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英语同传:第七次全国人口普查主要数据结果发布会

国新办 2021-05-11 578次

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国务院新闻办新闻局局长、新闻发言人陈文俊:

Chen Wenjun:

女士们,先生们,上午好。第七次全国人口普查主要数据汇总工作近期结束,今天我们举行新闻发布会,邀请国务院第七次全国人口普查领导小组副组长、国家统计局局长宁吉喆先生和领导小组办公室主任、国家统计局副局长李晓超先生,领导小组办公室副主任、国家统计局总统计师曾玉平先生,领导小组办公室副主任、国家统计局人口和就业统计司司长张毅先生出席发布会,发布有关数据、介绍有关情况,并回答各位关心的问题。

Ladies and gentlemen, good morning. The main data of the Seventh National Population Census has recently been aggregated. At today's press conference, we have invited Ning Jizhe, deputy head of the Leading Group of the State Council for the Seventh National Population Census and commissioner of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (NBS); Li Xiaochao, director of the Office of the Leading Group of the State Council for the Seventh National Population Census and deputy commissioner of the NBS; Zeng Yuping, deputy director of the Office of the Leading Group of the State Council for the Seventh National Population Census and chief methodologist of the NBS; and Zhang Yi, deputy director of the Office of the Leading Group of the State Council for the Seventh National Population Census and director general of the Department of Population and Employment Statistics of the NBS, to attend. They will brief you on the main data and relevant issues, and also field questions.

首先,请宁吉喆先生介绍情况。

First of all, I will give the floor to Mr. Ning to introduce the situation.

国务院第七次全国人口普查领导小组副组长、国家统计局局长宁吉喆:

Ning Jizhe:

在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,按照国务院第七次全国人口普查领导小组统一部署,各地区各有关部门精心组织、协同推进,全体普查人员艰苦努力、无私奉献,亿万普查对象共同参与、积极配合,第七次全国人口普查顺利完成了普查现场登记和主要数据汇总工作。今天,举办新闻发布会,向大家通报相关情况和主要数据。

Under the strong leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, in line with the coordinated decisions and arrangements made by the Leading Group of the State Council for the Seventh National Population Census, with the meticulous organization and cooperative advancement of all regions and relevant government departments, the concerted efforts and dedication of all census staff as well as the joint and active participation of hundreds of millions of census respondents, the field enumeration and aggregation of the main data of the Seventh National Population Census has been successfully completed. The aim of today's press conference is to brief you on the basic introduction and main data of the census.

一、普查工作基本情况

First, the background.

根据统计法和《全国人口普查条例》,我国以2020年11月1日零时为标准时点开展了第七次全国人口普查(以下简称七人普),主要目的是全面查清我国人口数量、结构、分布等方面情况,为完善我国人口发展战略和政策体系、制定经济社会发展规划、推动高质量发展提供准确统计信息支持。

In accordance with the Statistics Law of the People's Republic of China and the Regulations on National Population Census, China carried out its Seventh National Population Census (hereinafter referred to as the census) with 12 a.m. on Nov. 1, 2020, as the reference time. The main aim of the census is to offer a comprehensive understanding of the size, structure, distribution and other aspects of China's population, so as to provide accurate statistical information support for the improvement of China's population development strategy and policy, the formulation of social and economic development plans, and the advancement of high-quality economic development.

党中央、国务院高度重视七人普工作。习近平总书记参加人口普查现场登记并发表重要讲话。国务院成立七人普领导小组,多次召开全体会议和电视电话会议,研究部署普查有关工作。领导小组各成员单位、地方各级政府精心组织实施、通力协作配合,全国省、市、县、乡、村级共组建67.9万个普查机构,选聘700多万名普查人员。各级人口普查机构和广大普查人员积极克服新冠肺炎疫情影响,对全国所有家庭和人口进行了全面普查,圆满完成普查入户登记任务。

The CPC Central Committee and the State Council attached great importance to the census. General Secretary Xi Jinping participated in the on-site census registration and delivered an important speech. The State Council established the Leading Group for the census and held several plenary sessions and teleconferences to make relevant census arrangements. All member agencies of the Leading Group and local governments at all levels meticulously organized and made concerted efforts to implement the census, with 679,000 census agencies set up at provincial, municipal, county, township and village levels across China and more than 7 million census staff recruited. Census agencies at all levels and all census staff made active efforts to overcome the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and successfully completed the field enumeration of all households and residents.

七人普全面采用电子化数据采集方式,实时直接上报数据,首次实现普查对象通过扫描二维码进行自主填报,强化部门行政记录和电力、手机等大数据应用,提高了普查工作质量和效率。七人普邀请钟南山、姚明担任宣传大使,“大国点名、没你不行”等宣传口号深入人心,加大了宣传力度。七人普坚持依法进行,认真落实普查方案的各项要求,实行严格的质量控制制度,建立健全普查数据追溯和问责机制,在31个省(自治区、直辖市)中随机抽取141个县的3.2万户进行了事后质量抽查,结果显示,七人普漏登率为0.05%,普查过程严谨规范,普查结果真实可靠。

In the census, data was reported directly in real time by fully adopting digital data collection, respondents were able to fill in and submit questionnaires by scanning a QR code themselves for the first time, and the application of administrative records and big data from electricity meters and cellphones was strengthened. As a result, the quality and efficiency of the census were improved. Publicity for the census was boosted by inviting Zhong Nanshan and Yao Ming to act as ambassadors, while its slogan "Population Census, Everyone Counts," resonated powerfully with people. The census was conducted in accordance with the law and all the requirements in the census program were carefully implemented. We established a strict quality control system and improved the census data tracing and accountability mechanism. The post enumeration survey conducted in 32,000 households across 141 counties randomly selected from 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities showed that the census process was rigorous and standard, and that the census results were reliable with an undercount rate of 0.05%.

二、普查主要数据

Second, main data of the census.

(一)人口总量。全国人口[注:全国人口是指我国大陆31个省、自治区、直辖市和现役军人的人口,不包括居住在31个省、自治区、直辖市的港澳台居民和外籍人员。]共141178万人,与2010年(第六次全国人口普查数据,下同)的133972万人相比,增加7206万人,增长5.38%,年平均增长率为0.53%,比2000年到2010年的年平均增长率0.57%下降0.04个百分点。数据表明,我国人口10年来继续保持低速增长态势。

First, national population. The national population (Note: The national population refers to the population of the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government and servicemen of the Chinese mainland, excluding residents of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and foreigners living in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) reached 1.41178 billion, increasing by 72.06 million compared with the population of 1.33972 billion in 2010 (data of the Sixth National Population Census), up by 5.38%. The average annual growth rate was 0.53%, down by 0.04 percentage point compared with the average annual growth rate of 0.57% from 2000 to 2010. The data shows that China's population maintained a slight growth over the past decade.

(二)户别人口。全国共有家庭户49416万户,家庭户人口为129281万人;集体户2853万户,集体户人口为11897万人。平均每个家庭户的人口为2.62人,比2010年的3.10人减少0.48人。家庭户规模继续缩小,主要是受我国人口流动日趋频繁和住房条件改善年轻人婚后独立居住等因素的影响。

Second, population by household types. Nationwide, there were 494.16 million family households with 1,292.81 million people, and 28.53 million collective households with 118.97 million people. The average size of a family household was 2.62 people, which was 0.48 lower than the 3.1 people in 2010. Family households continued to decrease in size because of increasing population mobility and the fact that young people are living separately from their parents after marriage with improved housing conditions.

(三)人口地区分布。东部地区人口占39.93%,中部地区占25.83%,西部地区占27.12%,东北地区占6.98%。与2010年相比,东部地区人口所占比重上升2.15个百分点,中部地区下降0.79个百分点,西部地区上升0.22个百分点,东北地区下降1.20个百分点。人口向经济发达区域、城市群进一步集聚。

Third, population by regions. The population in the eastern region accounted for 39.93% of the total, that in the central areas accounted for 25.83%, that in the western region accounted for 27.12%, and that in the northeast of China accounted for 6.98%. Compared with the data from 2010, the proportion of the population in the eastern region increased by 2.15 percentage points, that in the central areas decreased by 0.79 percentage point, that in the western region increased by 0.22 percentage point, and that in the northeast of China decreased by 1.2 percentage points. The population further congregated in economically developed regions and city clusters.

(四)性别构成。男性人口为72334万人,占51.24%;女性人口为68844万人,占48.76%。总人口性别比(以女性为100,男性对女性的比例)为105.07,与2010年基本持平,略有降低。出生人口性别比为111.3,较2010年下降6.8。我国人口的性别结构持续改善。

Fourth, sex composition. Among the national population, there were 723.34 million males, accounting for 51.24%, and 688.44 million females, or 48.76%. The sex ratio (males per 100 females) was 105.07, basically the same level with a slight decline compared with 2010. The sex ratio at birth was 111.3, down by 6.8 compared with 2010. The sex composition of China continued to improve.

