innovatively develop service trade, promote the pilot creation of an open platform for innovative development of service trade, and improve trade digitization. We will implement trade and investment integration projects, and ensure the success of China International Import Expo, China Import and Export Fair, China International Fair for Trade in Services (CIFTIS), and other exhibitions.

第二节 提高国际双向投资水平

II. International two-way investment

坚持引进来和走出去并重,以高水平双向投资高效利用全球资源要素和市场空间,完善产业链供应链保障机制,推动产业竞争力提升。更大力度吸引和利用外资,有序推进电信、互联网、教育、文化、医疗等领域相关业务开放。全面优化外商投资服务,加强外商投资促进和保护,发挥重大外资项目示范效应,支持外资加大中高端制造、高新技术、传统制造转型升级、现代服务等领域和中西部地区投资,支持外资企业设立研发中心和参与承担国家科技计划项目。鼓励外资企业利润再投资。坚持企业主体,创新境外投资方式,优化境外投资结构和布局,提升风险防范能力和收益水平。完善境外生产服务网络和流通体系,加快金融、咨询、会计、法律等生产性服务业国际化发展,推动中国产品、服务、技术、品牌、标准走出去。支持企业融入全球产业链供应链,提高跨国经营能力和水平。引导企业加强合规管理,防范化解境外政治、经济、安全等各类风险。推进多双边投资合作机制建设,健全促进和保障境外投资政策和服务体系,推动境外投资立法。

China will continue to place equal emphasis on bringing in foreign investments and going global, make efficient use of global resources and market space with high-level two-way investment, improve the industrial and supply chain support mechanism as well as industry competitiveness, make greater efforts to attract and utilize foreign investment, and promote the opening of related businesses in the fields of telecommunications, internet, education, culture, and medical care in an orderly manner. We will comprehensively optimize foreign investment services, strengthen the promotion and protection of foreign investment, give full play to the demonstration effect of major foreign investment projects, support an increase of foreign capital investment in high-end manufacturing, high-tech, traditional manufacturing transformation and upgrade, modern services, and other fields in the central and western regions, as well as support foreign-funded enterprises to set up R&D centers and participate in national science and technology projects. We will encourage foreign-funded enterprises to reinvest their profits, innovate overseas investment methods, optimize the structure and layout of overseas investment with enterprises as the main players, and improve the risk prevention capacity and income level. We will improve the overseas producer services network and circulation system, accelerate the international development of producer services in finance, consulting, accounting, and law, and promote Chinese products, services, technologies, brands, and standards to go global. We will support enterprises to integrate into the global industrial and supply chain, improve the transnational operation capacity and level, and guide enterprises to strengthen compliance management so they can prevent and resolve overseas political, economic, security, and other risks. We will promote the development of multilateral and bilateral investment cooperation mechanisms and improve policies and service systems for promoting and protecting overseas investments, as well as the legislation on overseas investment.

第十四章 加快培育完整内需体系

Chapter 14 Strategies to Boost Domestic Demand

深入实施扩大内需战略,增强消费对经济发展的基础性作用和投资对优化供给结构的关键性作用,建设消费和投资需求旺盛的强大国内市场。

Strategies to expand domestic demand will be implemented to enhance the role of consumption in economic growth and allow investment to play a key role in improving the supply structure. This shift is expected to lead to a stronger domestic market and stronger demand for consumption and investment.

第一节 全面促进消费

I. Expanding consumption

顺应居民消费升级趋势,把扩大消费同改善人民生活品质结合起来,促进消费向绿色、健康、安全发展,稳步提高居民消费水平。提升传统消费,加快推动汽车等消费品由购买管理向使用管理转变,健全强制报废制度和废旧家电、消费电子等耐用消费品回收处理体系,促进住房消费健康发展。培育新型消费,发展信息消费、数字消费、绿色消费,鼓励定制、体验、智能、时尚消费等新模式新业态发展。发展服务消费,放宽服务消费领域市场准入,推动教育培训、医疗健康、养老托育、文旅体育等消费提质扩容,加快线上线下融合发展。适当增加公共消费,提高公共服务支出效率。扩大节假日消费,完善节假日制度,全面落实带薪休假制度。培育建设国际消费中心城市,打造一批区域消费中心。完善城乡融合消费网络,扩大电子商务进农村覆盖面,改善县城消费环境,推动农村消费梯次升级。完善市内免税店政策,规划建设一批中国特色市内免税店。采取增加居民收入与减负并举等措施,不断扩大中等收入群体,持续释放消费潜力。强化消费者权益保护,完善质量标准和后评价体系,健全缺陷产品召回、产品伤害监测、产品质量担保等制度,完善多元化消费维权机制和纠纷解决机制。

In line with the public consumption upgrade trend, we will combine the expansion of consumption with the improvement in people’s living standards, promote the green, healthy, and safe development of consumption, and steadily improve people’s consumption. We will upgrade traditional consumption, accelerate the shift from purchase management to usage management for automobiles and other consumer goods, improve the mandatory end-of-life system and recycling system for used home appliances, consumer electronics, and other durables, and promote the healthy development of housing consumption. We will foster new consumption patterns, develop information consumption, digital consumption, and green consumption, and encourage the development of customization, experience, intelligence, and fashion consumption and other new business formats and models. We will develop service consumption, relax restrictions on market access in the field of service consumption, promote the improvement and expansion of consumption in education and training, medical and health care, elderly care, child care, culture, tourism, and sports, and accelerate the integration and development of online and offline consumption. We will appropriately increase public consumption and improve the efficiency of public service expenditure, and expand holiday consumption, improve the holiday system, and fully implement the paid holiday system. We will foster and build international consumption center cities, create a group of regional consumption centers, improve the integrated urban-rural consumption network, expand the coverage of e-commerce in rural areas, improve the consumption environment in counties, and promote the upgrade of rural consumption. We will improve the policy for duty-free shops in cities and build duty-free shops with Chinese characteristics. We will take measures to increase people’s income and alleviate their burdens, to continuously expand the middle-income groups and release their consumption potential. We will better safeguard consumers’ rights and interests, improve the quality standards and post evaluation system as well as the systems for defective product recall, product-related injury monitoring, and product quality guarantee, and improve the diversified consumer rights protection mechanism and dispute resolution mechanism.

