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天之聪教育 2018-03-29 新华网 16059次


Report on the Work of the Government


– Delivered at the First Session of the 13th National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China on March 5, 2018

国务院总理  李克强

Li Keqiang, Premier of the State Council


Fellow Deputies,


On behalf of the State Council, I will now report to you on the government’s work of the past five years and lay out what we propose for this year’s work for your deliberation and approval. I also invite comments from the members of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).


I will begin with a review of our work over the past five years.


The five years since the first session of the 12th National People’s Congress (NPC) have been a truly remarkable five years in the course of our country’s development. Facing an extremely complex environment both at home and abroad, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, has rallied and led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups to forge ahead. We have moved forward with the Five-Sphere Integrated Plan and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy, and made new advances on all fronts of reform, opening-up, and socialist modernization.

At its 19th National Congress, the Party established the position in history of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and mapped out an inspiring blueprint and a program of action for securing a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and for striving for the success of socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era. This is of great immediate significance and far-reaching historical significance.

All regions and all government departments have strengthened their consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment. The new development philosophy has been thoroughly acted upon, the 12th Five-Year Plan has been fully completed, and implementation of the 13th Five-Year Plan has seen smooth progress. In economic and social development we have made historic achievements and seen historic change.


Over the past five years, economic strength has reached a new high.

China’s gross domestic product (GDP) has risen from 54 trillion to 82.7 trillion yuan, registering average annual growth of 7.1 percent; and its share in the global economy has grown to roughly 15 percent, up from 11.4 percent. China’s contribution to global growth has exceeded 30 percent. Government revenue has increased from 11.7 trillion to 17.3 trillion yuan. Consumer prices rose at an average annual rate of 1.9 percent, maintaining a relatively low level of growth. More than 66 million new urban jobs have been added, and our country, with its population of over 1.3 billion, has achieved relatively full employment.


Over the past five years, the structure of the Chinese economy has seen a major transformation.

With the share of the service sector rising from 45.3 to 51.6 percent of the economy, consumption’s contribution to growth has increased from 54.9 to 58.8 percent, becoming the main driver of growth. High-tech manufacturing has achieved an average annual increase of 11.7 percent, and the annual grain yield has reached 600 million metric tons. China’s urbanization rate has risen from 52.6 to 58.5 percent, and more than 80 million people who have relocated from rural to urban areas have gained permanent urban residency.


Over the past five years, innovation-driven development has yielded fruitful outcomes.

China’s investment in research and development (R&D) has grown at an average annual rate of 11 percent, ranking second in the world in scale. The contribution of technological advances to economic growth has risen from 52.2 to 57.5 percent. In manned spaceflight, deep-water exploration, quantum communications, large aircraft development, and more, China has seen a stream of major outcomes of innovation. In high-speed rail, e-commerce, mobile payments, and the sharing economy, China is leading the world.

The Internet Plus model has permeated every industry and every field. Business startups and innovation are thriving all over the country, and the average number of new businesses opened daily has risen from over 5,000 to more than 16,000. Rapidly emerging new growth drivers are reshaping China’s growth model, are profoundly changing the way we live and work, and have become a new hallmark of China’s innovation-driven development.


Over the past five years, significant headway has been made in reform and opening-up.

In reform, we have made strong moves across the board, secured major advances in many areas, and driven deeper in pursuing progress, making breakthroughs in reforms in important fields and key links. Reforms       to streamline administration and delegate powers, improve regulation, and optimize services, have driven profound shifts in the functions of government, and significantly strengthened market dynamism and public creativity. The Belt and Road Initiative has been making major progress. The composition of both Chinese foreign trade and foreign investment in China has been improved, with volumes ranking among the largest in the world.


Over the past five years, living standards have been constantly improving.

We have made decisive progress in the fight against poverty: More than 68 million people have been lifted out of poverty, including a total of 8.3 million relocated from inhospitable areas, and the poverty headcount ratio has dropped from 10.2 to 3.1 percent. Personal income has increased by an annual average of 7.4 percent, outpacing economic growth and creating the world’s largest middle-income group. Tourist departures have grown from 83 million to over 130 million. Social old-age pension schemes now cover more than 900 million people, and the basic health insurance plans cover 1.35 billion people, forming the largest social safety net in the world. On average, life expectancy has reached 76.7 years. Over 26 million housing units have been rebuilt in rundown urban areas, and more than 17 million dilapidated houses have been renovated in rural areas. Thanks to these efforts, more than one hundred million Chinese have moved into new homes.


Over the past five years, the environment has seen gradual improvement.

To address air, water, and soil pollution, we have designed and enforced a ten-point list of measures for each and achieved solid progress. Both energy and water consumption per unit of GDP have fallen more than 20 percent, the release of major pollutants has been consistently declining, and the number of days of heavy air pollution in key cities has fallen 50 percent. Forest coverage has increased by 10.87 million hectares, and the area of desertified land has been reduced by close to 2,000 square kilometers on average each year. Encouraging progress has been made in green development.


In the year just passed, all main targets and tasks for economic and social development were accomplished and performance has exceeded expectations. GDP grew 6.9 percent and personal income rose 7.3 percent, both beating the previous year’s growth rates. Around 13.51 million new urban jobs were created, and the jobless rate was the lowest in recent years. Industrial growth began to rebound, and corporate profits increased 21 percent. Government revenue grew 7.4 percent, reversing the slowdown in growth. The total import and export value rose 14.2 percent. Inward foreign investment reached 136.3 billion U.S. dollars, hitting a new all-time high.

The state of play in the economy was good, with growth and quality, structural improvement, and performance each reinforcing the other. This is the result of the cumulative effect of a raft of major policies over the past five years and of consistent efforts in all areas of endeavor.


Over the past five years, the ground-breaking achievements made on every front and the profound and fundamental changes that have taken place, have attracted global attention and are the pride and inspiration of all of us in China.


Over the past five years, we have worked with dedication to implement the decisions and plans made by the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core. The following are the highlights of that work:


First, with a commitment to the general principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability, we have focused on developing new and better approaches to macro regulation, kept major indicators within an appropriate range, and achieved stable, positive economic performance.


The past few years have witnessed anemic world economic recovery, volatility in global financial markets, and a sharp rise in protectionism. In China, structural issues and underlying problems have become more acute, downward pressure on the economy has continued to mount, and we have met with no small number of dilemmas.

In confronting this new environment, we have maintained strategic focus and refrained from resorting to a deluge of strong stimulus policies. Instead, we have adapted to, addressed, and steered the new normal in economic development, and taken coordinated steps to ensure steady growth, advance reform, make structural adjustments, improve living standards, and guard against risk. We have made fresh innovations in and refined macro regulation, developed the idea of and ways to achieve ranged-based regulation, and enhanced targeted, well-timed, and precision regulation.

We have been clear that as long as the major economic indicators are within an acceptable range, with employment growing, incomes increasing, and the environment improving, then our energies should be focused on advancing reform, making structural adjustments, and adding growth drivers.

We have adopted measures that are good for the near term and even better for the long term, made strong moves to advance supply-side structural reform, appropriately expanded aggregate demand, and worked for a dynamic equilibrium of supply and demand at a higher level.

With grit and determination, we have overcome downward pressure on the economy, avoided a “hard landing,” maintained a medium-high growth rate, and promoted structural upgrading. The economic fundamentals that will sustain long-term growth have been cemented and enhanced.


We have continued to follow a proactive fiscal policy and a prudent monetary policy. Despite a fairly big imbalance between government revenue and expenditure, China has led the way in slashing taxes and fees with the aim of using accommodative measures to strengthen the basis for sustained growth. Step by step, we have extended the replacement of business tax with value added tax (VAT) to all sectors across the country, calling time on the 66-year history of business tax. The result so far has been a tax cut of more than 2 trillion yuan. We have also adopted measures like preferential tax policies for small low-profit businesses and an overhaul of different types of fees. All in all, our market entities have seen savings of more than 3 trillion yuan. We have strengthened management over local government debt, and issued local government bonds to replace outstanding debt, cutting interest liability by 1.2 trillion yuan. We have adjusted the structure of government expenditure, put idle funds to work, and ensured the spending for undertaking major projects and meeting basic public needs. The deficit-to-GDP ratio has been kept within 3 percent.

Monetary policy has remained prudent and neutral. The M2 money supply growth rate has been trending downward, while credit and aggregate financing have seen moderate growth. Differentiated policies, such as targeted reserve requirement ratio cuts and targeted re-lending, have been adopted to strengthen support for key fields and weak links. The growth of loans to small and micro businesses has outstripped the average growth in lending. We have reformed and improved the market-based exchange rate mechanism and kept the RMB exchange rate basically stable; and foreign exchange reserves are now rising not falling. We have responded appropriately to abnormal market fluctuations such as the cash crunch, brought better order to the financial markets, prevented and diffused risks in key sectors, forestalled systemic risks, and thus safeguarded China’s economic and financial security.


Second, with a commitment to treating supply-side structural reform as our main task, we have focused on fostering new growth drivers to speed up economic structural upgrading.

We have persevered in relying on reform to overcome economic difficulties and address structural imbalances, made a big push to foster emerging industries, overhauled and strengthened traditional industries, and improved the quality and performance of the supply system.


Solid work has moved us forward in the five priority tasks of cutting overcapacity, reducing excess inventory, deleveraging, lowering costs, and strengthening areas of weakness.

Over the past five years, building on work to cut backward production capacity in the cement, plate glass, and other industries, we have intensified efforts to cut overcapacity, prioritizing industries such as steel and coal; and a 100-billion-yuan fund for rewards and subsidies has been put in place by the central government to support efforts to assist affected employees. We have cut steel production capacity by more than 170 million metric tons and coal production capacity by 800 million metric tons, and over 1.1 million affected employees have been assisted.

Thanks to city-specific policies and category-specific guidance, clear progress has been made in reducing commercial residential housing inventory in third- and fourth-tier cities, and the growth of housing prices in the most popular cities has been brought under control.

We have taken active and prudent steps to deleverage, control the scale of debts, and expand equity finance. The debt-to-asset ratio of industrial enterprises has been consistently declining. Macro leverage ratio is increasing by much smaller margins and is generally stable.

We have used a combination of measures to bring down costs: 30 percent of government-managed funds and fees have been cut; over 60 percent of the fees and charges levied on businesses by the central government have been abolished; the ratio of enterprise contributions to old-age pension, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, and maternity insurance, workers’ compensation, and housing provident fund schemes has been reduced for the time being, and work has been done to lower energy, logistics, and telecommunications costs.

We have stepped up efforts to strengthen areas of weakness, with a focus on key issues.


We have sped up the replacement of old growth drivers.

We have done more in carrying out the Internet Plus Initiative, exercised accommodative and prudential regulation, and promoted the extensive application of big data, cloud computing, and the Internet of Things; emerging industries have achieved vigorous growth, and traditional industries have undergone a thorough remodeling.

Implementation of the Made in China 2025 Initiative has brought progress in major projects like the building of robust industrial foundations, smart manufacturing, and green manufacturing, and has accelerated the development of advanced manufacturing.

We unveiled reform and development measures to foster modern services; and this has led to a marked rise in new forms of business in the services sector and new service models as well as the integration and upgrading of multiple sectors.

Deepened supply-side structural reform in agriculture has brought the emergence of a large number of new types of agribusiness. The share of appropriately scaled-up farming has increased from 30 to over 40 percent.

We have taken measures to increase the incomes of those in low- and middle-income brackets, and helped to see an upgrading of traditional forms of consumption, and a boom in new forms of consumption. Online retail sales have been growing at an average annual rate of over 30 percent, and total retail sales of consumer goods have enjoyed an average annual increase of 11.3 percent.

We have improved the composition of investment, encouraged private investment, used government investment to play a catalytic role, and guided more funding toward areas that strengthen the economic foundation, enhance sustainability, and improve people’s lives.