(五)年龄构成。0—14岁人口为25338万人,占17.95%;15—59岁人口为89438万人,占63.35%;60岁及以上人口为26402万人,占18.70%(其中,65岁及以上人口为19064万人,占13.50%)。与2010年相比,0—14岁、15—59岁、60岁及以上人口的比重分别上升1.35个百分点、下降6.79个百分点、上升5.44个百分点。我国少儿人口比重回升,生育政策调整取得了积极成效。同时,人口老龄化程度进一步加深,未来一段时期将持续面临人口长期均衡发展的压力。

Fifth, age composition. There were 253.38 million people in the 0-14 age group, accounting for 17.95%; 894.38 million people aged 15-59, accounting for 63.35%; and 264.02 million people aged 60 and over, accounting for 18.7% (specifically, there were 190.64 million people aged 65 and over, or 13.5%). Compared with 2010, the proportions of people in the age groups of 0-14, 15-59, and 60 and over were up by 1.35 percentage points, down by 6.79 percentage points, and up by 5.44 percentage points, respectively. The share of children rose again, proving that the adjustments to China's fertility policy have achieved positive results. Meanwhile, the further aging of the population has imposed continued pressure on the long-term balanced development of the population in the coming period.

(六)受教育程度人口。具有大学文化程度的人口为21836万人。与2010年相比,每10万人中具有大学文化程度的由8930人上升为15467人,15岁及以上人口的平均受教育年限由9.08年提高至9.91年,文盲率由4.08%下降为2.67%。受教育状况的持续改善反映了10年来我国大力发展高等教育以及扫除青壮年文盲等措施取得了积极成效,人口素质不断提高。

Six, education attainment. There were 218.36 million persons with university education. Compared with 2010,  the number of people with university education went up from 8,930 persons to 15,467 persons per 100,000 persons, and the average years of schooling for people aged 15 and above increased from 9.08 years to 9.91 years. The illiteracy rate dropped from 4.08% to 2.67%. The continued improvement of the educational attainment demonstrates the achievements in promoting higher education, eradicating illiteracy among young and middle-aged adults, and raising the population quality through hard efforts over the past ten years.

(七)城乡人口。居住在城镇的人口为90199万人,占63.89%;居住在乡村的人口为50979万人,占36.11%。与2010年相比,城镇人口增加23642万人,乡村人口减少16436万人,城镇人口比重上升14.21个百分点。随着我国新型工业化、信息化和农业现代化的深入发展和农业转移人口市民化政策落实落地,10年来我国新型城镇化进程稳步推进,城镇化建设取得了历史性成就。

Seven, urban and rural population. There were 901.99 million people living in urban areas, accounting for 63.89% of the total population, and 509.79 million people living in rural areas, accounting for 36.11%. Compared with 2010, the urban population increased by 236.42 million and the rural population decreased by 164.36 million. The shareof urban population went up by14.21 percentage points. With the in-depth development of China's new industrialization, informatization, and agricultural modernization and the implementation of policies to help people who have relocated from rural to urban areas to gain permanent urban residency, China's new urbanization has been advanced steadily and historical achievements have been made in this regard over the past ten years.

(八)流动人口。人户分离人口为49276万人,其中,市辖区内人户分离人口为11694万人,流动人口为37582万人,其中,跨省流动人口为12484万人。与2010年相比,人户分离人口增长88.52%,市辖区内人户分离人口增长192.66%,流动人口增长69.73%。我国经济社会持续发展,为人口的迁移流动创造了条件,人口流动趋势更加明显,流动人口规模进一步扩大。

Eight, floating population. The number of people who lived in places other than their household registration areas reached 492.76 million. Specifically, 116.94 million lived in places other than their household registration areas but still in the same city and the floating population numbered375.82 million. Within the floating population, 124.84 million moved to other provinces. Compared with 2010, the number of people who live in places other than their household registration areas went up by 88.52%; the population who live in places other than their household registration areas but still in the same city increased by 192.66%; and the floating population increased by 69.73%. China's continued economic and social development has facilitated population migration and mobility, the trends of which have become increasingly evident, and the size of the migrant population has further grown.

(九)民族人口。汉族人口为128631万人,占91.11%;各少数民族人口为12547万人,占8.89%。与2010年相比,汉族人口增长4.93%,各少数民族人口增长10.26%,少数民族人口比重上升0.40个百分点。民族人口稳步增长,充分体现了在中国共产党领导下,我国各民族全面发展进步的面貌。

Nine, population of ethnic groups. The population of the Han ethnic group is 1,286.31 million, accounting for 91.11% of the total population, while that of the ethnic minorities number at 125.47 million, accounting for 8.89%. Compared with 2010, the population of the Han ethnic group grew by 4.93%, while that of the ethnic minorities increased by 10.26%, and the share of the ethnic minorities increased by 0.40 percentage point. The steady increase of the population of the ethnic groups fully reflected the comprehensive development of and progress for all ethnic groups under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.

人口问题始终是我国面临的全局性、长期性、战略性问题,七人普全面查清了我国人口数量、结构、分布等方面情况,准确反映了当前人口变化的趋势性特征,获得了大量宝贵的信息资源,我们正在抓紧对普查数据进行整理、分析和开发,后续会采取更多方式公布和共享普查成果,配合相关部门加强人口发展的前瞻性、战略性研究,最大程度发挥普查的作用,为推动高质量发展、有针对性地制定人口相关战略和政策、促进人口长期均衡发展提供强有力的统计信息支持。

The population issue has always been an issue of overall, long-term, and strategic importance in China. The Seventh National Population Census offered a good understanding of the size, structure, and distribution of China's population, accurately mapped trends in demographic changes, and provided abundant and valuable information. We are working hard to compile, analyze, and develop the census data, and will follow up with more ways to publish and share the census results. We will collaborate with relevant departments to strengthen forward-looking and strategic studies on population development. All of these efforts will make full use of the census and provide strong statistical information support to advance high-quality development, formulate targeted strategies and policies on population, and facilitate long-term and balanced population development.

借此机会,我代表国务院七人普领导小组办公室和国家统计局,向奋战在普查工作一线的各级人口普查机构和广大普查工作者表示衷心感谢!正是700多万普查人员不辞辛苦、勇于担当、迎难而上、主动作为,有效克服了新冠肺炎疫情影响,如期完成了普查现场登记,切实做到了区不漏房、房不漏户、户不漏人、人不错项,使七人普的成果经得起历史和人民的检验。向积极参与、配合、支持普查工作的社会各界和广大普查对象表示衷心感谢!正是14亿人民以“大国点名、没你不行”的主人翁精神,认真履行普查义务,如实提供普查信息,构筑了七人普这一庞大工程的坚固基石。向参与普查宣传的所有新闻媒体的朋友们表示衷心感谢!正是通过各位的全方位宣传,使广大普查人员得到鼓舞和激励、增强了信心和动力,让全体普查对象了解和理解人口普查、支持和配合普查工作,七人普顺利开展和取得成功离不开你们的悉心投入和辛勤劳作。谢谢大家!

On behalf of the Office of the Leading Group of the State Council for the Seventh National Population Census and the National Bureau of Statistics of China, I would like to take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to the census agencies at all levels and census staff who fought on the front lines.Over seven million census staff worked hard and rose to challenges with a strong sense of responsibility and initiative despite the impact of the COVID-19. They have completed the field enumeration on time and covered all houses, households, respondents, and items in each enumeration area. It is because of their work that the results of the Seventh National Population Census can stand the test of history and the people. I would also like to extend my heartfelt gratitude to all sectors of society and respondents who participated in and supported the census with a spirit of cooperation. Thanks to the 1.4 billion people who performed their census duties and provided authentic information with the ownership spirit of "Population Census, Everyone Counts," the strong cornerstone of the Seventh National Population Census of such a scale was formed. I would also like to extend our sincere gratitude to all friends from the news media involved in census promotion. Your all-around publicity inspired and encouraged the census staff, boosting their confidence and motivation, and helping the respondents to understand and thus render support and cooperation for the population census. Without your dedication and diligence, the Seventh National Population Census would not have been so successful. Thank you again!

陈文俊:

Chen Wenjun:

谢谢宁吉喆先生。下面,欢迎各位提问,提问之前请通报一下自己所在的新闻机构。

Thank you, Mr. Ning. Now the floor is open for questions. Please identify your news outlets before asking questions.

中央广播电视总台央视记者:

CCTV:

我们刚才注意到宁局长发布的统计数据中,出现了一些新的变化、新的特征,我们想问和第六次人口普查相比,此次人口普查结果的人口性别比、年龄结构包括受教育程度,出现了哪些新的变化趋势?能不能为我们再深入地解读一下?谢谢。

We noticed that there are some new changes and features in the statistics released by Mr. Ning. Compared with the data of the Sixth National Population Census, what are the new changes and trends regarding the gender ratio, age composition, and educational level this time around? Could you elaborate on these aspects? Thank you.

宁吉喆:

Ning Jizhe:

这个问题很重要,由我来回答。人口状况是一个国家最基本、最重要的国情,党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央高度重视人口问题,作出逐步调整生育政策、促进人口长期均衡发展等重大决策,我国人口工作取得显著成效、人口发展形势出现一些积极变化。刚才公布的普查成果,全面详实地反映了当前我国人口的基本情况及十年间人口的发展变化,总的来看可以用这么几句话来概括。

This issue is rather significant, and I'll take your question. The population is the most fundamental and crucial national condition of a country. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has attached great importance to the issue of population, making key decisions such as gradually adjusting family planning policies and promoting long-term and balanced population development. China's population-related work has seen remarkable progress and there have been some active changes in the trends of population development. The census results released just now reflected the basic situation of China's population and demographic trends over the past ten years in a comprehensive and detailed way. In general, it can be summarized in a few sentences.