第二节 拓展投资空间

II. Expanding investment opportunities

优化投资结构,提高投资效率,保持投资合理增长。加快补齐基础设施、市政工程、农业农村、公共安全、生态环保、公共卫生、物资储备、防灾减灾、民生保障等领域短板,推动企业设备更新和技术改造,扩大战略性新兴产业投资。推进既促消费惠民生又调结构增后劲的新型基础设施、新型城镇化、交通水利等重大工程建设。面向服务国家重大战略,实施川藏铁路、西部陆海新通道、国家水网、雅鲁藏布江下游水电开发、星际探测、北斗产业化等重大工程,推进重大科研设施、重大生态系统保护修复、公共卫生应急保障、重大引调水、防洪减灾、送电输气、沿边沿江沿海交通等一批强基础、增功能、利长远的重大项目建设。深化投融资体制改革,发挥政府投资撬动作用,激发民间投资活力,形成市场主导的投资内生增长机制。健全项目谋划、储备、推进机制,加大资金、用地等要素保障力度,加快投资项目落地见效。规范有序推进政府和社会资本合作(PPP),推动基础设施领域不动产投资信托基金(REITs)健康发展,有效盘活存量资产,形成存量资产和新增投资的良性循环。

We will optimize the investment structure, improve the investment efficiency, and maintain reasonable investment growth. We will move faster to strengthen weak areas in infrastructure, urban utilities, agriculture and rural areas, public safety, ecological and environmental protection, public health, material reserves, disaster prevention and mitigation, people’s livelihood, and other fields, promote the upgrade of enterprise equipment and technological transformation, and expand investment in emerging industries of strategic importance. We will promote major projects concerning new infrastructure, new urbanization, transportation, and water conservancy that will not only boost consumption and benefit people’s livelihood, but also help adjust the structure to gain more momentum. To serve the major national strategies, we will implement major projects such as the Sichuan-Tibet Railway, the new western land-sea corridor, the national water network, hydropower development in the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River, interstellar exploration, and the industrial development of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, and promote major research facilities and projects in the areas of ecosystem protection and restoration, public health emergency response, water diversion, flood control, disaster reduction, power and gas transmission, and transportation along the coast, rivers, and border areas, thereby providing a solid foundation, increased functions, and long-term benefits. We will deepen investment and financing reforms, leverage the government’s role in investment to stimulate private investments, and establish a market-oriented endogenous growth mechanism for investment. We will improve project planning, reserve and promotion mechanism, increase the support for capital, land, and other factors of production, and accelerate the implementation of investment projects. We will standardize and promote public-private partnership (PPP) in an orderly manner, promote the healthy development of real estate investment trusts (REITs) in infrastructure, effectively revitalize stock assets, and form a virtuous circle of stock assets and new investment.

第五篇 加快数字化发展 建设数字中国

Part V An Initiative to Build a Digital China

迎接数字时代,激活数据要素潜能,推进网络强国建设,加快建设数字经济、数字社会、数字政府,以数字化转型整体驱动生产方式、生活方式和治理方式变革。

We will embrace the digital era, unlock the potential of big data, build China’s strength in cyberspace, accelerate the development of a digital economy, a digital society, and a digital government, and transform the pattern of production, lifestyle, and governance models through digital transformation.

第十五章 打造数字经济新优势

Chapter 15 Pole Position in the Digital Economy

充分发挥海量数据和丰富应用场景优势,促进数字技术与实体经济深度融合,赋能传统产业转型升级,催生新产业新业态新模式,壮大经济发展新引擎。

We cannot afford not to tap into the huge potential big data and its innumerable use cases. Greater integration of digital technology and the real economy will power the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries, and the development of new industries, new forms of business, and new models, which can be new drivers of economic growth.

第一节 加强关键数字技术创新应用

I. Key digital technologies: innovation and application

聚焦高端芯片、操作系统、人工智能关键算法、传感器等关键领域,加快推进基础理论、基础算法、装备材料等研发突破与迭代应用。加强通用处理器、云计算系统和软件核心技术一体化研发。加快布局量子计算、量子通信、神经芯片、DNA存储等前沿技术,加强信息科学与生命科学、材料等基础学科的交叉创新,支持数字技术开源社区等创新联合体发展,完善开源知识产权和法律体系,鼓励企业开放软件源代码、硬件设计和应用服务。

Our focus will be on high-end chips, operating systems, key artificial intelligence algorithms, sensors, and other key fields. We will gather pace in making breakthroughs in the research and development of basic theories, basic algorithms and equipment materials and promoting their iterative application. The integrated research and development of general-purpose processors, cloud computing systems, and core software technologies will be pushed forward. Cutting-edge technologies will be developed faster, including quantum computing, quantum communications, neuro-chips, and DNA storage. Innovation will be boosted across information science, life science, materials and other basic disciplines, along with support for the development of innovation consortia including open source communities, improve open source intellectual property rights and legal systems. Enterprises will be encouraged to make available open source codes, hardware design, and application services.

第二节 加快推动数字产业化

II. Development of digital industries

培育壮大人工智能、大数据、区块链、云计算、网络安全等新兴数字产业,提升通信设备、核心电子元器件、关键软件等产业水平。构建基于5G的应用场景和产业生态,在智能交通、智慧物流、智慧能源、智慧医疗等重点领域开展试点示范。鼓励企业开放搜索、电商、社交等数据,发展第三方大数据服务产业。促进共享经济、平台经济健康发展。

Emerging digital industries including artificial intelligence, big data, blockchain, cloud computing, and cybersecurity will be grown stronger, and the quality of such industries as communications equipment, core electronic components, and key software will be improved. Efforts will be made to develop 5G-based application scenarios and industrial ecosystems, and carry out pilot and demonstration projects in smart transportation, smart logistics, smart energy, smart medical care, and other key fields. Enterprises will be encouraged to provide open access to search, e-commerce, social, and other data. Third-party big data services will be developed, and the healthy growth of the sharing economy and the platform economy will be boosted.

第三节 推进产业数字化转型

III. Digital transformation of traditional industries

实施“上云用数赋智”行动,推动数据赋能全产业链协同转型。在重点行业和区域建设若干国际水准的工业互联网平台和数字化转型促进中心,深化研发设计、生产制造、经营管理、市场服务等环节的数字化应用,培育发展个性定制、柔性制造等新模式,加快产业园区数字化改造。深入推进服务业数字化转型,培育众包设计、智慧物流、新零售等新增长点。加快发展智慧农业,推进农业生产经营和管理服务数字化改造。

We will press ahead with cloud-based big data and AI initiatives and promote the data-based collaborative transformation of the entire industrial chain. A number of industrial internet platforms and digital transformation promotion centers up to international standards will be built in key industries and regions. Digital applications will be promoted in R&D and design, manufacturing, operation and management, and market services, new models including customization and flexible manufacturing will developed, and the digital transformation of industrial parks will be accelerated. Digital transformation will be pushed through in the service sector, identify and new sources of growth will be identified, such as crowdsourcing design, smart logistics, and new retail. We will move faster in developing smart agriculture and transform agricultural production, operations, management, and services with digital technologies.