China’s in-operation high-speed railways have grown from over 9,000 to 25,000 kilometers, accounting for two thirds of the world’s total. Our expressways have grown from 96,000 to 136,000 kilometers. We have built or upgraded 1.27 million kilometers of rural roads, built 46 new civilian airports, and begun work on 122 major water conservancy projects. We have completed the latest round of rural power grid upgrading, and put in place the largest mobile broadband network in the world.

Over the past five years, new growth drivers have rapidly grown in strength. Economic growth, in the past mainly driven by investment and exports, is now being fueled by consumption, investment, and exports. In the past dependent mainly on secondary industry, growth is now powered by a combination of the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries. This is a major structural transformation that for years our sights have been set on, but we were always unable to achieve.


Advancing supply-side structural reform demands removing barriers to market based allocation of the factors of production and reducing government-imposed transaction costs.

To address the longstanding issues of excessive emphasis on approval procedures, insufficient attention to regulatory processes, and a failure to provide strong services, we have been consistently deepening reforms to streamline administration, delegate powers, improve regulation, and strengthen services.

We have sped up efforts to transform government functions, reduced micromanagement and direct intervention, and done more to improve macro regulation, market regulation, and public services.

Over the past five years, the number of items subject to approval by State Council offices and departments has been slashed by 44 percent, the practice of non-administrative approval has been completely put to a stop, the number of business investment items subject to central government approval has been cut by 90 percent, intermediary services needed for obtaining government approval have been cut by 74 percent, and the requirements for professional qualification approval and accreditation have been significantly reduced. The number of items for which central government sets the prices has been cut back by 80 percent, and local government-priced items have been cut down by over 50 percent. Comprehensive reforms have swept the business system, including business and capital registration, reducing the time it takes to start a business by over a third.

We have developed new and better ways of conducting compliance oversight, and introduced a new model of oversight combining randomly selected inspectors who inspect randomly selected entities and the prompt release of results. These efforts have made regulation more effective and impartial.

We have rolled out the Internet Plus Government Services model and adopted measures such as the one-stop service model.

Thanks to the above reforms, the business environment has consistently improved, the market is more energized, and people can access government services more easily.


Third, with a commitment to innovation-driven development, and a focus on unlocking public creativity, we have achieved a remarkable improvement in our general capacity for making innovations and for seeing that innovation delivers.

We have put into action the innovation-driven development strategy and worked to build a better ecosystem for innovation, giving shape to innovation involving multiple actors making across-the-board advances.

Research institutes and universities now have greater say over their research; research projects and funding are better managed, and the way of managing rights and interests relating to scientific and technological advances has undergone reform.

We have supported Beijing and Shanghai in building themselves into centers for scientific and technological innovation, and set up 14 new national innovation demonstration zones, thus creating a number of regional innovation hubs.

With enterprises as the main actors, we have boosted the development of a system for technological innovation. China has seen the emergence of a number of world-class innovative enterprises and new-type R&D institutions.

We have launched and taken bold moves in the nationwide business startup and innovation initiative, adopted support policies designed to benefit all entrepreneurs and innovators, and improved the incubation system.

China’s market entities, all types included, now total over 98 million, an increase of more than 70 percent over the past five years. The number of in-force Chinese invention patents issued in China has tripled, and the volume of technology transactions has doubled. In the global race of scientific and technological innovation, China has shifted place, from following others to keeping pace and even leading the pack in more and more areas. Our country has become a globally recognized fertile ground for innovation and business ventures.


Fourth, with a commitment to deepening reform across the board, we have taken major steps to remove institutional barriers, thus steadily boosting the driving forces powering development.

Solid progress has been made in the reform of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and state assets; the reform to convert SOEs into standard companies has now basically been completed; and efforts to merge and restructure, reduce the organizational levels in, and improve the quality and efficiency of SOEs have made good progress. The performance of SOEs has been much improved, with profits last year growing by 23.5 percent. We have deepened reform in sectors like energy, rail, and the salt industry.

Market access to the non-public sector has been expanded. An integrated registration system for immovable property has been put in place, and the property rights protection system has been improved.

Fiscal and tax reforms have made major progress. We have introduced the requirement nationwide for government budgets and final accounts to be released to the public, developed a system based mainly on tax sharing for dividing revenue between central and local government, launched the reform to define the respective financial powers and expenditure responsibilities of central and local government, and significantly scaled up general transfer payments from central to local government, while also cutting by two thirds the number of items for which special purpose transfer payments are made.

We have largely lifted controls on interest rates, established a deposit insurance system, encouraged large and medium commercial banks to set up inclusive finance divisions, deepened the reform of policy-backed and development financial institutions, and strengthened the mechanisms for coordinating financial regulation.

We have improved the mechanisms for promoting more balanced development of urban and rural compulsory education, and reformed the examination and enrollment systems.

We have established unified basic pension and health insurance schemes for rural and non-working urban residents, and brought government office and public institution pension schemes into line with enterprise schemes. We have unveiled a plan for appropriating a share of state capital to replenish social security funds.

We have carried out coordinated medical service, medical insurance, and pharmaceutical reforms. We have introduced a comprehensive reform in all public hospitals, rescinded the policy, long in effect, of allowing hospitals to profit from higher priced medicine, and made breakthroughs in the reform of approval systems for medicine and medical devices.

We have pursued reform to separate rural land ownership rights, contract rights, and use rights, and already seen that over 80 percent of contracted rural land covered by this reform. We have reformed the system for purchasing and stockpiling important agricultural products.

We have improved the functional zoning system, established performance evaluation and accountability systems for ecological conservation, and instituted the river chief and lake chief systems. We have piloted a system placing government environmental offices below the provincial level directly under the supervision of provincial-level environmental offices.

The deepening of reform in each and every field has given a boost to sustained, healthy economic and social development.


Fifth, with a commitment to China’s fundamental policy of opening-up, we have focused on promoting win-win cooperation, and significantly improved the performance of our country’s open economy.

We have launched and worked with other countries in the Belt and Road Initiative. We initiated the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, set up the Silk Road Fund, and launched a number of major connectivity and economic and trade cooperation initiatives.

Beginning with the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone, we have established 11 pilot free trade zones. A number of successful outcomes from pilot reforms are now being applied nationwide.

We have reformed the cost-sharing mechanism for export tax rebates, and the central government now pays the full sum of increases in export tax rebates. We have set up 13 comprehensive experimental zones for cross-border e-commerce. Single-window document processing for international trade has been applied nationwide, cutting the average time for customs clearance by over half. Imports and exports have rebounded and steadily grown.

For foreign investment, we have replaced the approval system with a negative list model, and have cut restrictions by two thirds. The composition of foreign investment has improved, with investment in high-tech industries doubling. We have intensified efforts to attract talent, and the number of foreign experts working in China has grown by 40 percent.

We have guided the healthy development of outbound investment. We have moved forward with international cooperation on production capacity; high-speed rail, nuclear power, and other types of Chinese equipment have entered international markets. We have signed or upgraded eight free trade agreements. We have launched the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect, the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect, and the Bond Connect. The RMB was included in the IMF’s Special Drawing Rights basket, representing a major step forward in its internationalization.

China has opened its doors wider to the world. This opening has played a powerful role in our own development, and it presents important opportunities for the rest of the world.


Sixth, with a commitment to implementing the coordinated regional development and new urbanization strategies, we have promoted more balanced development, and seen new growth poles and belts developing faster.

We have actively pursued coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, and the development of the Yangtze Economic Belt, drawn up and implemented related plans, and undertaken a number of key projects. We have unveiled a whole series of reforms and innovative measures to see the western region develop, northeast China revitalized, the central region rise, and the eastern region spearhead development. We have stepped up support for old revolutionary base areas, areas with large ethnic minority populations, border areas, and poor areas, and strengthened aid work in Tibet, Xinjiang, and Qinghai. We have steadily moved forward with protecting and developing maritime resources.

We have implemented plans for developing major city clusters, and pursued more balanced development of small, medium, and large cities, and small towns. The vast majority of cities in China have eased restrictions on permanent residency. A residence card system has been put into effect nationwide, and basic urban public services now cover all permanent residents. Development between urban and rural areas and between regions has become better coordinated.


Seventh, with a commitment to a people-centered development philosophy, we have endeavored to ensure and improve living standards and seen the growing satisfaction of the people.

Despite fiscal constraints, we have consistently increased spending on improving people’s living standards. We have made comprehensive moves in targeted poverty reduction and alleviation, and built a robust working mechanism with central government responsible for overall planning, provincial-level governments assuming overall responsibility, and city and county governments responsible for program implementation. Over the past five years, the central government has appropriated over 280 billion yuan to fund poverty reduction.

We have implemented a proactive employment policy and ensured that key target groups have better access to employment.

We have been committed to prioritizing the development of education; and government spending on education has remained above four percent of GDP. In rural areas, we have improved conditions in badly built and poorly operated schools providing compulsory education, and increased the pay packages of teachers, and our Better Nutrition Plan has benefited more than 36 million students. We have launched an initiative to build world-class universities and world-class disciplines. The number of students from rural and poor areas enrolled in key universities through special programs has grown from 10,000 to 100,000. We have increased financial aid to students from financially-challenged families studying in all types of schools, giving out 430 million grants in total. The average length of schooling of the working-age population has been raised to 10.5 years.

Government subsidies for basic medical insurance schemes have been increased from 240 to 450 yuan per person; the serious disease insurance system is basically in place, and has already benefited more than 17 million people; the costs of hospitalization can now be settled where incurred; and the development of tiered medical diagnosis and treatment and healthcare consortiums has picked up pace.

We have consistently made appropriate increases to basic old-age pensions for retirees. We have raised subsistence allowances, benefits for entitled groups, and other allowances, and improved the social assistance system, ensuring the livelihoods of close to 60 million people on subsistence allowances or living in extreme poverty. We have put in place a system to provide living allowances for people with disabilities in financial difficulty and nursing care subsidies for people with serious disabilities, a system that has benefited over 21 million people. All couples can now have two children.

We have moved faster to develop cultural programs, and seen the cultural industry grow at an average annual rate of over 13 percent. We have carried out Fitness-for-All programs, which are now in full swing; and Chinese athletes have excelled in competition.


Eighth, with a commitment to achieving harmony between human and nature, we have taken major steps to address pollution, and achieved notable progress in ecological conservation.

We have established the notion that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets and acted with resolve and intensity as never before to strengthen environmental protection.

We have struck out hard against air pollution, thus achieving a drop of over 30 percent in the average density of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in key areas. We have done more to reduce the use of low quality coal, pushed for progress in energy conservation and emission reductions in key industries, and seen 71 percent of coal-fired power plants achieving ultra-low emissions. We have improved the energy mix, cutting the share of coal consumption by 8.1 percentage points and increasing the share of clean energy consumption by 6.3 percentage points. We have improved fuel quality, and taken over 20 million high-emission and old vehicles off the roads.

We have strengthened prevention and control measures against water pollution in key drainage basins and sea areas, and achieved zero growth in chemical fertilizer and pesticide use. We have pursued major ecological conservation and restoration projects, expanded the coverage of initiatives to turn marginal farmland into forest, grassland, and wetlands, and intensified comprehensive efforts to curb desertification, rock desertification, and soil erosion.

We have launched central government inspections on environmental protection and investigated and prosecuted cases involving legal violations.

We worked toward and saw that the Paris Agreement was put into force; China has played an important role in responding to global climate change.


Ninth, with a commitment to fully performing government functions in accordance with law, we have focused on enhancing and developing new forms of social governance, and ensured social harmony and stability.

We have submitted proposals to the NPC Standing Committee on formulating or revising 95 laws, formulated or revised 195 sets of administrative regulations, and revised or rescinded a large number of government department regulations. Lists of powers and obligations have been formulated and released by provincial, city, and county government departments. We have introduced State Council accountability inspections and special inspections, and commended and created policy incentives for those working proactively and doing an outstanding job, while holding strictly to account those failing to fulfill their duties.