十年来,我国人口总量持续增长,仍然是世界第一人口大国。人口质量稳步提升,人口受教育程度明显提高。人口结构调整变化,性别结构改善,年龄结构是“两升一降”。人口流动集聚的趋势更加明显,城镇化水平持续提高。具体有以下六个方面的特点:

Over the past decade, China's population has continued to grow and it remains the world's most populous country. The quality of the population has steadily improved, and the educational level of the population has increased significantly. The population structure has changed with the gender ratio improving. Meanwhile, the age composition of the population showed an increase in the amount of people in the age groups of 0 to 14, and 60 and above and a drop in the amount of people between 15 and 59. The trend of population movement and concentration has also become more obvious, and the level of urbanization has continued to rise. There are six characteristics as follows:

第一,从人口总量上看,虽然我国人口总量增速是放缓的,但仍然保持了平稳增长。2020年,我国总人口达到14.1亿人,约占全球总人口的18%,仍然是世界第一人口大国。过去十年间,我国人口实现了从13亿人到14亿人的跨越,人口总量增加了7206万人,比2010年增长了5.38%,年均增长0.53%,略低于上一个十年0.57%的平均增长率。

First, in terms of total population, although the growth rate of China's total population is slowing down, it still maintains a steady growth. In 2020, China's population reached 1.41 billion, accounting for 18% of the world's population, meaning China remains the most populous country in the world. Over the past decade, China's population has jumped from 1.3 billion in 2010 to 1.4 billion in 2020 with an increase of 72.06 million, up by 5.38% compared with 2010. The average annual growth rate was 0.53%, slightly down from that of 0.57% from 2000 to 2010.

第二,从人口质量上看,我国人口受教育水平明显提高,人口的素质不断提升。15岁及以上人口的平均受教育年限从2010年的9.08年提高至9.91年。16-59岁劳动年龄人口平均受教育年限从2010年9.67年提高至10.75年,文盲率从2010年的4.08%下降为2.67%。

Second, in terms of population quality, the educational level of the Chinese population has increased significantly, and the quality of the population has been improving. The average number of years of education received by people aged 15 and above has increased from 9.08 years in 2010 to 9.91 years. The average number of years of education received by the working age population, between 16 and 59, has grown from 9.67 years in 2010 to 10.75 years. The illiteracy rate dropped from 4.08% in 2010 to 2.67%.

第三,从性别构成上看,出生人口性别比稳步下降,性别结构得到改善。普查结果表明,总人口性别比为105.1,与第六次全国人口普查时的105.2相比基本持平,略有降低。从出生人口看,出生人口性别比2020年为111.3,较2010年降低了6.8,逐渐趋向正常水平。

Third, in terms of gender composition, the sex ratio at birth has steadily declined and the gender structure has improved. According to the census, the sex ratio was 105.1, basically the same level and slightly lower than that of 105.2 in 2010. The sex ratio at birth was 111.3 in 2020, down by 6.8 compared with that in 2010, gradually converging to a normal level.

第四,从年龄构成上看,少儿人口数量增加,比重上升。0-14岁少儿人口的数量比2010年增加了3092万人,比重上升了1.35个百分点。“单独二孩”“全面两孩”等决策部署和政策措施,促进了出生人口出现回升,“二孩”生育率明显提升,出生人口中“二孩”占比由2013年的30%左右上升到2017年的50%左右。

Fourth, in terms of age composition, the number of children increased and their proportion rose, with the number of children aged 0-14 increasing by 30.92 million compared to 2010 and their proportion rising by 1.35 percentage points. The number of births rebounded as a result of decisions and policy measures such as the "selective two-child" policy and the "universal two-child" policy. The birth rate of second children saw a significant increase, and the proportion of babies born as a second child rose from 30% in 2013 to 50% in 2017.

第五,从人口迁徙流动情况看,人口流动依然活跃,人口的集聚效应进一步显现。普查结果表明,居住地与户籍所在地不一致的现象已相当普遍,2020年我国人户分离人口达到4.93亿人,约占总人口的35%。其中,流动人口3.76亿人,十年间增长了将近70%。从流向上看,人口持续向沿江、沿海地区和内地城区集聚,长三角、珠三角、成渝城市群等主要城市群的人口增长迅速,集聚度加大。

Fifth, in terms of population migration and mobility, population movement remains active and the agglomeration effect of the population has become increasingly evident. The census results showed that it has become common for people to live in places other than their household registration areas. The number of people who lived in places other than their household registration areas reached 493 million in 2020, accounting for 35% of the Chinese population. Specifically, the floating population numbered 376 million, up nearly 70% over the past decade. In terms of the flow direction, the population continues to flock to areas along the Yangtze River, coastal areas and inland urban areas. The population of major city clusters such as the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and the Chengdu-Chongqing city cluster is growing rapidly and the degree of agglomeration is increasing.

第六,从人口的城乡结构看,我国城镇常住人口持续增加,常住人口的城镇化率进一步提高。十年间城镇常住人口增加了2.36亿人,常住人口城镇化率提高了14.21个百分点,比上一个十年的增幅又上升了0.75个百分点。普查结果表明,加快实施促进以人为核心的城镇化,提高质量为导向的新型城镇化战略,推动农业转移人口市民化,取得了明显成效。

Sixth, in terms of the urban-rural structure of the population, China's permanent urban population continues to increase, and its share has further improved. Over the past decade, the urban population has increased by 236 million, and the share of urban population grew by 14.21 percentage points, a 0.75 percentage point increase compared with the growth of the last decade. As the census showed, we have accelerated the implementation of the new people-centered and quality-oriented urbanization strategy and made notable progress in helping people who have relocated from rural to urban areas to gain permanent urban residency.

十年间,我国人口的主要变化反映了我国经济社会和人口发展的历史进程,反映了推动高质量发展、决胜全面建成小康社会的实践历程,也符合人口自身发展趋势和人口与经济社会相互作用的客观规律。同时,普查数据也反映出我国人口发展中面临着一些结构性矛盾,如劳动年龄人口和育龄妇女规模下降,老龄化程度加深,总和生育率下降,出生人口数量走低等。

The major changes in China's population in the past decade reflect the historical progress of China's economic, social and population development. They reflect the practical progress of promoting high-quality development and securing a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. They also comply with the trend of population development and the objective laws of the interaction between the population, the economy and society. Moreover, the census data also reflects some structural contradictions in the development of China's population, such as a decrease in the population of working age people and women of childbearing age, an aging population, a decrease in the total fertility rate, and the low number of births.

我们要辩证看待人口变化对经济社会的影响。一是我国人口基数大、人口众多的基本国情没有改变,超大规模国内市场优势将长期存在,人口与资源环境仍将处于紧平衡状态。同时,人口增长放缓,需要采取措施促进人口长期均衡发展。二是劳动力资源依然丰富,人口红利继续存在,同时劳动年龄人口逐年缓慢减少,经济结构和科技发展需要调整适应。三是人口素质不断提高,人才红利新的优势将逐步显现。同时,大学生就业压力加大,产业转型升级步伐需要加快。四是少儿人口和老年人口比重双双上升,少儿人口比重上升既反映了调整生育政策的积极成效,又凸显了“一老一小”问题的重要性,需要优化生育政策,完善养育等人口服务体系。老年人口比例上升较快,老龄化已成为今后一段时期我国的基本国情。同时,老年人口的增加也会带来智慧、传承、发挥和需求拓展扩大。五是人口加快集聚,既反映了城镇化和经济集聚的趋势性变化,也对提高城镇化质量、促进区域协调发展提出了新的要求。谢谢。

We need to look at the impact of demographic changes on the economy and society dialectically. First, China's basic national conditions of a large population base and a large population have not changed; the advantages of a super-sized domestic market will persist for a long time; and the population and resources and environment will remain in a tight balance. At the same time, population growth is slowing down, and measures are needed to promote long-term balanced population development. Second, the labor resources are still abundant and the demographic dividend continue to exist, while the working age population decreases slowly year by year. The economic structure and technological development need to be adjusted and adapted. Third, the population quality is improving. New advantages of talent dividends will gradually emerge. College students are facing increasing employment pressure. Industrial transformation and upgrading needs to be accelerated. Fourthly, the proportion of children and the elderly population are both increasing. The increase in the proportion of children reflects the achievement of adjusting the family planning policies and highlights the importance of the issue regarding the elderly and children. We need to improve family planning policies and the population service system such as parenting. The proportion of the elderly population is rising rapidly and ageing has become the basic national condition in China for some time to come. The increase in the elderly population will be conducive to passing on wisdoms and traditions and also bring expanded demands. Fifth, the accelerated agglomeration of the population reflects changes in the trends of urbanization and economic agglomeration, and makes new requirements for improving the quality of urbanization and promoting regional coordinated development. Thank you.

中国新闻社记者:

China News Service:

第七次全国人口普查可以说是世界上规模最大的调查项目,规模如此大的调查项目是如何组织开展的?有哪些特点?谢谢。

China's seventh national population census can be called the largest census project in the world.How was such a large-scale census organized and conducted? Could you summarize some of its features? Thank you.

国务院第七次全国人口普查领导小组办公室主任、国家统计局副局长李晓超:

Li Xiaochao:

首先,谢谢中新社对人口普查工作的关心。2020年人口普查是新中国成立以来,我国开展的第七次全国人口普查,也是世界上规模最大的人口普查,又是面对突如其来的新冠肺炎疫情开展的一项重大国情国力调查。一年多以来,在全国上上下下的共同努力下,我们顺利高质量完成了普查工作,这一成绩的取得归纳起来主要有以下几个方面的原因:

Thank you for your interest in China's population census. The 2020 census was the seventh national population census since the founding of the People's Republic of China, and also the world's largest. It was a major national survey on China's conditions after having faced the unexpected COVID-19 pandemic. In the past year or so, with the concerted efforts of the Chinese people, we have successfully completed the census. The achievements are attributed to the following aspects.