第十六章 加快数字社会建设步伐

Chapter 16 A Digital Society

适应数字技术全面融入社会交往和日常生活新趋势,促进公共服务和社会运行方式创新,构筑全民畅享的数字生活。

Greater integration of digital technologies into social interactions and people’s daily life calls for innovation in public services to ensure that the way our society functions better responds to the digital needs of all people.

第一节 提供智慧便捷的公共服务

I. Smart and easily accessible public services

聚焦教育、医疗、养老、抚幼、就业、文体、助残等重点领域,推动数字化服务普惠应用,持续提升群众获得感。推进学校、医院、养老院等公共服务机构资源数字化,加大开放共享和应用力度。推进线上线下公共服务共同发展、深度融合,积极发展在线课堂、互联网医院、智慧图书馆等,支持高水平公共服务机构对接基层、边远和欠发达地区,扩大优质公共服务资源辐射覆盖范围。加强智慧法院建设。鼓励社会力量参与“互联网+公共服务”,创新提供服务模式和产品。

Digital services will be applied widely, especially to education, healthcare, elderly care, childcare, employment, culture and sports, care for people with disabilities, and other key areas, ensuring that people have a growing sense of fulfilment. Resources in schools, hospitals, nursing homes, and other public service institutions will be digitalized to offer easier access to them and boost their application. Online and offline public services will be developed at the same time and their in-depth integration will be promoted. More efforts will be channeled into developing online classrooms, internet-based hospitals, and smart libraries. High-standard public service institutions will be encouraged to reach communities, remote areas, and underdeveloped areas. The coverage of high-quality public service resources will be expanded. Progress will be made in developing smart courts. Non-governmental actors will be encouraged to participate in the “Internet + public services” initiative, and provide innovative service models and products.

第二节 建设智慧城市和数字乡村

II. Smart cities and digital villages

以数字化助推城乡发展和治理模式创新,全面提高运行效率和宜居度。分级分类推进新型智慧城市建设,将物联网感知设施、通信系统等纳入公共基础设施统一规划建设,推进市政公用设施、建筑等物联网应用和智能化改造。完善城市信息模型平台和运行管理服务平台,构建城市数据资源体系,推进城市数据大脑建设。探索建设数字孪生城市。加快推进数字乡村建设,构建面向农业农村的综合信息服务体系,建立涉农信息普惠服务机制,推动乡村管理服务数字化。

Digital technologies will be used to help develop urban and rural areas and introduce new approaches to governance for better efficiency and livability. New smart cities in different categories will be developed, IoT sensing facilities and communications systems will be incorporated in the overall planning and development of public infrastructure, and municipal utilities and buildings will be transformed with IoT applications. Efforts will be made to improve city information modeling (CIM) platforms and service platforms, and build city data systems to develop city brains. The creation of digital twin cities will be explored and faster progress will be made in the development of digital countryside. A comprehensive information service system will be established for agriculture and rural areas, along with an inclusive agriculture-related information service mechanism, and rural management and services will be digitalized.

第三节 构筑美好数字生活新图景

III. A new blueprint for digital life

推动购物消费、居家生活、旅游休闲、交通出行等各类场景数字化,打造智慧共享、和睦共治的新型数字生活。推进智慧社区建设,依托社区数字化平台和线下社区服务机构,建设便民惠民智慧服务圈,提供线上线下融合的社区生活服务、社区治理及公共服务、智能小区等服务。丰富数字生活体验,发展数字家庭。加强全民数字技能教育和培训,普及提升公民数字素养。加快信息无障碍建设,帮助老年人、残疾人等共享数字生活。

We will promote the digitization of all real-life scenarios such as shopping, home life, tourism, leisure activities, and transportation to create a new digital life based on the sharing of knowledge and co-governance. Smart communities and smart service circles will be developed to benefit the people relying on digital platforms and offline community service institutions, and services online and offline will be integrated, such as community life services, community governance and public services, and smart community services. A richer diversity of digital life experiences will be introduced along with more digital homes. Digital skills education and training will be boosted to promote the digital literacy of the general public, and information accessibility will be improved to help the elderly and people with disabilities embrace the digital life.

第十七章 提高数字政府建设水平

Chapter 17 Digital Government

将数字技术广泛应用于政府管理服务,推动政府治理流程再造和模式优化,不断提高决策科学性和服务效率。

Increased integration of digital technologies into government services will help remake governance processes, improve services, and lead to more rational decision-making and greater efficiency.

第一节 加强公共数据开放共享

I. Open access to and sharing of public data

建立健全国家公共数据资源体系,确保公共数据安全,推进数据跨部门、跨层级、跨地区汇聚融合和深度利用。健全数据资源目录和责任清单制度,提升国家数据共享交换平台功能,深化国家人口、法人、空间地理等基础信息资源共享利用。扩大基础公共信息数据安全有序开放,探索将公共数据服务纳入公共服务体系,构建统一的国家公共数据开放平台和开发利用端口,优先推动企业登记监管、卫生、交通、气象等高价值数据集向社会开放。开展政府数据授权运营试点,鼓励第三方深化对公共数据的挖掘利用。

A sound public data resource system will be put in place to ensure the security of public data, and promote the convergence and utilization of data across departments, levels, and regions. The data resource catalogs and responsibility lists will be improved and the functions of national data sharing and exchange platforms upgraded to advance the sharing and utilization of basic information resources including national population, legal person, and geospatial data. Open access to basic public data will be expanded in a safe and orderly way, public data services will be integrated into the public service system, and an open national public data platform will be built, along with dedicated development and utilization ports. Priority will be given to high-value data sets in the fields of enterprise registration and supervision, health, transportation, and meteorology that are open to the public. Pilot projects on authorized operation of government data will be carried out and third parties will be encouraged to advance the mining and utilization of public data.

第二节 推动政务信息化共建共用

II. IT-enabled transformation of government services for all

加大政务信息化建设统筹力度,健全政务信息化项目清单,持续深化政务信息系统整合,布局建设执政能力、依法治国、经济治理、市场监管、公共安全、生态环境等重大信息系统,提升跨部门协同治理能力。完善国家电子政务网络,集约建设政务云平台和数据中心体系,推进政务信息系统云迁移。加强政务信息化建设快速迭代,增强政务信息系统快速部署能力和弹性扩展能力。

Intensified efforts will be made to develop an IT-enabled government, improve the list of government information projects, and deepen the integration of government information systems. Major information systems will be developed, including those about governance capacity, rule of law, economic governance, market supervision, public security, and the environment. Cross-sector collaboration will be fostered in governance. China’s e-government network will be improved, and cloud platforms and data center system will be built to promote the cloud migration of government information systems which will be upgraded rapidly for a greater capacity to expand flexibly.