We have been making innovations in urban and rural primary level governance. The system for handling public complaints has been improved. The coverage of legal aid has been expanded. We have promoted reform and improvements in workplace safety, and seen a continued drop in both the total number of accidents and the number of serious and major accidents. We have reformed and improved food and drug regulation and strengthened risk control over all related processes.

We have strengthened work on preventing, reducing, and providing relief for disasters, including earthquakes and serious flooding, and built stronger emergency response mechanisms employing a division of responsibilities between levels and close coordination. With this we have minimized the damage and loss inflicted by disasters to the greatest possible extent.

China’s national security is better safeguarded. We have improved the crime prevention and control system, worked in accordance with law to hit back against all types of crime and illegal behavior, and effectively safeguarded public security.


We have implemented the Party Central Committee’s decisions on exercising full and strict Party self-governance and done more to improve Party conduct, build a clean government, and fight corruption. We have taken extensive action in raising awareness of and putting into practice the Party’s mass line, in the Three Stricts and Three Earnests campaign, and in the drive to see that Party members develop a good understanding of the Party Constitution, Party regulations, and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s major policy addresses and live up to Party standards. We have worked hard to ensure compliance with the Central Committee’s eight-point decision on improving conduct and staying engaged with the people and worked nonstop to address the practice of formalities for formalities’ sake, bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance. We have strictly enforced the three-point State Council decision on curbing government spending.

We have enforced strict controls over the construction of new government buildings and over the total number of people on the government payroll; and spending on official overseas visits, official vehicles, and official hospitality has been significantly reduced.

We have strengthened government supervision and auditing-based oversight. We have taken strong steps to investigate, prosecute, and address violations of laws and regulations and severely punished those who have committed corruption. The anti-corruption campaign has built into a crushing tide, a tide with stronger and growing momentum.


Fellow Deputies,


Over the past five years, we have made new improvements in work related to ethnic groups, religion, and overseas Chinese nationals. We have supported faster development in areas with large ethnic minority populations, and have seen efforts to promote ethnic unity and progress truly paying off. We have actively guided religions in adapting to socialist society. Overseas Chinese nationals, Chinese nationals who have returned from overseas, and the relatives of overseas Chinese nationals who reside in China have made their own unique contributions to the country’s modernization.


Over the past five years, under the leadership of the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission, we have embarked on a new stage in strengthening and energizing the armed forces. We have developed a military strategy for new conditions; convened the Gutian military political work meeting; and taken extensive steps to see that the armed forces are built on political loyalty, strengthened through reform and technology, and run in accordance with law. As a result, our people’s armed forces have achieved a remodeling of their political ecosystem, of the way they are organized, of the structure of their forces, and of their conduct and image.

We have undertaken major missions involving the protection of maritime rights, countering terrorism and maintaining stability, disaster rescue and relief, international peacekeeping, escort services in the Gulf of Aden, and humanitarian rescue. With the cooperation of all those involved, we have basically completed the task of reducing the armed forces by 300,000 troops. Military equipment has been significantly modernized, and we have deepened military-civilian integration. The people’s armed forces, full of new drive, have taken solid strides toward building themselves into a powerful military with Chinese characteristics.


Over the past five years, fresh progress has been made in work related to Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan. The practice of “one country, two systems” has been consistently enriched and developed; the authority of China’s Constitution and the basic laws of the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions has been further raised in these two regions. Exchanges and cooperation between the mainland and Hong Kong and Macao have been steadily enhanced; the construction of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge has been completed, and Hong Kong and Macao have thrived and remained stable.

We have upheld the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus, strengthened cross-Strait economic and cultural exchanges and cooperation, and held a historic meeting between the leaders of the two sides. We have resolutely opposed and deterred separatist forces advocating Taiwan independence, firmly safeguarding peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait.


Over the past five years, we have pursued distinctively Chinese major country diplomacy on all fronts. We successfully hosted the first Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, the 22nd APEC Economic Leaders Meeting, the G20 Hangzhou Summit, the BRICS Xiamen Summit, and other major diplomatic events at home.

President Xi Jinping and other Chinese leaders have visited many countries and attended major events including United Nations summits, Climate Change Conferences, World Economic Forum meetings, and the East Asian Leaders Meetings on Cooperation. China’s diplomatic agenda has been further advanced on every front.

China has called for building a community with a shared future for mankind and has contributed more Chinese ideas to the reform of the global governance system. Notable achievements have been made in our country’s economic diplomacy and people-to-people and cultural exchanges. We have been resolute in upholding China’s sovereignty and maritime rights and interests. As a responsible major country, China has played a constructive role in addressing international and regional hotspot issues, thus making significant new contributions to global peace and development.


Fellow Deputies,


Looking back at the past five years, we have encountered a great many interwoven problems and a stream of risks and challenges. Both at home and abroad, there have been many new developments, developments that we have not faced since reform and opening-up began. The achievements we have made in China’s reform and development have certainly not come easily. We owe them to the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, to the sound guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and to the concerted efforts of the Party, the military, and the people of all our nation’s ethnic groups.

On behalf of the State Council, I wish to express sincere thanks to the people of all our ethnic groups, and to all other political parties, people’s organizations, and public figures from all sectors of society. I express our sincere appreciation to our fellow countrymen and women in the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions, in Taiwan, and overseas. I also wish to express our sincere thanks to the governments of other countries, international organizations, and friends from all over the world who have shown understanding and support for China in its endeavor to modernize.


As the Chinese saying goes, when all is calm, forget not danger; when all is well, be awake to woes. We are keenly aware that China is still in the primary stage of socialism and will remain so for a long time to come, that it remains the largest developing country in the world, and that it faces a number of acute problems caused by unbalanced and inadequate development that so far have remained unsolved.

The internal forces powering economic growth are not yet sufficient, China’s ability to innovate needs to be stronger, and the quality and performance of development need to be improved. Some enterprises, particularly small and medium ones, are finding it tough going. Growth in private investment is weak; some regions still face considerable downward economic pressure, and risks and potential dangers in the financial and other sectors are not to be ignored.

Poverty alleviation remains a formidable task; agriculture is not based on a strong foundation. The disparities in development between rural and urban areas, between regions, and in income distribution remain substantial. Serious and major workplace accidents happen all too often. People still have a lot of complaints about air quality, environmental sanitation, food and drug safety, housing, education, healthcare, employment, and elderly care.

The transformation of government functions has not yet reached where it should be. In government work there are places where we fall short. Some reform measures and policies have not been fully implemented. Some officials are weak on awareness that they are there to serve and must uphold the rule of law, and some lack commitment to their work and willingness to bear the weight of responsibility. Bureaucratism and the practice of formalities for formalities’ sake exist to varying degrees. There are many complaints from the people and the business sector about the difficulty of accessing government services and the excessive array of charges. In some sectors misconduct and corruption are still a common problem.

With a deep sense of responsibility to our country and people, with courage in the face of adversity, and with determination that won’t be broken, we must give our work everything we’ve got, to make sure that the people’s government does not let the people down.


I now  wish to  address the  overall requirements and  policy direction  for economic  and social development in 2018.

今年是全面贯彻党的十九大精神的开局之年,是改革开放  40周年,是决胜全面建成小康社会、实施“十三五”规划承上启下的关键一年。做好政府工作,要在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观、习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面深入贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中全会精神,贯彻党的基本理论、基本路线、基本方略,坚持和加强党的全面领导,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,坚持新发展理念,紧扣我国社会主要矛盾变化,按照高质量发展的要求,统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局和协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,坚持以供给侧结构性改革为主线,统筹推进稳增长、促改革、调结构、惠民生、防风险各项工作,大力推进改革开放,创新和完善宏观调控,推动质量变革、效率变革、动力变革,特别在打好防范化解重大风险、精准脱贫、污染防治的攻坚战方面取得扎实进展,引导和稳定预期,加强和改善民生,促进经济社会持续健康发展。

This year will kick off our efforts to put all the guiding principles from the Party’s 19th National Congress into action. It is the 40th anniversary of reform and opening-up, and it is a crucial year for securing  a decisive  victory  in building  a  moderately prosperous  society  in  all respects  and  for continuing to implement the 13th Five-Year Plan. To accomplish the government’s work for the year, we must, under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, do the following:

•  follow the  guidance of  Marxism-Leninism,  Mao Zedong  Thought, Deng  Xiaoping  Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, the  Scientific Outlook on Development, and Xi Jinping Thought  on Socialism with  Chinese Characteristics for  a New Era;  implement fully all  the guiding principles from the Party’s 19th National Congress and the second and third plenary sessions of the 19th Party Central Committee; act on the Party’s  basic theory, line, and policy; adhere to  and strengthen Party leadership in all of our work;  remain committed to the general principle of pursuing  progress while ensuring stability and to the new development philosophy;

• respond to the change in the principal contradiction in Chinese society;

• heed the requirement that development must be high quality;

•   coordinate  efforts   to   pursue   the   five-sphere  integrated   plan   and   the   four-pronged comprehensive strategy;

• continue to regard supply-side structural reform as our main task;

• coordinate all  work to maintain stable  growth, promote reform,  make structural adjustments, improve living standards, and guard against risk;

• work hard to reform and open up further;

• explore new ideas on and improve macro regulation;

• promote a change in quality, change in efficiency, and change in growth drivers;

• work particularly for solid progress in forestalling and defusing major risks, in targeted poverty alleviation, and in addressing pollution;

• guide  and  stabilize expectations,  improve living  standards, and  promote sustained,  healthy economic and social development.


A comprehensive  analysis of how  things stand at  home and abroad  tells us  that China, in  its development, faces  both  opportunities and  challenges. We  can expect  continued recovery  of the global economy,  but there are  also many factors  that bring instability  and uncertainty. The  policy changes  of the  major  economies  and their  spillover  effects  create uncertainty;  protectionism  is mounting, and geopolitical risks are on the ascent. China’s economy is now in a pivotal period in the transformation of its growth  model, its structural improvement, and its  shift to new growth drivers. There are still  many hills to climb  and gorges to  cross; we will have  to face risks and  challenges, some foreseeable  and others  not. In  fact, it’s  always been  the case  that China’s achievements  in development  have   been  made   whilst  overcoming   difficulties.  Today,   China’s  material   and technological foundations are much stronger; its industrial system  is complete, its market is vast, its human  resources  are  abundant,  and  its  entrepreneurs  and  innovators  are  dynamic.  We  enjoy composite advantages,  and all  this means  that we  have the  ability and  the conditions  to achieve higher quality, more efficient, fairer, and more sustainable development.

今年发展主要预期目标是:国内生产总值增长 6.5%左右;居民消费价格涨幅 3%左右;城镇新增就业 1100万人以上,城镇调查失业率  5.5%以内,城镇登记失业率  4.5%以内;居民收入增长和经济增长基本同步;进出口稳中向好,国际收支基本平衡;单位国内生产总值能耗下降 3%以上,主要污染物排放量继续下降;供给侧结构性改革取得实质性进展,宏观杠杆率保持基本稳定,各类风险有序有效防控。

Based on the above considerations, we have set the following projected targets for development this year:

• GDP growth of around 6.5 percent

• CPI increase of around 3 percent

• Over 11  million new urban  jobs, the surveyed  urban unemployment rate within  5.5 percent, and the registered urban jobless rate within 4.5 percent

• Basic parity in personal income growth and economic growth

• A steady rise in import and export volumes, and a basic equilibrium in the balance of payments

• A drop of at least 3 percent in energy consumption per unit of GDP, and continued reductions in the release of major pollutants

• Substantive  progress  in supply-side  structural reform,  basically stable  macro  leverage, and systematic and effective prevention and control of risk


The above  targets take  into consideration the  need to  secure a  decisive victory in  building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and  are fitting given the fact that China’s economy is transitioning  from a  phase  of  rapid growth  to  a  stage of  high-quality  development. Given  our economic fundamentals and capacity for job creation, GDP growth of around 6.5 percent will enable us  to achieve  relatively  full  employment. The  surveyed  urban  unemployment  rate covers  rural migrant workers and other permanent urban residents.  This year, for the first time we are using this indicator as a projected  target; this is intended to  give a fuller picture of  employment and to better reflect the requirement that development that is to be shared by everyone.