第一,党中央、国务院高度重视,为普查指明了方向。习近平总书记、李克强总理等党和国家领导人以普通公民身份参加了登记,国务院成立了以韩正副总理为组长的第七次全国人口普查领导小组,指挥调度普查工作。各地区、各相关部门按照全国统一领导、部门分工协作、地方分级负责、各方共同参与的要求通力合作、相互支持。全国省、市、县、乡村共组建67.9万个普查机构,选聘了700多万名普查人员。党中央、国务院高度重视,各地区、各相关部门抓实抓细,为普查工作指明了方向,提供了完成这项工作的组织保障。

First, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council attached much importance to the census and had given instructions as to how we should best conduct our work.General Secretary Xi Jinpingand Premier Li Keqiang as well as other Party and state leaders signed up for the enumeration as ordinary citizens. The State Council established the Leading Group of the State Council for the Seventh National Population Census with Vice Premier Han Zheng as its head to coordinate the census. Different localities and departments had worked in synergy and offered support to each other under national centralized leadership, with departments at all levels assuming clear duties and carrying out specific jobs. Approximately 679,00 census agencies were set up at provincial, municipal, county, township, and village levels across China, and more than 7 million census staff were recruited. The CPC Central Committee and the State Council attached much importance to our work. Different localities and relevant departments made meticulous organization and cooperative advancements on the census. All of these factors guaranteed the success of the 2020 census.

第二,认真谋划实施方案,为普查制定了时间表、路线图。在多次综合试点和专项试点基础上,反复征求专家和社会各方面的意见,制定形成了《第七次全国人口普查方案》和七项工作实施细则,对普查内容、普查方法以及普查各个环节的工作流程、工作任务和工作要求都作了明确的规定,为人口普查工作提供了行动指南和工作规范。

Second, we made meticulous plans, including timelines and road maps for the census. On top of multiple general pilot projects and several specialized pilot projects, and after having solicited opinions from experts and people from various professional circles, we produced an outline for the census as well as seven implementing guidelines. These helped us to specify what, how, and in what order the census should be carried out as well as the tasks and requirements for the census work, which provided the know-how for staff to complete their work.

第三,着力丰富拓展普查内容,更好地发挥普查的作用。首次采集了居民身份号码,为数据比对、核实提供了基础信息,增加了老年人口的相关指标,以更好地反映老龄化情况。

Third, we enriched the content of the census so that its findings can be more valuable. We collected the respondents' ID numbers for the first time, which provided basic information for cross-checking and verification. We also added more data about senior populations to better understand China's aging population.

第四,注重运用新方法、新手段,提高了普查效率和质量。首次全面采用电子化数据采集方式,实时直接上报数据,实现普查对象通过互联网进行自主填报。这个比重总的不算高,但规模大。强化部门行政记录和大数据的应用,充分利用互联网、云技术、云服务和云应用,完成数据处理工作。对700多万名普查人员实行线上集中统一管理,也就是在线上统一管理以后,我们随时可以监督普查人员的工作情况。

Fourth, we adopted new ways and tools to increase the efficiency and quality of our census. We had, for the first time, adopted digital data collection so that respondents could fill out and submit the questionnaire and the system could record their information in real-time. Such a collection method was not used widely but involved a significant amount of data. To improve the administrative documentation and the application of big data, we fully adopted the use of the internet, cloud technologies, cloud services, and cloud applications to complete data processing. We carried out online centralized management for the 7 million-odd census staff so that we could supervise their work in real-time.

第五,夯实“划区域、数人头”,确保普查不重不漏。按照一定的标准,把全国划分成若干个普查小区,确保普查小区互相不交叉、不重叠,在小区内对每个住宅按规则进行编号,普查员对每个住宅逐户入户登记。同时加强对普查员选聘培训和管理,入户登记前,我们还开展了户口整顿、入户摸底等工作。

Fifth, we made sure that no one individual was double-counted or miscounted. Under certain criteria, we divided our census targets into several groups and made sure that there were no overlapping in each group. We numbered each household within each group and had the census staff collect information at each household. At the same time, we improved the selection, training, and management of the staff. Before their on-site registration, we also cleaned up any illegal hukous (China's household registration system) and conducted a pre-assessment of the conditions to lay a foundation for the work that was to follow.

第六,加强宣传动员,提高了广大普查对象支持配合的积极性和主动性。制定印发宣传工作方案,全面部署普查各阶段宣传工作,拍摄宣传片和公益广告,组织开展多渠道、多形式普查宣传,持续不断掀起宣传高潮,“大国点名、没你不行”等宣传口号深入人心,社会各界和广大普查对象给予了极大的支持和配合。谢谢大家。

Sixth, we put a lot of effort into publicity and mobilization, which helped to increase people's initiative to participate in the census. We rolled out publicity plans and arranged publicity work across every stage of the census. We filmed and broadcast promotional videos and public service advertisements and organized publicity activities through various channels and forms to raise people's awareness and enthusiasm for the census. With the slogan --"Population Census, Everyone Counts" taking root, various circles and the public have actively participated in and supported the census. Thank you.

南方都市报记者:

Southern Metropolis Daily:

从人口普查的主要结果中,我们看到2010年到2020年十年间我国人口增长出现的放缓趋势,如何看待这种趋势?有专家预计,中国人口会在2027年达到峰值14.5亿,增长放缓是不是意味着人口零增长的年份将提前到来?谢谢。

What do we make of the slowdown in China's population growth during the decade from 2010 to 2020, as seen in the main results of the census? Some experts predict that China's population will peak at 1.45 billion in 2027. Does the slowdown in growth mean that the year of zero population growth will come earlier? Thank you.

宁吉喆:

Ning Jizhe:

这个问题由我来回答,这是一个趋势性的分析问题。普查数据显示,我国人口增速放缓,过去十年间年均增长率是0.53%,较前一个十年下降了0.04个百分点,这种趋势的出现是多种因素综合影响的结果,主要原因是育龄妇女特别是生育旺盛期妇女数量的持续下降,还有人们生育时间的推迟,以及生育养育成本的提高,这些都导致出生人口规模有所收紧,这是我国经济发展特别是工业化、城镇化发展到一定阶段的客观结果,也是世界尤其是发达国家普遍面临的问题。从这次普查结果看,当前我国人口总量仍居世界第一,过去十年人口保持了继续增长态势,十年间人口增加了7206万人,增长的规模与前一个十年增加7390万人相比,略有下降,但基本持平。主要是三个方面因素起作用:

Allow me to answer this question. This is a question of trend analysis. The census data shows that China's population growth has slowed down, with an average annual growth rate of 0.53% over the past decade, which is a 0.04 percentage point decrease from the previous decade. This trend is the result of multiple factors. The main reasons are the continued decline in the number of women of childbearing age, especially those in their prime, the delay of people's chosen time for having a child, and the increase in the cost of childbirth and raising a family. All of these factors have led to a tightening of the birth population size. This is the objective result of China's economic development, especially industrialization and urbanization, which has reached a certain stage, and it is also a common problem faced by the world, especially developed countries. According to the results of this census, China's population is still the largest in the world, and has continued to grow, with an increase of 72.06 million over the past ten years. When compared to the increase of 73.9 million in the previous decade, the scale of growth is slightly decreased, but basically the same. There are mainly three factors that matter:

第一,我国人口保持了一定水平的惯性增长。我国人口基数大,目前育龄妇女还有3亿多人,每年能够保持1000多万的出生人口规模。

First, China's population has maintained a certain level of inertial growth. China has a large population base. At present, there are more than 300 million women at childbearing age, and we are able to sustain around 10 million births every year.

第二,生育政策调整取得积极成效,随着“单独二孩”“全面两孩”政策的实施,出生人口的数量是快速回升的。少儿人口数量和比重上升,普查数据显示,2020年我国0-14岁少儿人口数量达到了25338万人,比2010年增加了3092万人,比重上升了1.35个百分点。

Second, the adjustment of the fertility policy has achieved positive results. The number of births has rebounded rapidly since the implementation of the two-child policy for couples where either the husband or wife is from a single-child family, and the universal two-child policy. According to the census data, the number of children aged 0-14 reached 253.38 million in 2020, 30.92 million more than in 2010, and the proportion of children rose by 1.35 percentage points.

第三,人口的预期寿命持续提高。我国近十年经济社会快速发展,人民生活水平不断提高,医疗卫生条件大幅改善,人民群众健康条件明显改善,这使得我国年度死亡人口一直是少于出生人口,人口总量保持了增长的态势。这些人口增长的积极因素还会在未来一段时间内继续发挥作用。

Third, the life expectancy of the population has continued to increase. This is because of rapid economic and social development, continuous improvements in living standards and a significant improvement in medical and health conditions. The obvious improvement in the health conditions of the people have led to the fact that the annual number of deaths in China has been less than the number of births, and the total population has maintained its growth trend. These positive factors of population growth will continue to play a role for some time to come.