第三节 提高数字化政务服务效能

III. Digitalization and efficient service delivery

全面推进政府运行方式、业务流程和服务模式数字化智能化。深化“互联网+政务服务”,提升全流程一体化在线服务平台功能。加快构建数字技术辅助政府决策机制,提高基于高频大数据精准动态监测预测预警水平。强化数字技术在公共卫生、自然灾害、事故灾难、社会安全等突发公共事件应对中的运用,全面提升预警和应急处置能力。

We will work to make sure the government functions, and delivers services in a more digital and smarter way. The “Internet + government services” initiative will be advanced to upgrade the functions of integrated online service platforms. Digital technologies will be used to facilitate government decision-making and improve the quality of accurate dynamic monitoring, prediction, and early warning based on high-frequency big data. They will also be applied widely in the response to public health emergencies, natural disasters, accidents, public safety incidents, and other public emergencies to increase the capacity for early warning and emergency response.

第十八章 营造良好数字生态

Chapter 18 A Healthy Digital Ecosystem

坚持放管并重,促进发展与规范管理相统一,构建数字规则体系,营造开放、健康、安全的数字生态。

Regulatory overreach should be rolled back where it hurts business dynamism while regulation will be strengthened wherever necessary in our effort to create an open, safe, and healthy rules-based digital ecosystem.

第一节 建立健全数据要素市场规则

I. Data protection regulation

统筹数据开发利用、隐私保护和公共安全,加快建立数据资源产权、交易流通、跨境传输和安全保护等基础制度和标准规范。建立健全数据产权交易和行业自律机制,培育规范的数据交易平台和市场主体,发展数据资产评估、登记结算、交易撮合、争议仲裁等市场运营体系。加强涉及国家利益、商业秘密、个人隐私的数据保护,加快推进数据安全、个人信息保护等领域基础性立法,强化数据资源全生命周期安全保护。完善适用于大数据环境下的数据分类分级保护制度。加强数据安全评估,推动数据跨境安全有序流动。

A balance will be achieved between data development and utilization, privacy protection, and public security, and basic systems and standards concerning data rights, transactions, circulation, cross-border transmission, and security protection will be developed at a faster pace. Sound mechanisms for data rights trading and industry self-regulation will be put in place and well-regulated data trading platforms and business entities will be fostered. The market systems for data asset evaluation, registration and settlement, trading, dispute arbitration, etc. will be developed. The data involving national interests, trade secrets, and personal privacy will be better protected and basic legislation in the fields of data security and personal information protection will be accelerated to strengthen data security protection in the whole life cycle. The classified and multi-level data protection will be improved to adapt to the big data environment. Efforts will be made to strengthen data security assessment and promote the safe and orderly flow of data across borders.

第二节 营造规范有序的政策环境

II. An enabling policy environment

构建与数字经济发展相适应的政策法规体系。健全共享经济、平台经济和新个体经济管理规范,清理不合理的行政许可、资质资格事项,支持平台企业创新发展、增强国际竞争力。依法依规加强互联网平台经济监管,明确平台企业定位和监管规则,完善垄断认定法律规范,打击垄断和不正当竞争行为。探索建立无人驾驶、在线医疗、金融科技、智能配送等监管框架,完善相关法律法规和伦理审查规则。健全数字经济统计监测体系。

Policies and regulations favorable for the digital economy will be introduced, along with better rules for managing the sharing economy, the platform economy, and the new individual economy. Improper items requiring administrative approval and qualifications will be cancelled and platform enterprises will be supported in pursuing innovative development and building their international competitiveness. Activities on internet platforms will be overseen in accordance with laws and regulations, the positioning and regulatory rules of platform enterprises will be clarified, and the legal framework of business monopoly identification will be improved, while business monopolies and unfair competition will be fought. Efforts will also be made to explore the possibility of creating regulatory frameworks for unmanned driving, online medical services, financial technology, smart delivery service, etc., improve relevant laws, regulations and ethical review rules, and foster a better statistical monitoring system for the digital economy.

第三节 加强网络安全保护

III. Cybersecurity

健全国家网络安全法律法规和制度标准,加强重要领域数据资源、重要网络和信息系统安全保障。建立健全关键信息基础设施保护体系,提升安全防护和维护政治安全能力。加强网络安全风险评估和审查。加强网络安全基础设施建设,强化跨领域网络安全信息共享和工作协同,提升网络安全威胁发现、监测预警、应急指挥、攻击溯源能力。加强网络安全关键技术研发,加快人工智能安全技术创新,提升网络安全产业综合竞争力。加强网络安全宣传教育和人才培养。

Efforts will be made to improve national cybersecurity laws, regulations, and standards, and intensify efforts to protect the security of data resources in important fields, important networks, and important information systems. A sound key information infrastructure protection system will be put in place to increase the capacity for security protection and political security maintenance. Cybersecurity risk assessment and review will be advanced, along with the development of cybersecurity infrastructure, cross-sector cybersecurity information sharing and collaboration, and the capacity for cybersecurity threat detection, monitoring and early warning, emergency command, and cyber attack tracing. Efforts will be stepped up to develop key technologies for cybersecurity, accelerate technological innovation in artificial intelligence for security, build the comprehensive competitiveness of the cybersecurity industry, and promote cybersecurity education and related personnel training.

第四节 推动构建网络空间命运共同体

IV. A global cybercommunity with a shared future

推进网络空间国际交流与合作,推动以联合国为主渠道、以联合国宪章为基本原则制定数字和网络空间国际规则。推动建立多边、民主、透明的全球互联网治理体系,建立更加公平合理的网络基础设施和资源治理机制。积极参与数据安全、数字货币、数字税等国际规则和数字技术标准制定。推动全球网络安全保障合作机制建设,构建保护数据要素、处置网络安全事件、打击网络犯罪的国际协调合作机制。向欠发达国家提供技术、设备、服务等数字援助,使各国共享数字时代红利。积极推进网络文化交流互鉴。

International exchanges and cooperation in cyberspace will be promoted, along with the formulation of international digital and cyber rules, and the United Nations will be considered the main channel and the Charter of the United Nations the source of basic principles. More will be done to establish a multilateral, democratic, and transparent global internet governance system and create a fairer and more reasonable cyberspace infrastructure and resource governance mechanism. We will actively participate in the development of international rules and digital technology standards including those on data security, digital currencies, and digital taxes; promote the development of global cyberspace security cooperation mechanisms, and build an international coordination and cooperation mechanism to protect data factors, handle cybersecurity incidents, and combat cybercrimes; provide digital assistance including technology, equipment, and services to less developed countries, so that all countries can share the dividends of the digital era; and actively promote cultural exchanges and mutual learning on the internet.