This year, we will continue to develop new ways of improving macro regulation and ensure that the degree of  macro regulation is right.  We will maintain  the continuity and consistency  of macro policies, and better coordinate fiscal, monetary, industrial, regional, and other policies.

积极的财政政策取向不变,要聚力增效。今年赤字率拟按 2.6%安排,比去年预算低 0.4个百分点;财政赤字 2.38万亿元,其中中央财政赤字 1.55万亿元,地方财政赤字  8300亿元。调低赤字率,主要是我国经济稳中向好、财政增收有基础,也为宏观调控留下更多政策空间。今年全国财政支出 21万亿元,支出规模进一步加大。中央对地方一般性转移支付增长  10.9%,增强地方特别是中西部地区财力。优化财政支出结构,提高财政支出的公共性、普惠性,加大对三大攻坚战的支持,更多向创新驱动、“三农”、民生等领域倾斜。当前财政状况出现好转,各级政府仍要坚持过紧日子,执守简朴、力戒浮华,严控一般性支出,把宝贵的资金更多用于为发展增添后劲、为民生雪中送炭。

The proactive direction of our fiscal policy will remain the same, and we will concentrate efforts to increase efficiency. This year’s deficit  as a percentage of GDP is projected to be 2.6  percent, 0.4 percentage point lower  than last year. The government  deficit is projected to  be 2.38 trillion yuan, with a central government  deficit of 1.55 trillion yuan  and local government deficit of  0.83 trillion yuan. The  reduction in the  deficit-to-GDP ratio  is mainly due  to China’s  economic growth being steady and the foundation  being there for an increase  in revenue; it also keeps  policy options open for macro regulation. Government expenditure is budgeted at 21 trillion yuan,  representing a further increase in the scale of spending. The central government will increase  general transfer payments to local governments by 10.9 percent, to strengthen local finances, especially in the central and western regions.  We will  improve the  structure  of budgetary  spending, making  sure  that more  financial allocations are used for the public good and universal benefit, increasing support for the three critical battles   against   potential    risk,   poverty,   and    pollution,   and   weighting   spending    toward innovation-driven development, agriculture, rural areas, and rural residents,  and the improvement of living standards.  Although the government  finances are  improving, government at  all levels  must keep its belt tightened, keep things as simple as possible, abstain from all excess, and strictly control general expenditures,  so that  these  precious funds  are used  to add  growth drivers  for sustaining development and meet people’s most urgent needs.

稳健的货币政策保持中性,要松紧适度。管好货币供给总闸门,保持广义货币 M2、信贷和社会融资规模合理增长,维护流动性合理稳定,提高直接融资特别是股权融资比重。疏通货币政策传导渠道,用好差别化准备金、差异化信贷等政策,引导资金更多投向小微企业、“三农”和贫困地区,更好服务实体经济。

Our prudent monetary policy will remain neutral, with easing or tightening only as appropriate. We need  to make  sure that  the valve  of aggregate  monetary  supply is  well controlled,  maintain moderate growth in  M2 money supply, credit, and  aggregate financing, ensure a  reasonable, stable level of liquidity, and  increase the proportion of direct finance, particularly equity  finance. We will improve the transmission  mechanism of monetary policy,  make better use of  differentiated reserve ratio and  credit policies,  and  encourage more  funds to  flow toward  small and  micro businesses, agriculture, rural areas, and rural residents, and poor areas, and to better serve the real economy.


For government to deliver this year, we must act on Xi Jinping’s economic thinking for new-era socialism with Chinese characteristics, continue following the general principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability, and regard  stability and progress as being indivisible. Specifically,  we will do the following:

First, we will strongly promote high-quality development. Development is the underpinning and the key for  solving all our country’s  problems. We will  devote attention to addressing  unbalanced and insufficient development. Centering  on developing a modernized economy, we  will put quality first and give priority to performance, and promote economic structural improvement and upgrading. We must  respect  objective economic  laws, consider  both  long- and  near-term needs,  ensure the economy performs  within a  reasonable range,  and achieve  a situation  in which  steady economic growth and improvement in quality and performance reinforce each other.

Second, we will be bolder in reform and opening-up. Reform and opening was a game-changing move in making  China what it  is today; it  now remains a  game-changing move for  us to achieve China’s Two  Centenary Goals*.  Standing at  a new historic  starting point,  we must  go further in freeing  our minds,  in  deepening  reform, and  in  opening-up. We  need  to  give full  play  to  the pioneering drive of the people, and encourage all localities, based on their own conditions, to dare to explore, dare  to  try things  out, and  dare to  confront the  toughest of  issues,  to keep  reform and opening-up constantly  moving forward.  

Third, we  will ensure  success in  the three  critical battles  against potential  risk, poverty, and pollution,  battles  that  are  important  for  decisively   bringing  to  completion  the  building  of  a moderately prosperous  society in all  respects. We  need to adopt  targeted approaches  and specific measures, draw up timetables and roadmaps, and set well-defined priorities. We will make sure risks and potential dangers are effectively controlled, make sure poverty alleviation is fully accomplished, and make sure there is an overall improvement in the quality of the environment. All of  our  work is  work for  the people.  We will  stay true  to  the vision  of people-centered development, start by  considering China’s own situation,  and do everything within our  capacity to resolve each  and every  one of  the issues  that most  affect and  worry our  people, promote  social fairness and justice and well-rounded human development, and see that the people’s lives, along with our country’s development, keep getting better year after year.

三、对 2018年政府工作的建议

Fellow Deputies,

Let me turn to what we propose for the work of government in 2018.


The tasks of economic and social development this year are formidable. We will make the most of this period  of historic opportunity-a period for  making things happen. We  will take coordinated action that covers all sectors and focus on clear priorities, to  deliver a solid performance in all areas of work.


1. Stepping up supply-side structural reform. In  economic development we need to focus on the real economy. We will continue  to cut overcapacity, reduce excess inventory, deleverage, lower costs, and strengthen areas of weakness. We will take  big steps to streamline administration and cut taxes and  fees, keep improving  the business environment,  and further  energize market entities,  to increase the quality of economic growth.

发展壮大新动能。做大做强新兴产业集群,实施大数据发展行动,加强新一代人工智能研发应用,在医疗、养老、教育、文化、体育等多领域推进“互联网+”。发展智能产业,拓展智能生活。运用新技术、新业态、新模式,大力改造提升传统产业。加强新兴产业统计。加大网络提速降费力度,实现高速宽带城乡全覆盖,扩大公共场所免费上网范围,明显降低家庭宽带、企业宽带和专线使用费,取消流量“漫游”费,移动网络流量资费年内至少降低 30%,让群众和企业切实受益,为数字中国建设加油助力。

We will develop powerful  new growth drivers. We will create  big, strong industrial clusters in emerging  industries,  implement the  big  data  development  action  plan, step  up  next-generation artificial intelligence R&D and application, and do more to promote the Internet Plus model in many fields  like  medical  care, eldercare,  education,  culture,  and  sports.  We  will  develop  intelligent industries and expand intelligent  living. We will use new technologies, new  forms of business, and new models to transform and upgrade the traditional industries. Statistics on emerging industries will be strengthened.  We will do  more to  speed up broadband  and bring  down internet  rates, achieve high-speed broadband access in both urban and rural areas, and make free internet access available in more  public  places.  We  will  significantly  lower the  rates  of  home  broadband,  and  corporate broadband and dedicated internet access  services; domestic data roaming charges will be abolished, and rates  for  mobile internet  services will  be cut  by at  least  30 percent.  These steps  will bring tangible benefits to people and businesses, and boost the development of a Digital China.

加快制造强国建设。推动集成电路、第五代移动通信、飞机发动机、新能源汽车、新材料等产业发展,实施重大短板装备专项工程,发展工业互联网平台,创建 “中国制造 2025”示范区。大幅压减工业生产许可证,强化产品质量监管。全面开展质量提升行动,推进与国际先进水平对标达标,弘扬工匠精神,来一场中国制造的品质革命。

We will  speed up  work to build  China into  a leader  in manufacturing. We  will promote  the development  of  integrated   circuits,  5G  mobile  communications,  aircraft   engines,  new-energy vehicles,  and  new  materials, launch  an  initiative  to  shore  up  weaknesses in  major  equipment manufacturing,  develop   industrial  Internet  of   Things  platforms,  and   create  Made   in  China

2025demonstration zones. We will significantly scale  back industrial production licensing, and strengthen  product quality oversight. Taking steps  in all sectors to improve  quality, we will work  toward meeting the highest international standards, encourage the spirit of workmanship, and ignite a revolution in the quality of Chinese-made goods.

继续破除无效供给。坚持用市场化法治化手段,严格执行环保、质量、安全等法规标准,化解过剩产能、淘汰落后产能。今年再压减钢铁产能  3000万吨左右,退出煤炭产能  1.5亿吨左右,淘汰关停不达标的 30万千瓦以下煤电机组。加大“僵尸企业”破产清算和重整力度,做好职工安置和债务处置。加快消化粮食库存。减少无效供给要抓出新成效。

We will continue cutting ineffective supply. With a commitment to using  approaches consistent with market principles and the rule of law, we will strictly enforce environmental protection, quality, and  safety  laws,  regulations,  and  standards,  and  ease  overcapacity  and   close  down  outdated production facilities. This  year, we will further  cut steel production  capacity by around 30  million metric tons and coal production capacity by approximately 150 million metric tons. Coal-fired power generating units  with a capacity  of less than  300,000 kilowatts that  fail to meet  standards will be closed. We will strengthen work on “zombie enterprise” bankruptcy liquidations and reorganization, and ensure that affected employees are given assistance and debts are dealt with. We will act faster to reduce excess food stockpiles.  In cutting ineffective supply, we  will knuckle down to produce new results.


We will deepen the reforms designed to delegate powers, improve regulation, and provide better services.  A negative  list for  market  access will  be  instituted nationwide.  The reform  separating permits and certificates from business licenses will be rolled out nationwide. With the main thrust of this reform being to cut back on the permits and certificates  now required once a business license is issued, all that can  be cut will be cut,  and all that can be  merged will be merged. This will  further trim a chunk off the time it takes to complete all the procedures required for starting a business. The trademark  registration  timeline   will  be  significantly  shortened,   and  the  time  it   takes  for  a construction project to get government approval will again be halved. We will implement across the board an oversight  model using randomly  selected inspectors to inspect  randomly selected entities and  requiring  the  prompt  release  of  results. There  will  be  zero  tolerance  for  counterfeit  and substandard products  and corrupt law  enforcement. We  will make progress  with the Internet  Plus Government Services model, enabling more matters to be processed online, and doing our best to see that things requiring presence in person get done in one place and without the need for a second trip. We will  work hard to  advance the comprehensive  institutional reform of law  enforcement bodies, focusing on resolving the problem of layers  of duplication in law enforcement. We will work faster to develop government information system connectivity and connect up information islands. We will review all  types of certificates  required of individuals  and businesses when  accessing government services, and put a stop  to anything being required that does not have  a basis in law or regulations. Creating a  better business environment will  unlock productivity and  increase competitiveness. We need to remove barriers, cut red tape, and build even pathways, to energize market entities and bring greater convenience to the people.