从近年来我国人口发展变化的趋势看,今后的人口增速将继续放缓。同时,人口增长还受人口年龄结构、人们的生育观念、生育政策、生育成本、公共卫生和健康水平等经济社会因素的影响,我国人口今后会达到峰值,但具体时间现在看还有不确定性,预计在未来一段时间内我国人口总量会保持在14亿人以上。普查的结果还显示,我国16-59岁劳动年龄人口为8.8亿人,劳动力人口资源仍然充沛。我国人口平均年龄通过这次普查了解到是38.8岁。总的看,依然年富力强。美国最近公布了最新的人口普查数据,平均年龄是38岁,和我国的水平差不多。

Judging from the trend of China's population development and changes in recent years, we can see that the population growth rate will continue to slow down in the future. At the same time, population growth is also affected by economic and social factors such as the age structure of the population, people's fertility choices, fertility policies, fertility costs, and public health. China's population will reach its peak in the future, but the exact timing is uncertain, and it is expected that the total population of China will remain above 1.4 billion for some time in the future. The results of the census also show that China's working age population group, aged from 16 to 59, is about 880 million, so the labor force is still abundant. Through this census, the average age of the Chinese population is 38.8 years old. On the whole, we are still a young and vigorous country. The United States recently released its latest census data, and their average age is 38, which is about the same as ours.

下一步,我们应当持续关注人口增长变化情况,积极应对人口发展可能出现的各类风险挑战。谢谢。

Next, we should continue to pay attention to changes in population growth and actively respond to the various risks and challenges that may arise in demographic development. Thank you.

香港中评社记者:

CRNTT:

最近一些人在质疑人口普查数据质量,刚才介绍说,第七次全国人口普查漏登率仅为0.05%,这是否能说明这是一次高质量的普查?另外,此次普查结果出来得比较慢,统计局发言人日前曾表示说,这是因为第七次人口普查是在第六次人口普查发布信息的基础上,又发布了更多更细的信息,能否具体介绍一下新增了哪些信息?谢谢。

Recently, some people have questioned the quality of the census data. You just said that the undercount rate of the Seventh National Population Census was only 0.05%, so does this mean that this is a high-quality census? In addition, the results of the census came out relatively slowly. A spokesperson for the NBS previously said that this is because the seventh census released more detailed information than the information released in the sixth census. Can you tell us more about what information has been added? Thank you.

国务院第七次全国人口普查领导小组办公室副主任、国家统计局总统计师曾玉平:

Zeng Yuping:

首先,谢谢你的提问。你提了两个问题,一个是关于数据质量的问题,一个是关于数据发布的问题。关于数据质量的问题,我们经常讲,数据质量是统计工作的生命线,同样,普查的数据质量也是我们普查工作的生命线。为了获得高质量的人口普查数据,我们坚持依法普查,广泛开展宣传动员,同时重点采取了以下措施。

First of all, thank you for your questions. You have asked two questions, one on data quality and the other on data dissemination. Regarding the issue of data quality, we often say that data quality is the lifeline of statistical work. Similarly, the quality of census data is also the lifeline of our census work. In order to obtain high-quality census data, we adhered to conducting the census in accordance with the law, and carried out extensive publicity and mobilization, while focusing on the following measures.

第一,科学设计普查方案。这次普查我们充分借鉴了过去历次普查的经验,既包括人口普查的经验,也包括经济普查、农业普查的经验。同时,广泛征求各个方面的意见,包括专家学者、社会各界的意见,先后组织开展了六次专项试点和一次综合试点。按照科学与可行、需要与可能、继承与创新的原则,研究制定了《第七次全国人口普查方案》和七项工作的实施细则,确保我们普查方案的科学性和可操作性。

First, we scientifically designed the census plan. This census has drawn on the experience of past censuses, including the experience of the population census, the economic census and the agricultural census. Meanwhile, we extensively solicited opinions from various parties, including experts and scholars, and all sectors of society. We organized and carried out six special pilots and one comprehensive pilot nationwide. In accordance with the principles of science and feasibility, demand and capability, inheritance and innovation, we formulated the Program for the Seventh National Population Census and seven implementation rules to ensure that our census program is scientific and operable.

第二,精心组织现场调查。现场登记开始以前,各级普查机构认真选聘了普查人员,同时强化岗前培训,考试合格以后才能够上岗。扎实做好户口整顿、普查区划分、摸底调查等各项前期准备工作。现场登记中,全国700多万普查人员严格执行普查方案,登记期间还在疫情防控期间,我们认真落实常态化疫情防控各项要求。对全国所有家庭和人口进行全面普查,圆满完成了普查入户登记的任务。

Second, enumeration was meticulously organized. Before the start of on-site registration, census agencies at all levels carefully selected census staff and strengthened their pre-job training. We made efforts to detect any illegal hukous (China's household registration system), divided census blocks and conducted a pre-assessment of the conditions and other preparation work in a solid manner. More than seven million census workers nationwide strictly implemented the census program, which also coincided with the COVID-19 prevention and control period. We earnestly ensured we implemented the various requirements for epidemic prevention and control. We have succeeded in fulfilling the task of the field enumeration of the whole nation.

第三,充分运用信息化手段。这次普查我们利用信息化手段,对普查方式进行了积极探索和创新。首次全面采用了电子化数据采集方式,由普查员使用电子设备采集,实时直接上报数据;首次实现普查对象通过互联网进行自主填报;首次利用行政记录和大数据对普查数据进行比对核查;首次在全国集中部署数据处理,利用互联网云技术、云服务和云应用完成数据处理工作;首次对全国700多万普查人员实行线上集中统一管理。

Third, we made full use of information technology. In this census, we made use of information technology to actively explore and innovate on census methods. For the first time, we had access to digital devices and our staff could directly register and report the data online; for the first time, census subjects filled in their own reports via the internet; for the first time, we could compare and verify the census data via administrative records and big data; for the first time, data processing was centrally deployed nationwide, using internet cloud technology, cloud services and cloud applications to complete data processing; and for the first time, we collectively guided more than seven million census workers online.

第四,全程实行质量控制。各级普查机构按照普查方案的规定,全面建立了普查质量控制制度,严格执行普查质量控制要求,认真开展了质量验收,确保普查各阶段工作质量。同时,我们建立了普查数据的追溯问责机制,严肃查处各地普查造假、弄虚作假的行为。

Fourth, we ensured the quality of the whole survey process. In accordance with the provisions of the census plan, census agencies at all levels established quality-control systems, strictly conducted the work according to the quality-control requirements, and meticulously carried out quality checks to ensure the quality of work at each stage of the census. Meanwhile, we established a traceability and accountability mechanism for census data and seriously investigated fraud practices at every local agency.

第七次全国人口普查现场登记工作结束以后,国务院人口普查办公室按照国际通行的做法,组织了近千名专业抽查人员,在全国31个省、自治区、直辖市随机抽取了141个县中的3.2万户进行了质量抽查,并聘请了社会监督员全程监督抽查工作。抽查结果显示,普查漏登率为0.05%,低于国际上一般认可的3%的标准,表明了第七次全国人口普查数据真实可信,是一次高质量的人口普查。这是第一个问题。

After we finished the work, the census office of the State Council, in accordance with international practice, organized nearly one thousand professional spot-check personnel for random quality checks on 32,000 households among 141 counties from China's 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government, and employed social supervisors for supervision during the whole process. The result showed that, the amount of the population that failed to register was 0.05%, lower than the international standard of 3%, demonstrating the data is true and credible and that it was a high-quality census. That's all for the first question.

第二个关于普查数据发布时间的问题。人口普查工作环节多、涉及面很广,是一项庞大的系统工程。为了统筹安排、确保各环节工作顺利衔接,普查实施以前我们制定了第七次全国人口普查的进度安排,对各个环节、各项任务作出了计划和时间安排。原定的普查公报发布时间是一个计划的时间,考虑到社会各界对普查结果的强烈需求,我们这次丰富了发布内容,增加了大量的分结构和地区分布方面的数据,所以数据准备花费了更多的时间。今天我们一共发布了8个公报,与前几次普查相比,内容更加丰富、更加详细。每一笔数据都经过了反复核实,确保数据真实准确。另外,据了解许多国家一般也是在现场登记后一年左右才发布公报,比如美国2020年4月1日开展人口普查,第一次发布数据的时间是上个月的26日,差不多也是一年的时间。

The second question concerns the timing of the release of census data. The population census work is a huge systematic project involving many links and wide aspects. In order to coordinate the arrangements and ensure the smooth connection of all links, we formulated the schedule before the implementation of the census. The original schedule for the release of the census bulletins was a planned one, but in view of the strong demand for the census results from all sectors of society, we enriched the content of the release by adding a large amount of data onpopulation distribution and regions, so it took more time to prepare the data. Today, we are releasing eight bulletins, which are richer and more detailed than the previous censuses, with each set of data verified and exact. In addition, we understand that other countries also release their census one year after field enumeration. For example, the United States conducted its population census on April 1, 2020, and their results were released on April 26, 2021, almost one year later.

下一步,我们将进一步加强普查成果的共享和开发利用,后续还将陆续编辑出版更加详细的人口普查汇总资料,满足社会各界对普查数据的需求,也欢迎大家来使用。同时,我们将利用微观数据实验室提供人口普查的脱敏微观数据,供相关研究机构和专家学者开展分析研究,更好地发挥人口普查数据的作用。谢谢大家。

In the next step, we will further share, explore and utilize the census results, and in the future, we will successively edit and publish more detailed census summary materials to meet the needs of all parts of society. We also welcome you to use it. At the same time, we will use the micro data laboratory to provide desensitization micro data from the census for relevant research institutions, experts and scholars to carry out analysis and research, so as to better utilize the census data. Thank you all.