第六篇 全面深化改革 构建高水平社会主义市场经济体制

Part VI Comprehensive and In-depth Reform to Develop a Well-functioning Socialist Market Economy

坚持和完善社会主义基本经济制度,充分发挥市场在资源配置中的决定性作用,更好发挥政府作用,推动有效市场和有为政府更好结合。

Efforts will be ongoing to improve our socialist economic system to allow the market to play a decisive role in allocating resources while improving government regulation, so as to create synergy between an efficient market and a well-functioning government.

第十九章 激发各类市场主体活力

Chapter 19 Market Dynamism

毫不动摇巩固和发展公有制经济,毫不动摇鼓励、支持、引导非公有制经济发展,培育更有活力、创造力和竞争力的市场主体。

With the public sector as the core of our economy, the government encourages, supports, and guides the development of the non-public sector, and is committed to creating an enabling environment to allow more dynamic, creative, and competitive business entities to thrive.

第一节 加快国有经济布局优化和结构调整

I. State-owned enterprise reform

围绕服务国家战略,坚持有进有退、有所为有所不为,加快国有经济布局优化、结构调整和战略性重组,增强国有经济竞争力、创新力、控制力、影响力、抗风险能力,做强做优做大国有资本和国有企业。发挥国有经济战略支撑作用,推动国有经济进一步聚焦战略安全、产业引领、国计民生、公共服务等功能,调整盘活存量资产,优化增量资本配置,向关系国家安全、国民经济命脉的重要行业集中,向提供公共服务、应急能力建设和公益性等关系国计民生的重要行业集中,向前瞻性战略性新兴产业集中。对充分竞争领域的国有经济,强化资本收益目标和财务硬约束,增强流动性,完善国有资本优化配置机制。建立布局结构调整长效机制,动态发布国有经济布局优化和结构调整指引。

To better serve national strategies, we will make plans on where to advance and where to withdraw, what to do and what not to do, accelerate layout improvement, structural adjustment, and strategic restructuring for the state-owned sector and enhance its competitiveness, innovation, control, influence, and risk resistance capacity. We will also work to strengthen, expand, and increase the returns on state capital and enhance the strength, quality, and size of state-owned enterprises. The strategic support of the state-owned sector will be brought into full play, so that it can focus more on helping to ensure strategic security, promote industry leadership, bolster the national economy, raise people’s living standards, improve public services, and other functions. We will adjust and revitalize stock assets, improve the allocation of incremental capital, and move towards important industries concerning national security and the lifeline of the national economy, industries that provide public services and concern capacity building for emergency response, public welfare, etc. as well as emerging industries of strategic and progressive significance. For the part of the state-owned sector in fully competitive fields, we will give greater emphasis to capital gains targets and financial constraints, enhance liquidity, and improve the mechanism for optimal allocation of state capital. A long-term mechanism will be created for layout improvement and structural adjustment of the state-owned sector, and guidelines in this regard will be issued dynamically.

第二节 推动国有企业完善中国特色现代企业制度

II. State-owned enterprise modernization with Chinese characteristics

坚持党对国有企业的全面领导,促进加强党的领导和完善公司治理相统一,加快建立权责法定、权责透明、协调运转、有效制衡的公司治理机制。加强董事会建设,落实董事会职权,使董事会成为企业经营决策主体。按照完善治理、强化激励、突出主业、提高效率的要求,深化国有企业混合所有制改革,深度转换经营机制,对混合所有制企业探索实行有别于国有独资、全资公司的治理机制和监管制度。推行经理层成员任期制和契约化管理,完善市场化薪酬分配机制,灵活开展多种形式的中长期激励。

We will uphold the Party’s leadership in all spheres of work of state-owned enterprises, balance the endeavor to strengthen the Party’s leadership and that to improve corporate governance, and accelerate the establishment of a corporate governance mechanism featuring statutorily-defined and transparent rights and responsibilities, coordinated operations, and effective checks and balances. Efforts will also be made to facilitate the establishment of boards of directors and clearly define their functions and powers, making them the main bodies of business decision-making. In accordance with the requirements of improving governance, strengthening incentives, highlighting the main business and increasing efficiency, we will push ahead with mixed-ownership reform in state-owned enterprises by radically transforming the operation mechanism, and exploring the introduction of governance mechanism and supervision system for mixed-ownership enterprises that are different from those of solely state-owned and wholly owned companies. We will put in practice a tenure system and contractual management for managers, improve the market-oriented salary distribution mechanism, and flexibly offer medium- and long-term incentives in various forms.

第三节 健全管资本为主的国有资产监管体制

III. State-owned assets oversight to prevent, in particular, illegal diversion of funds

坚持授权与监管相结合、放活与管好相统一,大力推进国资监管理念、重点、方式等多方位转变。优化管资本方式,全面实行清单管理,深入开展分类授权放权,注重通过法人治理结构履职,加强事中事后监管。深化国有资本投资、运营公司改革,科学合理界定政府及国资监管机构,国有资本投资、运营公司和所持股企业的权利边界。健全协同高效的监督机制,严格责任追究,切实防止国有资产流失。加快推进经营性国有资产集中统一监管。

Ongoing efforts will be made to combine authorization and supervision as well as decentralization and management, and promote the transformation of state-owned asset supervision in terms of concept, focus, and modes. We will improve the approach to capital management, practice list-based management and classified authorization and decentralization, lay emphasis on performing duties through the corporate governance structure and strengthen ongoing and ex post oversight. We will deepen the reform of state capital investment and operation companies, and define the scope of rights of the government and state capital regulatory agencies, state capital investment and operation companies, and their subsidiaries in a scientific and reasonable manner. We will also improve the collaborative and efficient supervision mechanism and enforce accountability to prevent the loss of state-owned assets, and accelerate the centralized and unified supervision of for-profit state-owned assets.

第四节 优化民营企业发展环境

IV. A favorable business environment for private enterprises

健全支持民营企业发展的法治环境、政策环境和市场环境,依法平等保护民营企业产权和企业家权益。保障民营企业依法平等使用资源要素、公开公平公正参与竞争、同等受到法律保护。进一步放宽民营企业市场准入,破除招投标等领域各种壁垒。创新金融支持民营企业政策工具,健全融资增信支持体系,对民营企业信用评级、发债一视同仁,降低综合融资成本。完善促进中小微企业和个体工商户发展的政策体系,加大税费优惠和信贷支持力度。构建亲清政商关系,建立规范化政企沟通渠道。健全防范和化解拖欠中小企业账款长效机制。

Enabling legal, policy, and market environments will be fostered for the development of private enterprises and protect their property rights and the rights and interests of entrepreneurs on an equal basis in accordance with the law. We will ensure that private enterprises have equal access to resource factors in accordance with the law, and that they can compete in an open, fair, and just manner, and enjoy equal legal protection. Market access will be expanded for private enterprises and various barriers in bidding and other fields will be broken down. New policy instruments will be developed to provide financial support for private enterprises, improve the financing and credit enhancement system, treat private enterprises as equals in their credit rating and bond issuance, and lower overall financing costs. The policy system will be improved for promoting the development of micro, small, and medium enterprises and self-employed individuals, and give more preferential tax treatment and credit support. We will build a cordial and clean relationship between government and business, establish standardized communication channels between government and enterprises, and improve the long-term mechanism for preventing and resolving payment arrears to small and medium enterprises.