进一步减轻企业税负。改革完善增值税,按照三档并两档方向调整税率水平,重点降低制造业、交通运输等行业税率,提高小规模纳税人年销售额标准。大幅扩展享受减半征收所得税优惠政策的小微企业范围。大幅提高企业新购入仪器设备税前扣除上限。实施企业境外所得综合抵免政策。扩大物流企业仓储用地税收优惠范围。继续实施企业重组土地增值税、契税等到期优惠政策。全年再为企业和个人减税 8000多亿元,促进实体经济转型升级,着力激发市场活力和社会创造力。

We will further lighten the tax burden on businesses. We will reform and improve VAT: We will turn the three tax  brackets into two and adjust  rates, prioritize lowering rates in  manufacturing and transportation, and raise the threshold for annual sales revenue for small-scale taxpayers. Far greater numbers  of  small low-profit  businesses  will  see  their  income tax  halved,  and  the  ceilings  on deductible business purchases of instruments and equipment will be significantly raised. A policy of uniform corporate income tax exemption on the overseas earnings of Chinese businesses will be put into implementation. More logistics  companies will enjoy preferential tax  treatment on their use of land  for storage  facilities. Some  expiring  preferential policies,  such as  those  on VAT  and deed transfer tax on land transactions in enterprise reorganizations, will be extended. These measures will, over the year, reduce taxes on businesses and individuals by more than 800 billion yuan, promote the transformation and  upgrading  of the  real economy,  and do  much to  unleash  market vitality  and public creativity.

大幅降低企业非税负担。进一步清理规范行政事业性收费,调低部分政府性基金征收标准。继续阶段性降低企业“五险一金”缴费比例。降低电网环节收费和输配电价格,一般工商业电价平均降低 10%。深化收费公路制度改革,降低过路过桥费用。加大中介服务收费清理整顿力度。全年要为市场主体减轻非税负担 3000多亿元,不合理的坚决取消,过高的坚决降下来,让企业轻装上阵、聚力发展。

We  will  slash   non-tax  burdens  on   businesses.  We  will  further   review  and  standardize government administrative fees, and  lower required payments to some  government-managed funds. We will  continue the policy of  lowering the share  paid by businesses  for contributions to  old-age pension, medical insurance, unemployment  insurance, workers’ compensation, maternity insurance, and  housing  provident  fund  schemes  for  the  time  being.  Power  grid  charges  and   electricity transmission and distribution prices will be lowered, and the price of electricity for general industrial and commercial businesses  will be cut by an  average of 10 percent. We  will deepen reform of  the system of  highway tolls  and reduce tolls  on highways  and bridges.  We will thoroughly  overhaul charges for intermediary services.By abolishing all unjustified fees and cutting all excessive fees, we expect to lighten the non-tax burden on market entities by over 300 billion yuan this year, which will leave enterprises with a much lighter load and free to focus their resources on their development.


2. Moving  faster to  make China  a country  of  innovators. The  latest global  revolution in science and technology and industrial transformation  are trends we must be on board with. We  will do  more in  implementing  the innovation-driven  development  strategy, and  keep  on making  the Chinese economy more innovative and competitive.


We  will   improve  national   innovation  systems.   We  will  strengthen   basic  research   and application-oriented basic  research, launch  a number  of major science  and technology  innovation programs,  and build  top-quality national  laboratories. We  will  encourage enterprises  to  head up major  science and  technology  programs, support  collaborative  innovation by  research  institutes, universities, and  enterprises, and  speed up  the commercialization  and application  of innovations. State investments  in science  and technology  will be  weighted toward  fields related to  improving living standards. We will strengthen  efforts to reduce smog and prevent and  cure cancers and other serious diseases, thus making science and technology do more to benefit the people.


We will act on  and improve policies that stimulate innovation. We  will reform the science and technology management system, and speed up the shift in performance assessment from emphasis on processes to emphasis on outcomes.  We will empower innovation teams and  leaders by seeing that they have more human,  financial, and material resources at their  disposal and more power to make decisions  related  to   technology  roadmaps.  For  researchers   working  for  major  scientific  and technological breakthroughs we  will adopt flexible remuneration systems  and reward schemes. We will explore ways  to grant researchers  ownership or permanent  use rights over  their scientific and technological outputs. All outdated rules  and regulations that sap the inspiration for innovation  will be modified or abolished  without delay, and all red  tape that strangles efforts  to unlock innovation will be torn clean away.


We will  see the  nationwide business  startup and  innovation drive  is taken  to the  next level. China is home to  the biggest pool of human  resources and talent in the  world. In this we  have the greatest gold mine there is for innovation and development. We will provide services that tick every box for inventors, innovators, and entrepreneurs, and establish more business startup and innovation demonstration centers.  We will encourage  large enterprises, universities,  and research institutes  to enable access  to resources  necessary for innovation,  boost the  platform economy and  the sharing economy,  and   create  an   innovation  and   entrepreneurship  landscape   featuring  online-offline combination, collaboration between  enterprises, universities, research institutes,  and end-users, and partnering between businesses of all sizes. With  these efforts, we will create an upgraded edition of the national drive  to promote business startups  and innovation. We  will establish a state  financing guaranty fund,  support leading  innovative enterprises  in going public,  and extend  nationwide the pilot preferential tax  policies for venture capital  investment and angel investment.  We will deepen the reform  of institutions for  talent development, promote  free flows of  human resources, support enterprises in increasing pay packages for technical workers, and strengthen the incentives for highly skilled personnel. We will encourage  overseas Chinese students to return to China after  completing their studies to  pursue business and other innovative  ventures; we will create a  fast track to attract more foreign  talent to  China. We  have no  doubt that  by bringing  together myriad  intellects and pooling everyone’s energies, China will break into a sprint in innovation.

(三)深化基础性关键领域改革。以改革开放 40周年为重要契机,推动改革取得新突破,不断解放和发展社会生产力。

3. Deepening  reforms  in fundamental  and key  areas. We  will, drawing  on the  important momentum generated  by the  40th anniversary  of reform  and opening-up,  endeavor to make  new breakthroughs in reform, and continue to unleash and develop productive forces.


We will advance  the reform of state capital  and SOEs. Lists of  investor rights and obligations regarding oversight and regulation  will be formulated. We will  deepen trial reforms in state capital investment  and management  companies,  and grant  them  more decision-making  power.  We will continue  moving forward  with  the  improvement and  restructuring  of  SOBs and  the  joint-stock reform of  central government  enterprises, and move  faster to  give shape to  corporate governance structures  with effective  checks  and  balances and  flexible  and  efficient market-based  operating mechanisms. We will  work consistently to  make SOBs into leaner,  better performers, increase  the core competitiveness  of their main business,  and strengthen, expand,  and increase returns  on state capital. We will  prudently move forward with reforms  introducing mixed ownership in SOBs.  The system  for  State  Council  reporting  to  the  NPC  Standing  Committee   on  the  management  of state-owned assets will be implemented. Our  SOBs should, through reform and innovation, become front-runners in pursuing high-quality development.


We will  support the  development  of private  enterprises. There  will be  no irresolution  about consolidating and  developing the public  sector and no  irresolution about encouraging,  supporting, and  guiding non-public  sector development;  we  will uphold  the principle  of  equal rights,  equal opportunities,  and fair  rules.  We  will implement  fully  all  policies  and measures  in  support  of non-public sector development,  earnestly address salient  problems that concern private  companies, and take  firm  action to  remove hidden  barriers. We  will build  a new  type  of cordial  and clean relationship  between  government  and  business,  and  improve  mechanisms  for  entrepreneurs to participate in enterprise-related policy formulation. We will encourage and protect entrepreneurship, boost entrepreneur confidence, and enable private enterprises to reach their maximum potential in the market economy.


We will  improve property  rights systems and  mechanisms for  market-based allocation  of the factors of production. The property rights system is the cornerstone of the socialist market economy. We will improve the relevant laws and regulations to see that property rights are protected, contracts are  honored, the  market  is  unified, exchanges  are  equal,  and  competition is  fair.  All  types of infringements  on property  rights  will be  rigorously  dealt  with in  accordance  with law,  and  all property rights dispute cases will be reviewed and settled in accordance with law. We will strengthen the protection of  intellectual property, and  enforce a punitive compensation  system for intellectual property rights infringements. We will speed up reforms making the pricing of factors of production like technology and  land increasingly market-based,  deepen reform of  the pricing mechanisms  for resource products  and public  services, break  government monopolies,  and protect  against market monopolies. We will  see that strong protection  of property rights  and fluid flows of  the factors of production enable a great increase in market dynamism and public creativity.


We will continue structural fiscal and tax reforms. We will advance reforms to clearly define the respective  fiscal powers  and expenditure  responsibilities  of central  and  local government,  move quickly  on formulating  a plan  for  reforming the  division of  revenues,  and improve  the transfer payments system.  We will  improve  local tax  systems, and  prudently advance  legislation on  real estate  tax.  We  will  reform   the  personal  income  tax.  We  will  implement  performance-based management across the board, and ensure the proper and secure use of fiscal budgets.


We will  speed up reforms  in the financial  sector. We  will reform and  improve the financial service  system,  support  financial  institutions  in  expanding their  business  in  inclusive  finance, promote the well regulated development of small  and medium local financial institutions, and focus on solving  the problem  of small  and micro  enterprises  finding it  tough and  expensive to  access financing. We  will deepen  the reform  to  develop a  multi-tiered capital  market, and  promote the development  of the  bonds  and futures  markets.  We will  expand the  insurance  market’s role  in protecting against  risk. We will  deepen reforms to  make the interest  rate and exchange  rate more market-based,  and see  that the  RMB exchange  rate  remains generally  stable at  an adaptive  and equilibrium level.


We will  advance institutional  social reforms.  We will  deepen reform  of the  old-age pension system, and establish  a central system for  enterprise employees’ basic old-age pension  funds to be used inter-provincially. We will deepen comprehensive public hospital reform and make coordinated moves to  reform  healthcare pricing,  staffing and  remuneration, medicine  distribution, and  health insurance payment  models. We  will improve the  quality of  healthcare services  and work  hard to resolve the difficulties people face in accessing medical care. We will continue reforms in education, culture, and sports, fully unlocking society’s vast potential for development.


We will build  a more robust system  for developing an  ecological civilization. We will  reform and improve the system for  ecological and environmental regulation, strengthen regulation over  the use of natural ecological spaces, roll out a system of compensation for ecological and environmental damage,  and  improve  the  compensation  mechanisms  for  ecological  conservation,  using   more effective institutions to achieve ecological and environmental protection.


4. Fighting three  critical battles. To  fulfill our key annual  tasks, we need  to make everyone involved clear about  their responsibilities, strengthen policy  implementation, and ensure that  every element of work is done to good, solid effect.

推动重大风险防范化解取得明显进展。当前我国经济金融风险总体可控,要标本兼治,有效消除风险隐患。严厉打击非法集资、金融诈骗等违法活动。加快市场化法治化债转股和企业兼并重组。加强金融机构风险内控。强化金融监管统筹协调,健全对影子银行、互联网金融、金融控股公司等监管,进一步完善金融监管。防范化解地方政府债务风险。严禁各类违法违规举债、担保等行为。省级政府对本辖区债务负总责,省级以下地方政府各负其责,积极稳妥处置存量债务。健全规范的地方政府举债融资机制。今年安排地方专项债券  1.35万亿元,比去年增加 5500亿元,优先支持在建项目平稳建设,合理扩大专项债券使用范围。我国经济基本面好,政策工具多,完全能够守住不发生系统性风险的底线。

First, we  will strive for  notable progress  in forestalling and  defusing major  risks. At present, China’s economic and financial risks are on the whole manageable. What we need to  do is to tackle both symptoms and root causes and take effective measures to defuse potential risks. There will be a serious  crackdown on  activities that  violate  the law  like  illegal fundraising  and  financial fraud. Debt-to-equity swaps and  business acquisitions and reorganizations, conducted  in a way consistent with market principles and the rule of law, will be accelerated. We will see that internal risk controls are  tightened  in  financial institutions.  We  will  strengthen  coordination  in  financial  regulation, improve regulation  over shadow  banking, internet  finance, and  financial holding  companies, and further improve  financial regulation. We  will forestall and  defuse local  government debt risk.  All forms of borrowing and debt underwriting that violate the law and regulations are strictly prohibited. Provincial-level  governments  should  assume  overall  responsibility  for  debts  incurred  by  local governments within  their jurisdictions;  governments below  the provincial  level should  live up  to their own responsibilities; and all must  take active, prudent steps to deal with outstanding  debt. We will improve  the standard mechanisms for  local governments to  secure financing. This  year, local government special bonds issued will total1.35 trillion yuan, an increase of 550 billion yuan year on year, to be used as a matter of priority for financing the smooth implementation of ongoing projects; and the scope of  the use of special bonds  will be appropriately expanded. The fundamentals  of the Chinese economy remain sound, and we have many policy tools at our disposal. We are fully capable of forestalling systemic risks.