日本经济新闻记者:

Nikkei:

有些专家说第五次和第六次人口普查在调查结束后存在数据调整阶段,请问这次人口普查有没有同样的调整?比如计算漏报率之类的?谢谢。

Some experts said that the fifth and sixth national population censuses underwent a period of data adjustment after the censuses were completed. Were any adjustments made after this latest census such as adjusting for the undercount rate? Thank you.

国务院第七次全国人口普查领导小组办公室副主任、国家统计局人口和就业统计司司长张毅:

Zhang Yi:

谢谢你的提问。大家都知道,人口普查是全面调查,七人普按照统一标准、在统一的时间范围内对所有普查对象进行逐人逐项登记,采用电子化方式采集数据,并联网实时上报,数据审核完成后,直接汇总计算得出相关人口数据,不进行事后调整。

Thank you for your question. We all know that the population census is an overall survey. The seventh census covered all respondents based on a uniform standard at a uniform time. Data from this census was reported directly in real-time through the complete adoption of digital data collection, and the results can be collected and calculated directly after auditing. No data adjustment was needed afterward.

前面已经介绍,根据事后质量抽查结果,七人普的漏登率为0.05%,按联合国人口普查建议书漏登率可以加到总人口中,也可以不加。在实践中,有些国家加上了,有些国家没加,刚刚发布的我国第七次全国人口普查总人口数据是普查登记人口的直接汇总数据,不含通过漏登率算的误差人口。谢谢。

The post-enumeration survey showed that the undercount rate of the seventh census was 0.05%. According to the United Nations census recommendations, the undercount rate can or can not be added to the total population.Some countries may add it while others may not. The Chinese national population information just released is a directly summary of the population registered in the census and does not include those missed within the undercount rate. Thank you.

海报新闻记者:

The Poster News APP:

人口老龄化一直是大家非常关注的问题,根据这次人口普查结果,我国人口老龄化情况究竟如何?在家庭和社会养老负担不断加大的背景下,如何推动人口结构优化、破解人口老龄化矛盾、延长退休年龄政策什么时候实施?谢谢。

China's aging population is always an issue that concerns the public. According to census findings, how is the aging population situation in our country? Given the increasing burden of elderly care in families and society, how should we best optimize the population structure and solve the problem of our aging population? When will the policy for extending the retirement age be implemented? Thank you.

宁吉喆:

Ning Jizhe:

普查的数据显示,我国60岁及以上人口的比重达到18.70%,其中65岁及以上人口比重达到13.50%,人口老龄化的主要特点有以下几个方面。

The census shows that people in the age bracket of 60 and above accounts for 18.70% of China's total population, and people aged 65 or above account for 13.50%. The aging population in our country has the following characteristics.

第一,老年人口规模庞大。我国60岁及以上人口有2.6亿人,其中,65岁及以上人口1.9亿人。全国31个省份中,有16个省份的65岁及以上人口超过了500万人,其中,有6个省份的老年人口是超过了1000万人。

First, the aging population is huge. There are 264.02 million people in the age bracket of 60 and above, including 190.64 million people aged 65 and above. In China's 31 provinces, 16 provinces have more than 5 million people in the age bracket of 65 and above, while six provinces have more than 10 million people aged above 65.

第二,老龄化进程明显加快。2010年-2020年,60岁及以上人口比重上升了5.44个百分点,65岁及以上人口上升了4.63个百分点。与上个十年相比,上升幅度分别提高了2.51和2.72个百分点。

Second, the aging population is rapidly growing. From 2010 to 2020, the proportion of people in the age bracket of 60 and above increased by 5.44 percentage points, while people in the age bracket of 65 and above increased by 4.63 percentage points. The ascensional range rose by 2.51 percentage points and 2.72 percentage points, respectively, compared to the last decade.

第三,老龄化水平城乡差异明显。从全国看,乡村60岁、65岁及以上老人的比重分别为23.81%、17.72%,比城镇分别高出7.99、6.61个百分点。老龄化水平的城乡差异,除了经济社会原因外,与人口流动也是有密切关系的。

Third, the rural-urban divide between the aging population is obvious. The proportion of people aged 60 and above and people aged 65 and above in rural areas were 23.81% and 17.72% respectively, 7.99 and 6.61 percentage points higher than that of in urban areas. Besides economic and social reasons, rural-urban differences in the aging population are also closely related to migration.

第四,老年人口质量不断提高。60岁及以上人口中,拥有高中及以上文化程度的有3669万人,比2010年增加了2085万人;高中及以上文化程度的人口比重为13.90%,比十年前提高了4.98个百分点。十年来,我国人口预期寿命也在持续提高,2020年,80岁及以上人口有3580万人,占总人口的比重为2.54%,比2010年增加了1485万人,比重提高了0.98个百分点。

Fourth, the quality of life among aging people rose continuously. The number of people aged 60 and above with high school or university education reached 36.69 million, an increase of 20.85 million compared to 2010. That proportion accounts for 13.90% of the total population in the age bracket of 60 and above, up by 4.98 percentage points compared with a decade ago. Over the past ten years, life expectancy also increased continuously. In 2020, there were 35.8 million people in the age bracket of 80 and above, accounting for 2.54% of the total population, which increased by 0.98 percentage point to 14.85 million compared to 2010.

人口老龄化是社会发展的重要趋势,也是今后较长一段时期我国的基本国情,这既是挑战也存在机遇。比如,人口老龄化从挑战方面看,将减少劳动力的供给数量、增加家庭养老负担和基本公共服务供给的压力。同时也要看到人口老龄化促进了“银发经济”发展,扩大了老年产品和服务消费,还有利于推动技术进步。这都带来一些新的机遇。而且,在我国60岁及以上人口中,60-69岁的低龄老年人口占55.83%,这些低龄老年人大多具有知识、经验、技能的优势,身体状况还可以,发挥余热和作用的潜力较大。

The aging population is an important trend in social development, and it will be China's basic national condition for a long time in the future, which brings both challenges and opportunities. For example, from the perspective of challenges, the aging population will reduce the supply of labor, increase the burdens on families concerning elderly care, and raise the pressure to provide basic public services. At the same time, the aging population has promoted the development of the "silver-hair" economy, expanded products and services consumption for elderly people, and helped boost technical advances. Moreover, among China's population aged 60 and above, people in the age bracket of 60 to 69 account for 55.83% of the total elderly population. Thanks to their advantages in knowledge, experience, skills, and good physical conditions, they have great potential to contribute their remaining energy to society.

党的十九届五中全会提出,实施积极应对人口老龄化国家战略,把应对人口老龄化作为当前和今后一个时期关系全局的重大战略任务进行统筹谋划、系统施策。接下来,我们要开发好、利用好人口普查数据,对普查数据进行认真研究,开展深度分析,切实为科学制定政策提供统计信息支撑。

The fifth plenary session of the 19th CPC Central Committee proposed plans for specific measures to address the aging population as a major national strategy now and for some time in the future. Next, we will develop and make good use of the census data and carry out serious studies and in-depth analysis to provide statistical support for policy-making.

北京青年报记者:

Beijing Youth Daily:

最近东北地区的人口问题引发了大家广泛关注,东北地区劳动年龄人口不断减少,这次普查数据显示,东北地区人口确实出现了减少,原因是什么?会造成什么样的问题?应该怎么应对?请解读一下。谢谢。 

Recently, the issue of a consistently decreasing working-age population in the northeast of China has drawn wide attention.The census data shows that the population in the northeast of China indeed declined. What is the reason for this decrease? What problems will that cause? How should we respond to it? Thank you.

宁吉喆:

Ning Jizhe:

东北地区大家都很关心。从这次普查的数据看,东北地区的人口十年来发生的变化有几个特点:一是总人口依然较多,但是出现了负增长。2020年,东北三省总人口9851万人,接近1亿人,规模依然较大,但比十年前减少了1101万人。二是出生人口性别比为106.3,低于全国平均水平,并且处于正常范围。三是老龄化程度较深,65岁及以上人口的比重16.39%,提高了7.26个百分点,高于全国平均水平。四是人才储备丰富,拥有大专及以上文化程度的人口占总人口的16.75%,15岁以上人口平均受教育年限10.16年,东北地区这两个反映人口受教育程度的指标,都是高于全国平均水平的。五是城市发展基础较好,东北地区常住人口城镇化率达到67.71%,在全国数据是排在前面的。

People are concerned about the issues facing northeast China. From the census data, changes in the population in northeast China over the past ten years have the following features. First, the total population is still large but there was a decline. In 2020, the total population of northeast China's three provinces was 98.51 million, approaching 100 million — still quite large but decreasing by 11.01 million compared to ten years ago. Second, the birth gender ratio in the northeast of China was 106.3, which is lower than the national average but still within the normal range. Third, the aging population is serious. In northeast China, people aged 65 or above accounted for 16.39% of the total population, up 7.26 percentage points from 2010 and higher than the national average. Fourth, talent is ample. The population with university education and above accounted for 16.75% of the total population. The average number of years of education received by people aged above 15 was 10.16 years. The two indicators for the level of education in northeast China were above the national average. Fifth, the foundation for the area's development is solid. Permanent urban residents in northeast China make up 67.71% of the population, ranking in an upper bracket nationwide.