第五节 促进民营企业高质量发展

V. Policy support for private-sector development with a focus on quality improvement

鼓励民营企业改革创新,提升经营能力和管理水平。引导有条件的民营企业建立现代企业制度。支持民营企业开展基础研究和科技创新、参与关键核心技术研发和国家重大科技项目攻关。完善民营企业参与国家重大战略实施机制。推动民营企业守法合规经营,鼓励民营企业积极履行社会责任、参与社会公益和慈善事业。弘扬企业家精神,实施年轻一代民营企业家健康成长促进计划。

We will encourage the reform and innovation initiatives of private enterprises to improve their operation and management capacity, and guide qualified private enterprises to adopt a modern enterprise system. Private enterprises will be encouraged to carry out basic research and technological innovation, participate in the research and development of key and core technologies, and undertake key national science and technology projects. A better mechanism will be introduced for private enterprises to participate in the implementation of major national strategies, and they will be encouraged to operate in accordance with laws and regulations, actively fulfill their social responsibilities and participate in charitable initiatives. We will also work to foster entrepreneurship and implement the plan to promote the healthy growth of young entrepreneurs.

第二十章 建设高标准市场体系

Chapter 20 A Unified Market that Adheres to High Standards

实施高标准市场体系建设行动,健全市场体系基础制度,坚持平等准入、公正监管、开放有序、诚信守法,形成高效规范、公平竞争的国内统一市场。

Proactive action will be taken to build an efficient, well-regulated, unified domestic market that adheres to high standards, with necessary institutional support in place to ensure equal access, fair competition, impartial oversight, openness, orderliness, good faith conduct, and legal compliance.

第一节 全面完善产权制度

I. Protection of property rights

健全归属清晰、权责明确、保护严格、流转顺畅的现代产权制度。实施民法典,制修订物权、债权、股权等产权法律法规,明晰产权归属、完善产权权能。健全以公平为原则的产权保护制度,依法平等保护国有、民营、外资等各种所有制企业产权。健全产权执法司法保护制度,完善涉企产权案件申诉、复核、重审等保护机制,推动涉企冤错案件依法甄别纠正常态化机制化,畅通涉政府产权纠纷反映和处理渠道。加强数据、知识、环境等领域产权制度建设,健全自然资源资产产权制度和法律法规。

The modern property rights system will be improved to ensure clear ownership, well-defined rights and obligations, strict protection, and smooth transactions. With the civil code put into implementation, we will formulate laws and regulations on property rights, including real rights, creditor’s rights and stock rights, and revise them to clarify the ownership of property rights and improve the powers and functions of property rights. We will improve the property rights protection system based on the principle of fairness and give equal protection to the property rights of enterprises under all forms of ownership, including state-owned, private, and foreign-funded enterprises, in accordance with the law. Efforts will be made to improve the judicial protection system for property law enforcement and protection mechanisms such as the appeal, review, and retrial of enterprise-related property rights cases. We will make it a normal practice to screen and correct wrongful cases involving enterprises in accordance with the law and develop smooth channels for the reporting and handling of government-related property rights disputes. We will strengthen the development of the property rights system in the fields of data, knowledge, and the environment, and improve the property rights system and laws and regulations related to natural resource assets.

第二节 推进要素市场化配置改革

II. Reforms to facilitate market-based allocation of production factors

建立健全城乡统一的建设用地市场,统筹推进农村土地征收、集体经营性建设用地入市、宅基地制度改革。改革土地计划管理方式,赋予省级政府更大用地自主权,探索建立全国性的建设用地、补充耕地指标跨区域交易机制。建立不同产业用地类型合理转换机制,增加混合产业用地供给。健全统一规范的人力资源市场体系,破除劳动力和人才在城乡、区域和不同所有制单位间的流动障碍,减少人事档案管理中的不合理限制。发展技术和数据要素市场。健全要素市场运行机制,完善交易规则和服务体系。深化公共资源交易平台整合共享。

A sound unified rural-urban market will be created for land designated for construction purposes, and reforms on rural land expropriation, the marketing of rural collectively-owned land designated for business-related construction, and rural land designated for housing will be pushed forward. Efforts will also be made to reform land-use planning and management practices, grant provincial-level governments more decision-making power over the development of land, and explore the establishment of a nationwide mechanism for cross-regional trading of land for construction and newly-added cropland quotas. A mechanism will be created for the proper conversion of different types of land designated for industrial purposes and increase the supply of land for mixed industries. We will improve the unified and well-regulated human resource market, remove barriers to the flow of workforce and talents between urban and rural areas, between different regions, and between organizations of different types of ownership, and rescind excessive restrictions on personnel file management. Further progress will be made in the efforts to develop technology and data factor markets, improve the operational mechanism of the factor markets as well as trading rules and service system, and deepen the integration and sharing of public resource trading platforms.

第三节 强化竞争政策基础地位

III. A pivotal role for competition policies

坚持鼓励竞争、反对垄断,完善竞争政策框架,构建覆盖事前、事中、事后全环节的竞争政策实施机制。统筹做好增量审查与存量清理,强化公平竞争审查制度的刚性约束,完善公平竞争审查细则,持续清理废除妨碍全国统一市场和公平竞争的规定及做法。完善市场竞争状况评估制度,建立投诉举报和处理回应机制。加大反垄断和反不正当竞争执法司法力度,防止资本无序扩张。推进能源、铁路、电信、公用事业等行业竞争性环节市场化改革,放开竞争性业务准入,进一步引入市场竞争机制,加强对自然垄断业务的监管。

Continued efforts will be made to encourage competition and guard against monopoly, improve the competition policy framework, and create a competition policy implementation mechanism covering every stage of the whole process. Conduct incremental review and stock clearance will be properly conducted, fair competition reviews will be carried out to strengthen rigid constraints while the detailed rules in this regard will be improved, and more will be done to abolish regulations and practices that impede the development of a unified market and fair competition nationwide. We will improve the market competition evaluation system and establish a complaint filing and handling mechanism. Law enforcement against monopolies and unfair competition will be stepped up and capital expansion will be regulated. We will promote market-oriented reforms in competitive operations in such sectors as energy, railways, telecommunications, and public utilities, expand market access for competitive operations, introduce more market competition mechanisms, and strengthen oversight over natural monopoly industries.