加大精准脱贫力度。今年再减少农村贫困人口 1000万以上,完成易地扶贫搬迁 280万人。深入推进产业、教育、健康、生态扶贫,补齐基础设施和公共服务短板,激发脱贫内生动力。强化对深度贫困地区支持,中央财政新增扶贫投入及有关转移支付向深度贫困地区倾斜。对老年人、残疾人、重病患者等特定贫困人口,因户因人落实保障措施。攻坚期内脱贫不脱政策,新产生的贫困人口和返贫人口要及时纳入帮扶。加强扶贫资金整合和绩效管理。开展扶贫领域腐败和作风问题专项治理,改进考核监督方式。坚持现行脱贫标准,确保进度和质量,让脱贫得到群众认可、经得起历史检验。

Second, we will step up targeted  poverty alleviation. This year, we will further reduce the poor rural population  by  over 10  million, including  2.8 million  people who  are  to be  relocated from inhospitable  areas.  More  will  be  done  to  alleviate  poverty  through  the development  of  local industries,  education,  and  healthcare,  and  through  the  development  and  conservation  of  local ecological resources.  We will  shore up  weak links  in infrastructure  and public  services, creating self-generated impetus  to reduce  poverty. We  will do  more to support  areas affected  by extreme poverty,  and  the central  budget’s  newly  enlarged  poverty  reduction  funds and  related  transfer payments will be weighted toward these areas. We will tailor measures to individuals and individual households to ensure that targeted poor populations, including elderly people, people with disabilities, and people with serious diseases, receive the assistance they need. Poverty relief policies will remain unchanged for those already  lifted out of poverty while the  battle goes on, and the newly poor  and those who slip back into poverty will receive prompt support. Poverty alleviation funds will be better integrated and performance-based management will be strengthened. We will take targeted measures against  corruption  and  misconduct  in  poverty   alleviation,  and  improve  the  methods  used  in evaluation and  oversight. We will  continue to  apply the current  poverty alleviation standards  and ensure that  poverty reduction  progresses as  planned and  meets all  standards, so  that our  poverty alleviation work wins the approval of the people and stands the test of time.

推进污染防治取得更大成效。巩固蓝天保卫战成果,今年二氧化硫、氮氧化物排放量要下降 3%,重点地区细颗粒物(PM2.5)浓度继续下降。推动钢铁等行业超低排放改造。提高污染排放标准,实行限期达标。开展柴油货车超标排放专项治理。深入推进水、土壤污染防治,今年化学需氧量、氨氮排放量要下降 2%。实施重点流域和海域综合治理,全面整治黑臭水体。加大污水处理设施建设力度,完善收费政策。严禁“洋垃圾”入境。加强生态系统保护和修复,全面划定生态保护红线,完成造林 1亿亩以上,耕地轮作休耕试点面积增加到  3000万亩,扩大湿地保护和恢复范围,深化国家公园体制改革试点。严控填海造地。严格环境执法。我们要携手行动,建设天蓝、地绿、水清的美丽中国。

Third, we will  work to make greater progress  in addressing pollution. We  will consolidate the gains made  in the fight to  defend the blue  of our skies.  This year, we will  cut sulfur dioxide  and nitrogen oxide  emissions by 3  percent and achieve  a continuous  decline in PM2.5  density in key areas. We will encourage upgrading in the steel  and other industries to achieve ultra-low emissions. We  will raise  standards  on  the  emission of  pollutants,  and  set deadlines  for  meeting  required discharge standards. A special program will be launched to reduce exhaust emissions by diesel trucks that exceed standards. We will continue efforts to prevent and  control water and soil pollution. This year, chemical  oxygen demand  and ammonia nitrogen  emissions will  be cut by  2 percent.  Water environments in key river  basins and sea areas will be  improved through comprehensive measures, and thorough action will be taken to clean up black, malodorous water bodies. We will strengthen the development of  sewage treatment facilities,  and improve policy  on charges  for their services.  We will completely prohibit garbage from being brought into China.  We will redouble efforts to protect and restore  ecosystems, and finish  setting redlines  for ecological conservation  across the country. This year, more  than 6.67 million hectares of  land will be afforested,  and crop rotation and fallow land  trials  will be  increased  to  cover  2  million hectares  of  farmland.  Wetland  protection  and restoration will be expanded  and pilot reforms for the national  parks system will be continued. We will impose strict control over coastal area  reclamation. Environmental laws and regulations will be strictly enforced. We all need to join hands and take action to build a Beautiful China where the skies are blue, the land is green, and the waters are clear.


5. Making strong moves in the rural revitalization strategy.  Plans will be well designed and the  institutions  and mechanisms  needed  to  achieve  integrated  urban-rural development  will  be improved. We  will rely on  reform and innovation  to build powerful  new growth  drivers for rural development.

推进农业供给侧结构性改革。促进农林牧渔业和种业创新发展,加快建设现代农业产业园和特色农产品优势区,稳定和优化粮食生产。新增高标准农田 8000万亩以上、高效节水灌溉面积 2000万亩。培育新型经营主体,加强面向小农户的社会化服务。发展“互联网+农业”,多渠道增加农民收入,促进农村一二三产业融合发展。

We  will  advance supply-side  structural  reform  in  agriculture. We  will  promote  innovative development  in the  farming, forestry,  livestock,  fishing, and  seed  industries, speed  up  work on developing  modern  agriculture industrial  parks  and  areas  producing  local specialty  agricultural products, and ensure  stable and optimized grain output.  We will increase the area  of high-standard cropland  by  at least  5.33  million  hectares,  and  expand  the coverage  of  efficient  water-saving irrigation  by  1.33  million hectares.  We  will  cultivate  new  types  of  agribusiness and  improve commercial services  catering to  small agricultural  households. We  will develop  the Internet  Plus Agriculture model,  use  multiple channels  to increase  rural  incomes, and  encourage the  primary, secondary, and tertiary industries to develop in an integrated way in rural areas.

全面深化农村改革。落实第二轮土地承包到期后再延长 30年的政策。探索宅基地所有权、资格权、使用权分置改革。改进耕地占补平衡管理办法,建立新增耕地指标、城乡建设用地增减挂钩节余指标跨省域调剂机制,所得收益全部用于脱贫攻坚和支持乡村振兴。深化粮食收储、集体产权、集体林权、国有林区林场、农垦、供销社等改革,使农业农村充满生机活力。

We will deepen all  rural reforms. We will implement the  policy extending second round rural land contracts  by another 30  years upon  their expiration. We  will experiment with  separating the ownership rights, qualification rights,  and use rights for rural  land designated for housing. We  will improve  the  measures  on  offsetting  cultivated  land  used  for  other  purposes,  and  establish  a mechanism that allows the surplus quotas produced by linking newly-added cropland quotas with the amount of land  used for construction to be  adjusted inter-provincially. All profit  therefrom will be used  to fight  poverty  and support  rural  revitalization. We  will  deepen  reforms related  to  grain purchasing and  storage, collective property  rights, collective forest  tenure, state forestry  areas and farms, state farms,  and supply and marketing  cooperatives, and see that  agriculture and rural areas are full of life and dynamism.


We will  promote  the full  development of  all programs  in  rural areas.  We will  improve the infrastructure for  supplying  water and  power,  for information,  and so  on,  and build  or upgrade 200,000 kilometers of rural roads. We will take steady steps in carrying out a three-year campaign to improve rural  living environments, and  continue the Toilet  Revolution. We will encourage  a shift away from outdated social practices. The rural governance model,  based on self-governance, rule of law, and rule of virtue, will be improved. We will continue to pursue a Chinese path to socialist rural revitalization, and work faster to achieve agricultural and rural modernization.


6.  Making  solid  progress  in  the  coordinated  regional  development strategy.  Regional development policies  will be  refined, progress  will be  made in  equalizing access  to basic  public services,  the gap  in  urban-rural and  regional  development  will gradually  be  narrowed, and  the comparative advantages and potential of each region will be fully leveraged.


We will create a new landscape in regional development. We will step up support for reform and development in  old revolutionary base  areas, areas  with large ethnic  minority populations, border areas, and poor areas. We will promote coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, with the focus  on relieving Beijing of functions  nonessential to its role as  the nation’s capital, and develop the Xiongan New Area in line with forward-looking plans and high standards. We will move forward with  developing the  Yangtze  Economic Belt,  giving primary  consideration to  protecting ecosystems and pursuing  green development. We will  unveil and implement the development  plan for  the  Guangdong-Hong  Kong-Macao  Greater  Bay  Area,  and  promote  in  all  areas  mutually beneficial  cooperation between  the  mainland,  Hong  Kong, and  Macao.  We  will  draw up  new guidelines for  large-scale  development in  the western  region, implement  policies for  revitalizing northeast China and other old industrial bases, continue to promote the rise of the central region, and support the eastern region in  spearheading development. We will promote economic transformation in  resource-depleted areas.  We  will strengthen  the  maritime economy,  and  resolutely  safeguard China’s maritime rights and interests.

提高新型城镇化质量。今年再进城落户 1300万人,加快农业转移人口市民化。优先发展公共交通,健全菜市场、停车场等便民服务设施。有序推进“城中村”、老旧小区改造,完善配套设施,鼓励有条件的加装电梯。加强排涝管网、地下综合管廊等建设。新型城镇化的核心在人,要加强精细化服务、人性化管理,使人人都有公平发展机会,让居民生活得方便、舒心。

We will  pursue better-quality new  urbanization. This  year, another 13  million people  will be registered as permanent  urban residents, and  we will speed  up work on  granting permanent urban residency to  people from rural  areas living in  cities. We will  prioritize the development of  public transportation, and  improve local amenities  like food markets  and parking facilities.  We will take planned steps to rebuild villages in cities  and old residential areas, improve supporting utilities, and encourage the installation of elevators in old  residential buildings where conditions permit. We will do more to improve drainage pipeline networks and underground utility tunnels. Satisfying the needs of the people is what new urbanization is all about. We need to provide services that are attentive to detail and exercise management that puts people first. Our goal is to see that every person  has equal opportunity for development and to make everyday life more convenient and comfortable.


7.  Actively increasing  consumption  and  promoting  effective investment.  We  will  boost consumption  in response  to  the new  changes  in consumer  demand,  focus on  making  structural adjustments in increasing investment, and  create a positive cycle of supply  structure upgrading and appropriate expansion of aggregate demand.


We will strengthen the  fundamental role of consumption in  driving economic growth. We will promote consumption upgrading and develop new forms and models of consumption. We will extend preferential policies on purchase tax on  new-energy vehicles by another three years, and  rescind all local policies that restrict sales of non-local  second-hand vehicles. We will support private actors in providing more  services in healthcare,  elderly care, education,  culture, and  sports. We will  create integrated tourism  demonstration zones, and  lower ticket  prices at key  state tourist sites.  We will promote the  healthy development  of online  shopping and  express delivery  services. All  types of behavior that infringe  on consumers’ rights  and interests will  be punished in  accordance with law without leniency.