东北地区人口的减少,受到自然环境、地理环境、人口生育水平和经济社会发展等多方面因素的影响。东北在我们国家处于高纬度地区,冬季相对漫长且寒冷,一些东北人口向比较温暖的南方迁移流动,这也是全球许多国家人口迁移流动的趋势性特征,欧洲、美国都有这种现象。此外,受生育观念、生育行为等因素的影响,东北地区的人口自然增长率长期低于全国平均水平。还要看到东北地区经济正处于结构调整的攻坚期,沿海一些经济发达省市多样化的发展机会和就业前景,对其他地区包括东北地区的人口有较大的吸引力。

Factors regarding the natural and geographical environment, fertility rate, and social-economic development have led to a population decrease in northeast China. The winter is long and cold in the northeast of China, which is located at high latitude. Some people from the area have moved to warmer areas in the south, which is a common characteristic of population migration in many countries around the world such as those in Europe, and America. In addition, affected by factors like fertility values and behaviors, the natural population growth rate in northeast China has been lower than the national average for a long time. Furthermore, the northeast of China is undergoing a crucial period of structural adjustment. Diversified opportunities for development and career prospects in coastal developed cities and provinces are a magnet for people from other areas, including the northeast of China.

同时应当看到,当前东北经济发展的韧性仍在,潜力很大。这里有一批关系国民经济命脉和国家安全的战略性产业。东北地区在科技人才、现代农业、装备制造、交通设施等方面基础都是比较好的。东北地区受过高等教育的人口有1650万人,粮食产量占了全国1/5还要多。东北拥有鞍钢、沈飞、一汽、哈电等一批国家骨干企业,这些年又新成长起来一批新兴的高技术企业,东北地区实现振兴发展具备很多有利条件。党中央、国务院高度重视东北振兴发展,出台了一系列重大举措,促进东北老工业基地实现人才振兴和高质量发展,为东北地区实体经济发展和产业创新营造良好环境,新一轮振兴计划在着力调整结构的同时,也必将带来人口发展的新变化。

Meanwhile, we should note that economic development in the northeast of China is resilient and full of potential. There is a range of strategic industries that are vital to national security and are the lifeblood of the national economy. The northeast of China has technological talents and a reasonably solid foundation in modern agriculture, equipment manufacturing, transportation infrastructure, and so on. The number of people who have received higher education in northeast China was 16.50 million. Meanwhile, grain output accounted for more than one-fifth of the nation's total. The region has several key national enterprises such as Ansteel, Avic Shenyang Aircraft Company Limited, China FAW Group Corporation, Harbin Electric Corporation, etc. Recently, the region has been home to the development of a group of emerging high-tech enterprises. Favorable conditions for the revitalization of northeast China abound. The CPC Central Committee and the State Council have attached importance to the region's revitalization and have released a series of major measures to promote the revitalization of talent and the high-quality development of China's old industrial bases, creating a good environment for the development of real economy and industrial innovation. A new round of plans for revitalization with a focus on structural adjustment will surely bring about new demographic changes in the region.

下一步,我们将进一步加强对东北人口问题的研究,积极应对人口变化带来的挑战,抓住变化中存在的机遇,来服务东北的经济社会发展。谢谢。

For the next step, we will enhance research regarding population issues in the northeast of China, address the challenges brought by population changes, and seize opportunities in these changes to better serve the economic and social development of northeast China.Thank you.

路透社记者:

Reuters:

中国的劳动人口逐步减少和人口老龄化的深化,对我们长远的经济发展会带来哪些影响?另外,我们可能会采取哪些应对措施,是不是会考虑放开生育政策?谢谢。

What effect will the gradually declining working-age population and the expanding aging population have on economic development in the long run? What measures will be taken to tackle those problems? Will it be possible to relax policies to encourage fertility? Thank you.

宁吉喆:

Ning Jizhe:

你说的是劳动年龄人口。这个问题请曾玉平总统计师回答。

This question is about the working-age population. I will invite Mr. Zeng to answer this question.

曾玉平:

Zeng Yuping:

谢谢你的提问。关于人口老龄化的问题,刚才宁局长已经作了详细介绍,我就不再重复了。

Thank you for your question. As for the issue of the aging population, Mr. Ning introduced it in detail just now. I will not repeat those points.

关于劳动年龄人口的问题,一是从总量上看,七人普与六人普相比,也就是说与2010年相比,16至59岁劳动年龄人口减少4000多万人。但是应该看到,劳动年龄人口的总规模仍然较大,是8.8亿人,劳动力资源依然丰富,人口红利也依然存在,为经济社会持续健康发展提供了重要支撑。

Concerning the working-age population, first, in terms of the total number, the working-age population (people aged between 16 and 59) decreased by more than 40 million compared to 2010, when China conducted the sixth national population census. But we should remember that the total population of working-age people, 880 million, is still large, and labor resources are still abundant. Dividends in the demographic still exist, which provides an important support for sustained and healthy social and economic development.

二是从质量上看,劳动年龄人口素质显著提高。这次普查数据显示,15岁及以上人口的平均受教育年限为9.91年,比2010年提高0.83年。其中,16-59岁劳动年龄人口平均受教育年限达到了10.75年,比2010年的9.67年提高了1.08年。同时,劳动年龄人口中,高中及以上受教育程度的人口达到了3.85亿人,占比为43.79%,比2010年提高了12.8个百分点。大专及以上受教育程度的人口占比达到了23.61%,也比六人普提高了11.27个百分点。

Second, the quality of the working-age population has been remarkably improved. As the census data shows, the average number of years of education received by the population aged above 15 was 9.91, up 0.83 years from 2010. Specifically, the average number of years of education received by the population aged from 16 to 59 reached 10.75 years, up 1.08 years from 9.67 years in 2010. Meanwhile, among the working-age population, people with high school education and above reached 385 million, accounting for 43.79% of the total, up 12.8 percentage points from 2010. Finally, people with university education and above accounted for 23.61%, up 11.27 percentage points from 2010.

三是随着经济社会的快速发展,医疗服务体系的覆盖面也在不断扩大,而人口的身体素质也日益改善,人口的预期寿命不断延长,人口健康水平的提高也为经济社会发展提供了重要的人力资源保障。

Third, as the social and economic development accelerates, the coverage of medical service systems has expanded, people's overall physical health has improved and life expectancy has been extended. The improvement in people's health conditions has greatly bolstered labor resources, which underpins the social and economic development.

对于劳动年龄人口减少的现象,应当全面、客观地来看待。一是尽管劳动年龄人口减少,但中国劳动力资源的绝对量依然还是较大。总体上看,我国就业压力依然不小。二是虽然劳动年龄人口逐步减少,但随着经济的高质量发展,对劳动者的技能要求将日益提高。提高劳动者的技能水平,解决岗位需求不匹配的结构性矛盾,将成为就业面临的主要问题。三是随着人口素质的提高,人口红利逐步向人才红利转变,人口资源的优势将得到有效发挥,会进一步促进经济发展方式转变、产业结构升级、全要素生产率提高,推动人口和经济社会持续协调、健康发展。谢谢。

The decrease in the working-age population should be viewed comprehensively and objectively. First, despite the shrinking working-age population, the sheer size of China's labor resources remains relatively large.On the whole, China is still facing great employment pressure. Second, although the working-age population is gradually decreasing, the high-quality development of the economy means that the requirements for employees' skills will increase. Improving the skills of workers and solving the structural problem of the mismatch between job requirements and candidates' skills will become the main issue facing employment. Third, as the quality of the population improves, the demographic dividend will gradually turn into a talent dividend, and the advantages of population resources will be effectively brought into play. This will further promote the transformation of the economic development pattern, the upgrading of the industrial structure, the increase of total factor productivity, and the sustained, coordinated, and healthy development of the population, economy, and society. Thank you.

封面新闻记者:

Cover News:

过去十年,我国的城镇化率增长较快,但户籍城镇化率大幅低于常住人口城镇化率,请问具体原因是什么?从普查结果来看,十年来我国流动人口大幅增加,如何看待这种现象,对于户籍制度改革有哪些影响?谢谢。

In the past decade, China's urbanization rate has risen rapidly but the percentage of registered urban residents is much lower than that of permanent urban residents. What are the specific reasons for this? The census results show that China has experienced a significant surge in its floating population over the past decade. How do we view this phenomenon and what impact will it have on the reform of the household registration system? Thank you.

李晓超:

Li Xiaochao:

这次普查结果显示,过去十年我国城镇化率确实提高得比较快,刚才吉喆局长介绍提高了14.21个百分点。流动人口增加也比较多,这是经济社会持续发展、人力资源和人才资源有效配置的体现,也是结果。同时也是部分地区和区域包括城市经济社会发展活力增强的结果,这和世界各国发展历程的趋势是一致的。需要指出的是,目前我国城镇化率居于世界中等偏上水平,与我国人均GDP处于世界中等偏上水平大体的情况相当。预计随着我国经济社会的持续发展和促进城镇化发展各项改革措施的持续推进,城镇化率仍将会保持上升的趋势。

According to the census, China's urbanization rate has indeed increased rapidly over the past 10 years. The share of the urban population went up by 14.21 percentage points, as Mr. Ning introduced just now. The floating population has also increased considerably, which reflects the results of sustained economic and social development as well as the effective allocation of human and talent resources. At the same time, it is also the result of a strengthened economic and social vitality in some regions and cities, which is consistent with the development trends of other countries around the world. It should be pointed out that China's urbanization rate is currently in the upper-middle-range compared to the world's average, which is similar to China's upper-middle average per capita GDP compared to the rest of the world. It is expected that with the constant development of China's economy and society and the continuous advancement of various reform measures to promote urbanization, the urbanization rate will continue to increase.