第四节 健全社会信用体系

IV. Social credit system

建立健全信用法律法规和标准体系,制定公共信用信息目录和失信惩戒措施清单,完善失信主体信用修复机制。推广信用承诺制度。加强信用信息归集、共享、公开和应用,推广惠民便企信用产品与服务。建立公共信用信息和金融信息的共享整合机制。培育具有国际竞争力的企业征信机构和信用评级机构,加强征信监管,推动信用服务市场健康发展。加强信用信息安全管理,保障信用主体合法权益。建立健全政府失信责任追究制度。

A sound system of credit-related laws, regulations, and standards will be put in place, together with a catalog of public credit information and a list of disciplinary measures for dishonest practices, and the credit repair mechanism for defaulters will be improved. Efforts will be made to promote the credit commitment system, boost the collection, sharing, disclosure, and application of credit information, promote credit products and services that benefit people and enterprises, and establish a mechanism for the sharing and integration of public credit information and financial information. More will be done to foster internationally competitive enterprise credit reference agencies and credit rating agencies, strengthen supervision over credit investigation, and promote the healthy development of the credit service market. Intensified efforts will be made to manage the security of credit information, protect the legitimate rights and interests of entities whose credit information is gathered, and establish a sound accountability system for government administration dishonesty.

第二十一章 建立现代财税金融体制

Chapter 21 Fiscal Policy, Taxation, and the Financial System

更好发挥财政在国家治理中的基础和重要支柱作用,增强金融服务实体经济能力,健全符合高质量发展要求的财税金融制度。

Fiscal policy should play a fundamental role in state governance. Financial services should better serve the real economy. Fiscal policy, taxation, and the financial system should respond to the need for development with a focus on quality improvement.

第一节 加快建立现代财政制度

I. Fiscal policy  

深化预算管理制度改革,强化对预算编制的宏观指导和审查监督。加强财政资源统筹,推进财政支出标准化,强化预算约束和绩效管理。完善跨年度预算平衡机制,加强中期财政规划管理,增强国家重大战略任务财力保障。建立权责清晰、财力协调、区域均衡的中央和地方财政关系,适当加强中央在知识产权保护、养老保险、跨区域生态环境保护等方面事权,减少并规范中央和地方共同事权。健全省以下财政体制,增强基层公共服务保障能力。完善财政转移支付制度,优化转移支付结构,规范转移支付项目。完善权责发生制政府综合财务报告制度。建立健全规范的政府举债融资机制。

Efforts will be made to deepen reform of the budget management system, strengthen the macro guidance, review, and supervision of budget compilation, promote the overall planning of financial resources, standardization of financial expenditure, budget constraints and performance management. The multi-year budget balancing mechanism will be improved, along with medium-term financial planning management, to bolster financial support for major strategic tasks of the country. We will establish a fiscal relationship between central and local governments built on clearly defined powers and responsibilities, appropriate financial resource allocation, and greater balance between regions; appropriately strengthen the central government’s authority over intellectual property protection, pension insurance and cross-regional environmental protection; and reduce and regulate the common authority of central and local governments. We will improve the financial system at and below the provincial level and enhance the capacity to provide public services at the community level; create a better financial transfer payment system and a better transfer payment structure, and regulate the transfer payment items; improve the system for comprehensive government financial reporting based on accrual accounting; and establish a well-regulated government debt financing mechanism.

第二节 完善现代税收制度

II. Taxation

优化税制结构,健全直接税体系,适当提高直接税比重。完善个人所得税制度,推进扩大综合征收范围,优化税率结构。聚焦支持稳定制造业、巩固产业链供应链,进一步优化增值税制度。调整优化消费税征收范围和税率,推进征收环节后移并稳步下划地方。规范完善税收优惠。推进房地产税立法,健全地方税体系,逐步扩大地方税政管理权。深化税收征管制度改革,建设智慧税务,推动税收征管现代化。

We will seek to improve the structure of the tax system and the direct tax system, appropriately increase the proportion of direct taxes, create a better personal income tax system, expand the scope of comprehensive collection, and improve the tax rate structure. More will be done to improve the value-added tax (VAT) system by stabilizing the manufacturing industry and consolidating the industry and supply chains. We will also adjust and improve the scope of excise tax collection and the excise tax rate, make moves towards collecting excise tax at a point further downstream in the production-to-consumption process and hand it over to local governments in a stable way. Progress will be made in the endeavor to regulate and improve tax preferences, step up legislation on real estate taxation, improve local tax systems, and hand over more tax-related administrative powers to local governments step by step. Reforms will be deepened in the administration of tax collection and smart taxation will be developed to modernize the administration of tax collection.

第三节 深化金融供给侧结构性改革

III. Supply-side structural reform in the financial sector

健全具有高度适应性、竞争力、普惠性的现代金融体系,构建金融有效支持实体经济的体制机制。建设现代中央银行制度,完善货币供应调控机制。稳妥推进数字货币研发。健全市场化利率形成和传导机制,完善央行政策利率体系,更好发挥贷款市场报价利率基准作用。优化金融体系结构,深化国有商业银行改革,加快完善中小银行和农村信用社治理结构,规范发展非银行金融机构,增强金融普惠性。改革优化政策性金融,强化服务国家战略和规划能力。深化保险公司改革,提高商业保险保障能力。健全金融机构公司治理,强化股东股权和关联交易监管。完善资本市场基础制度,健全多层次资本市场体系,大力发展机构投资者,提高直接融资特别是股权融资比重。全面实行股票发行注册制,建立常态化退市机制,提高上市公司质量。深化新三板改革。完善市场化债券发行机制,稳步扩大债券市场规模,丰富债券品种,发行长期国债和基础设施长期债券。完善投资者保护制度和存款保险制度。完善现代金融监管体系,补齐监管制度短板,在审慎监管前提下有序推进金融创新,健全风险全覆盖监管框架,提高金融监管透明度和法治化水平。稳妥发展金融科技,加快金融机构数字化转型。强化监管科技运用和金融创新风险评估,探索建立创新产品纠偏和暂停机制。