发挥投资对优化供给结构的关键性作用。今年要完成铁路投资  7320亿元、公路水运投资1.8万亿元左右,水利在建投资规模达到  1万亿元。重大基础设施建设继续向中西部地区倾斜。实施新一轮重大技术改造升级工程。中央预算内投资安排 5376亿元,比去年增加  300亿元。落实鼓励民间投资政策措施,在铁路、民航、油气、电信等领域推出一批有吸引力的项目,务必使民间资本进得来、能发展。

We will enable investment to play  the pivotal role in improving the supply structure.  This year will see 732  billion yuan invested in  railway construction and  around 1.8 trillion yuan  invested in highway and waterway projects; the scale of investment  in ongoing water conservancy projects will reach 1  trillion yuan.  The central  and western  regions will  continue to  be the  priority for  major infrastructure construction. We will  carry out a new round  of major technology transformation and upgrading projects. The central government budget will include 537.6 billion yuan of investment, an increase of  30 billion yuan  over last  year. We will  implement policies  and measures designed  to encourage private  investment,  introduce a  number of  attractive projects  in sectors  like rail,  civil aviation, oil  and natural  gas, and telecommunications,  and make  sure that private  investment can gain entry and is able to develop.


8. Creating a new  landscape in all-around opening-up. China  will further expand the scope and  raise  the quality  of  its  opening-up;  the structure,  layout,  institutions,  and mechanisms  for opening-up will  be improved,  and we will  use high-standard  opening-up to  generate high-quality development.


We will advance international cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative. We are committed to achieving shared growth through discussion and collaboration, and will act on the outcomes of the Belt  and  Road   Forum  for  International  Cooperation.   We  will  work   toward  building  major international corridors and deepen cooperation on streamlining customs clearance along the routes of the Belt  and Road Initiative.  We will expand industrial  capacity cooperation with  other countries, and with this enable Chinese manufacturing and Chinese services to go global. We will improve the composition of outbound investment. We will expand opening-up in the western region, inland areas, and border areas, creating new opportunities for China’s economic cooperation with other countries.


We will  promote a  steady growth  in foreign  investment. We  will strengthen  alignment with international   business  rules,   and   foster   a   world-class  business   environment.   The   general manufacturing sector will be  completely opened up, and access to  sectors like telecommunications, medical services, education, elderly care, and new-energy vehicles  will be expanded. We will phase in an opening-up of bank card clearing and other markets; lift restrictions on the scope of operations of  foreign-invested  insurance  agent  companies,   and  ease  or  lift  restrictions  on  the  share  of foreign-owned  equity  in companies  in  sectors  including  banking, securities,  fund  management, futures, and  financial asset management.  We will make  market entry  standards the same  for both Chinese and foreign  banks. Overseas investors will  be granted tax deferral  for the reinvestment  of profit made in China.  Procedures for setting up foreign-invested  enterprises will be simplified,  and business filing and business registration will be processed together in one go. We will spread the use of practices developed in free trade zones all over the country,  and explore opening free trade ports, working toward new heights in reform and opening-up.


We will consolidate the healthy trend toward stable growth in foreign trade. We will expand the coverage of  export credit  insurance, and shave  another third  off the  total time taken  for customs clearance. We will reform the mechanism for developing trade in services. We will foster new forms and models of trade. We will encourage processing trade  to shift to the central and western regions. We will actively  expand imports, host the first  China International Import Expo,  and lower import tariffs on automobiles, some everyday consumer goods, and so on. We will open our market wider to promote  industry upgrading  and  more  balanced  development of  trade,  and  to  provide Chinese consumers with a broader range of choices.


We will  promote  trade and  investment liberalization  and facilitation.  China  is committed  to promoting economic globalization and protecting free  trade. We are ready to work with all  relevant parties  to  advance  multilateral  trade  negotiations,  and  will  work  for  the  early  conclusion  of negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, and speed up efforts to build the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific,  and the East Asia Economic Community. China calls for trade disputes to be settled through  discussion as equals, opposes trade protectionism, and  will resolutely safeguard its lawful rights.


9. Doing  more to ensure  and improve  people’s wellbeing. We  will, in  line with economic growth, do  more to directly  benefit the  people, address  the difficulties that  affect their  lives, and ensure that their basic  living needs are met. Our  aim is to help people  feel more satisfied, happier, and more secure.

着力促进就业创业。加强全方位公共就业服务,大规模开展职业技能培训,运用“互联网+”发展新就业形态。今年高校毕业生 820多万人,再创历史新高,要促进多渠道就业,支持以创业带动就业。扎实做好退役军人安置。加大对残疾人等就业困难人员援助力度。扩大农民工就业,全面治理拖欠工资问题。要健全劳动关系协商机制,消除性别和身份歧视,使更加公平、更加充分的就业成为我国发展的突出亮点。

We will focus on boosting employment and business startups. We will strengthen the full  set of public employment  services, launch  a large-scale  vocational skills  training initiative,  and use  the Internet Plus model  to create new kinds of  jobs. With over 8.2 million  college students graduating this year,  reaching an  all-time high  again, we  need to  expand  the channels for  employment  and support job  creation through business  startups. We  will take substantive  steps to  see demobilized military personnel resettled into  new jobs. We will give stronger support  to people with disabilities and other groups having difficulty securing employment. We will create more jobs for rural  migrant workers, and take comprehensive measures to address the problem of wage arrears. We will improve labor relations consultation mechanisms, put an end to gender and identity discrimination, and  work to make fairer and fuller employment an outstanding highlight of our country’s development.


We will steadily increase people’s incomes. We will continue raising basic pension payments for retirees and basic pension benefits for  rural and non-working urban residents. Minimum wages  will be appropriately  adjusted.  We will  improve the  wage  and subsidy  system for  the  employees of government offices and public  institutions, and weight the system  toward regions where conditions are harsh  and  toward special  posts. We  will  raise the  personal income  tax threshold  and  create expense  deductions   for  items   like  children’s  education   and  treatment   for  serious  diseases, appropriately lightening burdens, and encouraging our  people to increase their incomes and achieve prosperity through hard work.


We will  develop fair, high-quality  education. We will  promote the integrated  development of urban and  rural compulsory education,  and continue to  weight funding for  education toward poor areas and weak links. We will significantly reduce the rural drop-out rate,  move faster to put an end to  big  class  sizes  in  urban  schools,  and  give  attention  to  addressing  the   problem  of  heavy extracurricular burdens  on primary  and secondary school  students. Children  are the hope  of their families and the future of our nation. We will increase the supply of preschool educational resources through multiple channels and use the internet and other IT-based approaches to strengthen oversight over the whole process of  childcare provision, making certain that parents can  have peace of mind. We will  support the  provision of  vocational education  by private  actors. We  will work  to make senior  secondary   education  universally   available.  With   the  needs   of  economic   and  social development as our compass, we will improve the structure of higher education, act faster to develop world-class universities and  world-class disciplines, and support  the central and western regions  in building  universities with  character and  of  high quality.  We  will continue  the  higher education admissions scheme  with  preferential provisions  for students  from rural  and  poor areas.  We will develop  ethnic  minority  education,  special  needs  education,  continuing  education,  and  online education. We will improve the competence of our educators and strengthen teacher ethics. We need to work hard to provide education that our people are satisfied with, and ensure that every individual has an equal opportunity to change their life and realize their dreams through education.

实施健康中国战略。提高基本医保和大病保险保障水平,居民基本医保人均财政补助标准再增加 40元,一半用于大病保险。扩大跨省异地就医直接结算范围,把基层医院和外出农民工、外来就业创业人员等全部纳入。加强全科医生队伍建设,推进分级诊疗。继续提高基本公共卫生服务经费人均财政补助标准。改善妇幼保健服务。支持中医药事业传承发展。创新食品药品监管方式,注重用互联网、大数据等提升监管效能,加快实现全程留痕、信息可追溯,让问题产品无处藏身、不法制售者难逃法网,让消费者买得放心、吃得安全。做好北京冬奥会、冬残奥会筹办工作,多渠道增加全民健身场所和设施。人民群众身心健康、向善向上,国家必将生机勃勃、走向繁荣富强。

We will implement  the Healthy China strategy. We  will raise the basic  medical insurance and serious disease  insurance benefits.  Per capita government  subsidies for  basic health  insurance for rural and non-working urban residents  will be increased by 40 yuan, half  of which will be used for the serious  disease insurance scheme.  We will  expand the coverage  of interprovincial on-the-spot settlement  of   medical  bills   through  basic  insurance   accounts  and   make  this   applicable  to community-level hospitals,  and to  rural migrant  workers and  other workers  and business  owners without local  household registration.  We will  strengthen efforts  to build  up the  ranks of  general practitioners, and make  progress in developing tiered diagnosis  and treatment. We will continue  to increase  per  capita  government  subsidies for  basic  public  health  services.  Maternal  and  child healthcare  will  be  improved.  We  will  preserve   traditional  Chinese  medicine  and  support  its development. We will develop new ways of conducting food and drug oversight, and use the internet and big data to increase the effectiveness of this oversight. We will move faster to see that the entire process can be tracked and all information is traceable. We will see that there is nowhere to hide for substandard products, that there is no escaping justice for those involved in their production and sale, and that consumers can consume confidently and eat safely. We will make thorough preparations for the Beijing  Winter Olympics  and Paralympics.  Multiple channels  will be  used to  increase sports venues  and  facilities  available  for  the  general  public.  If  our  people  are  fit  and  healthy,  are strengthening  social morality,  and  are  striving to  succeed,  our  country is  certain  to  thrive and progress toward prosperity.

更好解决群众住房问题。启动新的三年棚改攻坚计划,今年开工 580万套。加大公租房保障力度,对低收入住房困难家庭要应保尽保,将符合条件的新就业无房职工、外来务工人员纳入保障范围。坚持房子是用来住的、不是用来炒的定位,落实地方主体责任,继续实行差别化调控,建立健全长效机制,促进房地产市场平稳健康发展。支持居民自住购房需求,培育住房租赁市场,发展共有产权住房。加快建立多主体供给、多渠道保障、租购并举的住房制度,让广大人民群众早日实现安居宜居。

We will better address people’s housing needs. We will launch a new three-year renovation plan to address housing in rundown urban areas, starting with construction  this year on 5.8 million units. We will  step  up efforts  to supply  public-rental  housing so  that all  eligible  low-income families struggling with  housing, including  eligible houseless  first-time workers  and migrant  workers, are able to access public-rental housing under this scheme. We must be clear that houses are for living in, not for speculation. We expect local governments to fulfill their primary responsibility in this respect, and will continue exercising differentiated regulation and put in place robust permanent mechanisms to promote  the steady and  healthy development of  real estate markets.  We will support  people in buying homes for personal use, and develop the housing rental market and shared ownership housing. We need to speed up the establishment of a housing system with multiple types of suppliers, multiple channels for housing support, and encouragement for both renting and purchase, so that more people will soon have a place to call home.


We will strengthen efforts to meet people’s basic living needs. We will  steadily raise urban and rural subsistence allowances, social assistance benefits, and benefits for entitled groups. We will take proactive measures to tackle population aging, including developing at-home, community-based, and mutual-aid elderly care,  promoting integrated medical and elderly  care services, and improving the quality of  services at senior care  facilities. The families  of military personnel  and martyrs will  be well taken  care of.  Rehabilitation services for  people with  disabilities will be  improved. We  will improve social  assistance  systems, and  support the  development of  public  welfare activities  and charity.  We will  bring empathy  and  energy to  our  work to  meet basic  needs;  there will  be  no reluctance to act because something is not easy, and no failure to act because the benefit seems small; we must ensure that care and compassion reach everyone in need.