另外,普查数据还进一步显示,在城镇化率提高和流动人口增加的同时,这两个方面还表现出一些特点。

In addition, the census data further reveals that while the urbanization rate and floating population are increasing, these two aspects are also displaying some other characteristics.

一是流向城镇的流动人口比重仍在提高。2020年,流向城镇的流动人口为3.31亿人,占整个流动人口的比重达到88.12%,比2010年提高了3.85个百分点。其中从乡村流向城镇的人口为2.49亿人,较2010年增加1.06亿人。这十年间增加了1亿人。

First, the proportion of floating population flowing into urban areas is still rising. In 2020, the floating population flowing into urban areas reached 331 million, accounting for 88.12% of the total floating population, up 3.85 percentage points from 2010. Among them, 249 million people moved from rural to urban areas, 106 million more than in 2010—an increase of over 100 million people in a decade.

二是流向城镇化率较高地区的流动人口比重仍比较高。东部地区吸纳跨省流动人口9181万人,占比达到73.54%,中部地区吸纳955万人,占比是7.65%。西部地区吸纳1880万人,占比15.06%,东北地区吸纳468万人,占比3.75%。

Second, the proportion of floating population flowing into areas with a high urbanization rate remains relatively high. The eastern region absorbed an interprovincial floating population of 91.81 million, accounting for 73.54% of the total floating population, while the central region absorbed 9.55 million, or 7.65%, the western region took 18.8 million, or 15.06%, and the northeast region took 4.68 million, or 3.75%.

三是省内流动人口增长更快,也就是说近距离的人口流动增长更快。省内流动人口为2.51亿人,比2010年增加1.16亿人,增长85.70%。也就是说,在省内流动的人口这十年增长了85.7%。跨省流动人口为1.25亿人,比2010年增加3896万人,增长45.37%。从这些数据可以看出,在省内流动的人口比跨省流动人口增长快很多。省内流动人口占全部流动人口的比重由2010年的61.15%,提高到66.78%,上升了5.63个百分点,大约2/3的流动人口选择在省内近距离流动。

Third, the floating population within the provinces, that is to say, the population flow within a short distance, is growing even faster. The floating population within the provinces totaled 251 million, an increase of 116 million or 85.70% since 2010. The interprovincial floating population amounted to 125 million, an increase of 38.96 million or 45.37% since 2010. This data shows that the floating population within provinces is growing much faster than the interprovincial floating population. The proportion of the floating population within the provinces increased from 61.15% in 2010 to 66.78% of the total floating population, up 5.63 percentage points. About two-thirds of the floating population chose to move just a short distance within the province.

关于户籍人口城镇化率和常住人口城镇化率存在差异,首先我们要看到户籍人口城镇化率近十年也在明显提高。截至2020年底,已经顺利实现了1亿非户籍人口在城镇落户的目标。同时,我们也要看到这种差异主要还是体现在农民工群体,由于受各种保障条件和制度的制约,这部分差异的缓解以至消除可能还需要一个过程。当然部分乡村户籍人口在城镇落户的意愿下降,特别是乡村振兴包括脱贫攻坚取得成就以后,有一部分人还愿意留在乡村,所以乡村户籍人口不愿意离开乡村,这也是影响这种差异的一个原因。

Regarding the difference between the percentage of registered urban residents and the percentage of permanent urban residents, first we should understand that the former has also increased markedly in the past decade. By the end of 2020, China had achieved its goal of granting permanent urban residency to 100 million people living in urban areas without urban household registration. Meanwhile, we should also be aware that this difference is mainly reflected in migrant workers. Restricted by various security conditions and systems, it may still take some time for this difference to be reduced or even eliminated. Of course, some registered rural residents are less willing to gain permanent urban residency. Especially after the rural vitalization and poverty alleviation campaigns yielded results, some people want to stay in the countryside. Therefore, the reluctance of some registered rural residents to leave the countryside also explains why there is a difference.

我们相信,随着我国经济社会持续高质量发展,随着新型城镇化建设的不断向前推进,我国城镇化将会更加科学适度的发展,人口将会更加有序合理流动,形成经济社会和人口流动协调发展的新局面。谢谢大家。

We believe that with the sustained high-quality development of China's economy and society as well as the continuous advancement of a new type of urbanization, the country's urbanization will develop more scientifically and rationally, its population will flow in a more orderly and reasonable way, and a new situation for the coordinated development of the economy, society, and population mobility will be created.Thank you.

陈文俊:

Chen Wenjun:

时间关系,提最后一个问题。

Due to the time limit, we will have the last question.

红星新闻记者:

Red Star News:

我的问题是,从普查情况分析,“全面两孩”政策以来,我国育龄妇女生育率和出生人口数量呈现了怎样的变化?当前居民生育意愿不足,是否导致新生儿出生率已经接近了警戒线,这次普查结果会不会成为调整人口政策,特别是计划生育政策的依据?谢谢。

My question is, what changes have occurred in the fertility rate of women and number of births in China since the comprehensive two-child policy was adopted? Is the current lack of fertility willingness among the population leading to an almost alarming low fertility rate? Will China adjust its population policies, especially family planning policies, based on the findings of the census?

宁吉喆:

Ning Jizhe:

这个问题我来回答,大家比较关心生育问题,这方面通过普查得到了相当多的资料。首先,应当指出“全面两孩”政策取得了积极成效,从第七次全国人口普查数据看,人口的生育情况呈现了以下几个特点:

I will take these questions. People are concerned about fertility issues and we have gained a lot of information in this regard through the census. I must first note that the two-child policy has achieved positive results and the seventh national census has found the following characteristics for new births.

第一,出生人口规模大。2016年和2017年我国出生人口大幅增加,分别超过1800万人和1700万人,比“全面两孩”政策实施前分别多出200多万人和100多万人。2018年以来出生人口的数量有所回落,七人普初步汇总的结果显示,2020年我国出生人口为1200万人,这个规模仍然不小。

First, the number of new births has been large. New births increased significantly in 2016 and 2017 to over 18 million and 17 million, respectively. This was up by more than two million and one million respectively in comparison with the number before the two-child policy was adopted. Although the number has fallen since 2018, it still reached 12 million in 2020, according to the preliminary findings of the census.

第二,“二孩”占比高。从生育孩次看,2014-2017年,出生人口中“二孩”占比明显上升,由2013年的30%左右上升到2017年的50%左右,此后虽有所下降,但仍然高于40%,由于生育政策调整的因素,全国多出生“二孩”数量达1000多万人。

Second, the proportion of second children was high. Among the newborns between 2014 and 2017, the proportion of second children rose markedly from around 30% [M1] in 2013 to around 50% in 2017. Although the proportion has since declined, it has remained above 40%. Adjustments in the fertility policy have increased the number of newborn second children by over 10 million.

第三,生育率降低。七人普数据表明,2020年我国育龄妇女总和生育率为1.3,已经处于较低水平。这主要受到育龄妇女数量持续减少,“二孩”效应逐步减弱的影响。从2020年来看,新冠肺炎疫情增加了生活的不确定性和对住院分娩的担忧,进一步降低了居民生育的意愿。我们应当认识到,低生育水平也是经济社会发展的一个结果,生育水平的高低既受政策因素的影响,也受经济、社会、文化等因素的影响,后者的影响力在逐步增强。还应该看到,随着各国经济社会的持续发展,尤其是工业化、现代化带来的人口生育观念转变等方面的影响,低生育已经成为大多数发达国家都普遍面临的问题,也将成为我国面临的现实问题。

Third, the fertility rate has declined. China's total fertility rate was 1.3 in 2020, which was a low level, according to the census. This was largely caused by a continuous fall in the number of women of childbearing age and a gradual wearing-off of the effect of the two-child policy. In 2020, the COVID-19 epidemic, which added uncertainties to life and worries about in-hospital childbearing, further dampened people's willingness to have children. We should come to realize that the low fertility level is also a result of economic and social development. It is not only affected by policy factors but also by economic, social and cultural factors with impact from the latter gradually gaining. In addition, we must be aware that with economic and social development, especially when industrialization and modernization have changed people's views on birth, a low fertility rate is a common problem in most developed countries and will also become a practical issue for China.

刚才,你提到的关于生育方面的一些考虑,路透社的记者也提到了这个问题。党的十九届五中全会明确要求,优化生育政策,增强生育政策的包容性。全国人大通过的国家“十四五”规划纲要也明确提出,要推动实现适度生育水平,减轻家庭生育、养育、教育的成本,释放生育政策的潜力。根据国家统计局的有关调查,我国育龄妇女的生育意愿子女数为1.8,只要做好相应的支持措施,实际存在的生育潜力就能发挥出来。谢谢。

The fertility concerns you just mentioned were also raised by the Reuters journalist in his question a moment ago. The fifth plenary session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has clearly asked for improvement in the fertility policy to make it more inclusive. The Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Economic and Social Development, which was adopted at the National People's Congress, also made it clear that China will pursue an appropriate fertility rate and lessen family spending on child bearing, raising and education, to further release the potential of the fertility policy. According to a survey by the National Bureau of Statistics, the number of children that women of childbearing age are willing to have is 1.8, so as long as the proper supportive measures are put in place, the real fertility potential will be brought out. Thank you.

陈文俊:

Chen Wenjun:

今天的发布会就到这里,谢谢各位发布人,谢谢各位媒体朋友。

Today's press conference ends here. Thank you to all the speakers and thank you to all of our friends from the media.

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