The modern financial system that is adaptive, competitive, and inclusive will be improved and institutions and mechanisms will be put in place for the financial sector to effectively support the real economy. Efforts will be made to build a modern central bank system and improve the money supply regulation mechanism and steadily promote the research and development of digital currency. More will be done to improve the market-based interest rate mechanism and the transmission mechanism, the central bank’s policy interest rate system, and give better play to the benchmark role of the loan prime rate (LPR) mechanism. A better structure of the financial system will be defined and the reform of state-owned commercial banks will be deepened. We will move faster to improve the governance structure of small and medium-sized banks and rural credit cooperatives, regulate the development of non-banking financial institutions, and enhance the inclusiveness of financial services. Efforts will be made to reform and improve policy-backed finance, increase its capacity to serve national strategies and planning efforts, deepen the reform of insurance companies and build the ability of commercial insurance to offer protection. We will improve corporate governance in financial institutions and strengthen the oversight of shareholders’ equity and related party transactions. We will also improve the underlying systems of the capital market and the system of multi-level capital markets, make a major push to develop institutional investors, and increase the proportion of direct financing, equity financing in particular; fully implement the registration-based IPO system, make delisting a normal practice, and improve the quality of listed companies. We will deepen reform of the New Third Board, improve the market-based bond issuance mechanism, steadily expand the scale of the bond market, enrich bond varieties, and issue long-term government bonds and long-term infrastructure bonds. We will improve the investor protection system and deposit insurance system, as well as the modern financial regulatory system; shore up our weaknesses in the regulatory system; steadily advance financial innovation under the premise of prudential supervision; and improve the regulatory framework with full risk coverage and make financial regulation more transparent and more law-based. We will steadily develop financial technology and accelerate the digital transformation of financial institutions; boost the application of regulatory technology and financial innovation risk assessment; and explore the establishment of an innovative mechanism for product rectification and suspension.

第二十二章 提升政府经济治理能力

Chapter 22 The Government’s Economic Governance Capacity

加快转变政府职能,建设职责明确、依法行政的政府治理体系,创新和完善宏观调控,提高政府治理效能。

The transformation of government functions will be accelerated to build a rules-based governance system with clearly defined duties and responsibilities, and improve macro-level regulation and the effectiveness and efficiency of governance.

第一节 完善宏观经济治理

I. Macroeconomic governance

健全以国家发展规划为战略导向,以财政政策和货币政策为主要手段,就业、产业、投资、消费、环保、区域等政策紧密配合,目标优化、分工合理、高效协同的宏观经济治理体系。增强国家发展规划对公共预算、国土开发、资源配置等政策的宏观引导、统筹协调功能,健全宏观政策制定和执行机制,重视预期管理和引导,合理把握经济增长、就业、价格、国际收支等调控目标,在区间调控基础上加强定向调控、相机调控和精准调控。完善宏观调控政策体系,搞好跨周期政策设计,提高逆周期调节能力,促进经济总量平衡、结构优化、内外均衡。加强宏观经济治理数据库等建设,提升大数据等现代技术手段辅助治理能力,推进统计现代化改革。健全宏观经济政策评估评价制度和重大风险识别预警机制,畅通政策制定参与渠道,提高决策科学化、民主化、法治化水平。

Guided by the national development plan, we will improve the macroeconomic governance system by taking fiscal and monetary policies as the main instruments, better coordinating policies on employment, industries, investment, consumption, environmental protection, specific regions, etc., setting better-defined objectives, ensuring reasonable division of functions, and boosting efficient collaboration. Efforts will be made to strengthen the role of national development planning in providing macro guidance for and coordinating public budget, land development, resource allocation, and other policies; improve the macro policy formulation and implementation mechanism; attach importance to expectation management and guidance; set proper macro-regulation targets concerning economic growth, employment, prices, balance of payments, etc.; and strengthen targeted, well-timed, and precision regulation on the basis of range-based regulation. We will improve the macro-regulation policy system, appropriately design cross-cyclical policies, improve the capacity for counter-cyclical adjustment, and promote the balance between total supply and demand, structural improvement, and internal and external balance for the economy. We will step up the development of macroeconomic governance databases, enhance the supplementary governance capacity of modern technological means including big data, and modernize the statistical system. We will improve the macroeconomic policy evaluation system as well as major risk identification and early warning mechanisms, keep the channels for participation in policy-making open, and ensure decisions are made in a sound, democratic, and law-based way.

第二节 构建一流营商环境

II. A favorable business environment

深化简政放权、放管结合、优化服务改革,全面实行政府权责清单制度,持续优化市场化法治化国际化营商环境。实施全国统一的市场准入负面清单制度,破除清单之外隐性准入壁垒,以服务业为重点进一步放宽准入限制。精简行政许可事项,减少归并资质资格许可,取消不必要的备案登记和年检认定,规范涉企检查。全面推行“证照分离”、“照后减证”改革,全面开展工程建设项目审批制度改革。改革生产许可制度,简化工业产品审批程序,实施涉企经营许可事项清单管理。建立便利、高效、有序的市场主体退出制度,简化普通注销程序,建立健全企业破产和自然人破产制度。创新政务服务方式,推进审批服务便民化。深化国际贸易“单一窗口”建设。完善营商环境评价体系。

Reforms will be intensified to streamline administration and delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services, promote the system for listing the powers and obligations of government departments across the board, and continue to improve the market-based international business environment that respects the rule of law. We will implement the negative list system across the board for market access, remove hidden barriers to market access beyond the list, and further ease access restrictions mainly in the services sector. We will reduce government permits, merge some qualification permits, cancel unnecessary registrations and annual inspections, and regulate enterprise-related inspections. We will fully carry out the reform to separate permits from business licenses and reduce permits after granting licenses, as well as the reform of the construction project approval system. We will reform the production permit system, simplify the approval procedures for industrial products, and practice list-based management for all items related to enterprises that require administrative approval. We will establish a convenient, efficient, and orderly exit system for market entities, simplify ordinary deregistration procedures, and establish a sound bankruptcy system for enterprises and natural persons. We will develop new ways to deliver government services and streamline the approval services for the convenience of the people. We will promote the application of single-window document processing for international trade and improve the business environment assessment system.

第三节 推进监管能力现代化

III. Better regulation

健全以“双随机、一公开”监管和“互联网+监管”为基本手段、以重点监管为补充、以信用监管为基础的新型监管机制,推进线上线下一体化监管。严格市场监管、质量监管、安全监管,加强对食品药品、特种设备和网络交易、旅游、广告、中介、物业等的监管,强化要素市场交易监管,对新产业新业态实施包容审慎监管。深化市场监管综合行政执法改革,完善跨领域跨部门联动执法、协同监管机制。深化行业协会、商会和中介机构改革。加强社会公众、新闻媒体监督。

We will improve the new regulatory mechanism featuring the random selection of both inspectors and inspection targets, the prompt release of results and the Internet Plus Oversight initiative, focusing on key targets and credit supervision to promote the integration of online and offline supervision. We will strengthen market supervision, quality supervision, safety supervision, the supervision of food and drugs, special equipment, online transactions, tourism, advertising, intermediaries, property management, etc., as well as the supervision of factor market transactions, and implement accommodative and prudent regulation of new industries and new forms of business. We will deepen the reform of coordinated law enforcement by government departments in market oversight and improve cross-sector law enforcement and collaborative supervision mechanisms. We will deepen the reform of trade associations, chambers of commerce, and intermediary agencies, and facilitate supervision by the public and the press.

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