We will develop a new model of social  governance based on collaboration, co-governance, and common  gains.  We  will improve  the  system  of  primary  level  self-governance  and  strengthen community governance.  We will  see  that trade  unions, Communist  Youth League  organizations, women’s  federations and  other  people’s  organizations  are all  playing  their  due roles.  We  will promote the  healthy  development of  social organizations,  specialized social  work, and  volunteer services. We will strengthen work  on building the social credit system. We will  improve the public legal service system,  and enforce a  system of responsibility for  popularizing legal knowledge.  We will foster a  positive culture in which  women are respected, children  are cared for,  the elderly are treated with  respect, and  people with  disabilities are  treated considerately.  We will  develop new approaches  to handling  public complaints,  and see  that  the justified  demands of  our  people are addressed  promptly  in   accordance  with  law.  We   will  strictly  enforce  the   workplace  safety responsibility and resolutely  prevent the occurrence  of serious and  major accidents. We will  carry out solid work in seismology, meteorology, and geology, and improve disaster prevention, mitigation, and rescue capacity. We will  continue the Peaceful China initiative, take strict preventive measures against violent and  terrorist activities and  see them firmly stamped  out, and launch  a campaign to crack  down on  organized crime  and  local mafia  in accordance  with  law. We  will punish  theft, robbery, fraud, pornography,  gambling, drug-related crime, and other illegal  and criminal behavior, and address salient  problems such as telecommunications  and internet fraud, the  abuse of personal information, and pyramid schemes. With these steps we will safeguard national and public security.


We must provide rich cultural nourishment to help our people to live better lives. We will strive to keep fine traditional Chinese  culture alive and thriving, see our revolutionary  culture is inherited and carried on, develop advanced socialist  culture, and foster and practice core socialist values. We will  strengthen efforts  toward  building intellectual  and  moral  standards and  hold  more popular activities  to  promote cultural  and  ethical  advancement.  We will  speed  up  the  development  of philosophy and  social sciences  with distinctive  Chinese characteristics,  see that  art and  literature flourish, and  develop the  press, publishing, radio,  film, television,  and archiving.  We will ensure China’s cultural relics  are more effectively protected  and put to better  use, and cultural heritage  is better preserved  and passed  on. We will  see that China’s  new-type think-tanks  are well run.  The provision of  content on  the  internet will  be improved.  We will  launch more  cultural projects  to benefit  the people,  and  work  to  foster new  forms  of  cultural  businesses. China’s  cultural  and people-to-people  exchanges with  other countries  will  be enhanced.  We will  see  that a  rich  and thriving socialist culture with distinctive Chinese features acts as a powerful source of inspiration for the whole Chinese nation to achieve rejuvenation.


Fellow Deputies,


Entering a new era, the government’s work in the new year must bring new steps and make new advances. We  must become  deeply conscious of  the need  to maintain  political integrity, think  in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment. We must strengthen confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics. We must resolutely uphold the core position of General Secretary Xi Jinping, resolutely uphold the authority of the Party Central Committee  and its centralized,  unified leadership, and  act on the  requirement for full  and rigorous  Party self-governance.  We will  improve  our government,  intensify  efforts to  transform government functions, and deliver to the people high-quality and efficient services.


All governance  will  be exercised  in accordance  with the  Constitution and  the law.  We will strictly observe the Constitution and the law, and speed up work on building a government based on the rule of law, seeing that all government activities are consistent with the rule of law. We will work to ensure  that the law  is enforced in  a strict, procedure-based,  impartial, and civil  manner. Power cannot be  used as  one pleases;  the exercise  of power  must be supervised.  We, at  every level  of government, must subject ourselves, as  required by law, to the oversight of the people’s  congresses at that  level  and their  standing committees;  we must  readily  accept the  democratic oversight  of CPPCC committees,  and  we must  actively accept  public oversight  and  oversight through  public opinion. We  should  earnestly solicit  opinions from  deputies  to people’s  congresses and  CPPCC committee members,  and listen to  the views  of other political  parties, federations of  industry and commerce, public  figures without party  affiliation, and people’s  organizations. We in  government must honor our commitments; new officials must  not be allowed to disavow obligations undertaken by their predecessors. We will make government affairs more transparent across the board. Decisions will be made in a sound and democratic way on the basis of law, and before making decisions on any major issue related to public interests, we will solicit input, including criticism, from all parties. Ours is a government of the people, and everything we do should reflect their will. Whether we’ve done a good job only the outcomes can tell and ultimately it is for the people to judge.

全面加强党风廉政建设。推进“两学一做”学习教育常态化制度化,认真开展“不忘初心、牢记使命”主题教育。坚决贯彻落实党中央八项规定及实施细则精神,驰而不息整治 “四风”,特别是力戒形式主义、官僚主义。加强审计监督。巩固发展反腐败斗争压倒性态势,把权力关进制度的笼子,坚决惩治各类腐败行为。政府工作人员要廉洁修身,勤勉尽责,干干净净为人民做事,决不辜负人民公仆的称号。

All initiatives to improve Party  conduct and ensure clean government will be  strengthened. All Party  members should  gain  a good  command  of  the Party  Constitution,  Party regulations,  and General Secretary Xi  Jinping’s major policy addresses,  and meet Party standards;  we will work  to see this become a regular and institutionalized practice. And we will keep reminding ourselves of our commitment to our original aspiration and have our mission always in mind. We must resolutely put into action  the  central Party  leadership’s eight-point  decision on  improving  conduct and  staying engaged with the  people and its  detailed rules for implementation.  We should work  ceaselessly to address the practice of formalities for formalities’ sake, bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance, with  particular  focus  on  seeing the  first  two  stamped  out.  We  will  strengthen  auditing-based oversight. We  will consolidate  and build  on the  overwhelming momentum  of the  anti-corruption campaign,  locking power  in  an  institutional  cage, and  cracking  down  on all  manifestations  of corruption. All government employees must cultivate personal integrity and have a strong work ethic and sense of responsibility; we  must keep our hands clean and work hard  for the people, and never fail to live up to the name of the people’s public servants.


All  aspects  of  government  performance  will  be  improved.  We  will  improve  government institution  setups  and  functions, deepen  institutional  reform,  form  a  system  of  governance  by government with  clearly defined  duties  and obligations  and administration  in line  with law,  and strengthen government credibility and executive capacity. Every last achievement  in China’s reform and development  has been  made by doing.  To us  – all levels  of government  and all government employees – getting things done for the people is our unquestionable duty; not doing is a dereliction of that duty. We will improve incentive  and restraint mechanisms and mechanisms to allow for and address errors, give unequivocal backing to the driven and the doers, and hold strictly to account the incompetent and the idle. Talking  big and setting ambitious goals but taking little  action to achieve them will not be tolerated; nor will sitting around in a government post and getting nothing done. We in government need to improve  our political integrity and professional competence, be  realistic and pragmatic, and make  doing our top priority.  Only by doing can  we make solid new  achievements, earn public endorsement,  and contribute to  a dynamic atmosphere in  which everyone is motivated and driven to get things done.


Fellow Deputies,

中华民族是一个和睦相处、团结温暖的大家庭。我们要坚持和完善民族区域自治制度,全面贯彻党的民族政策。继续加强对民族地区、人口较少民族发展的支持。组织好广西壮族自治区、宁夏回族自治区成立 60周年庆祝活动。加强各民族交往交流交融,让中华民族共同体的根基更加坚实、纽带更加牢固。

The Chinese nation is a big family in which we live together in peace, unity, and amity. We will uphold and improve the system of regional ethnic autonomy and fully implement the Party’s policies on ethnic groups. We will continue to  strengthen support for development in areas of mainly ethnic minorities  and  for  development  of  ethnic  groups  with  smaller  populations.  We  will  see  that celebrations to mark the 60th anniversaries of the founding of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Ningxia Hui Autonomous  Region are a great success.  We will encourage more exchanges  and interactions among our ethnic groups to strengthen the foundations and bonds of the Chinese national community.


We will fully  implement the Party’s basic policy  on religious affairs, uphold the  principle that religions  in  China  must  be  Chinese  in  orientation,  promote  harmony  between  religions,  and encourage religious leaders and believers to actively involve themselves in promoting economic and social development.


We will fully implement  policies related to overseas  Chinese nationals, protect the legal  rights and interests of overseas Chinese nationals, Chinese nationals who have returned from overseas, and relatives of overseas Chinese nationals residing in China. We will create better conditions for them to use  their  unique strengths  and  play  their  important  roles  in  our country’s  modernization.  We encourage all  Chinese, both  at home  and overseas,  to work  together with  one heart  and achieve together great things.


Fellow Deputies,


Faced with  profound changes  in the national  security environment,  we must treat  the Party’s goal of building stronger  armed forces for the new era  as our guide, and firmly uphold the  guiding position of Xi Jinping’s thinking  on strengthening the armed forces as we  develop national defense and the armed forces. We will stick  to the Chinese path in strengthening our armed forces, advance all aspects of  military training and war  preparedness, and firmly and  resolvedly safeguard national sovereignty, security, and development  interests. The fundamental principle and  system of absolute leadership by the Party over the armed forces  must be observed, and the system of the Chairman of the  Central  Military Commission  assuming  full  responsibility  for military  affairs  will  be  fully enforced. We will  continue to reform  national defense and the  armed forces, and build  strong and solid modernized border, coastal, and air defense. We will improve our national defense mobilization system  and strengthen  public  awareness about  national  defense. We  will  further implement  the strategy for  military-civilian integration and deepen  reform of defense-related  science, technology, and industry. We,  at every level  of government, must take  more effective measures to  support the development  and reform  of  our  national  defense and  armed  forces,  so  that the  unity  between government and the military and between the  people and the military is always strong as stone, and deeply rooted as an evergreen.


Fellow Deputies,


We will continue to implement, both to the letter and in spirit, the principle of “one country, two systems,” and  act in  strict compliance with  China’s Constitution  and the  basic laws of  the Hong Kong and Macao  special administrative regions. The  governments and chief executives  of the two regions have  our full  support in  exercising law-based  governance and  in their  efforts to  achieve strong economic growth,  improve living standards, progressively advance  democracy, and promote social harmony. We will support  Hong Kong and Macao in integrating their  own development into overall national development, and  will boost exchanges and cooperation between  the mainland and the two  regions. We  have every  confidence that Hong  Kong and  Macao will  develop and  thrive together with the mainland.

我们要继续贯彻对台工作大政方针,坚持一个中国原则,在“九二共识”基础上推动两岸关系和平发展,推进祖国和平统一进程。坚决维护国家主权和领土完整,绝不容忍任何  “台独”分裂图谋和行径。扩大两岸经济文化交流合作,逐步为台湾同胞在大陆学习、创业、就业、生活提供与大陆同胞同等待遇。两岸同根,骨肉相亲。两岸同胞顺应历史大势、共担民族大义,必将共创中华民族伟大复兴的美好未来!

We will continue to implement the principles and policies on our work related to Taiwan, uphold the one-China  principle, promote  the  peaceful  growth  of cross-Strait  relations on the basis  of the 1992 Consensus,  and  advance China’s  peaceful  reunification.   We  will  remain   firm  in safeguarding  China’s sovereignty  and  territorial  integrity, and  will  never  tolerate any  separatist schemes or activities for “Taiwan independence.” We will expand cross-Strait economic and cultural exchanges and cooperation, and ensure that over  time, people from Taiwan come to enjoy the same treatment as  mainlanders when they  pursue study, do  business, work  or live on  the mainland. As fellow Chinese living on both sides of the Taiwan Strait, we share a bond of kinship. As  long as we go with the tide  of history and work together for our  nation’s greater good, we will together  create the future-a beautiful future of national rejuvenation.


Fellow Deputies,


China’s development is closely  connected with that of all  other countries; we share a  common future and  a common stake  in that  future. China’s commitment  to peaceful  development will not change and we will work to build a new type of international relations. We will get actively involved in reforming  and improving global  governance and  will strive to  make the global  economy more open. We will promote coordination and cooperation among major countries, deepen friendships and achieve common  development with  our neighbors, and  enhance unity  and cooperation with  other developing countries. We  will ensure the success  of the annual conference  of the Boao  Forum for Asia, the  Shanghai Cooperation Organization  Summit, the Summit  of the Forum  on China-Africa Cooperation, and other diplomatic events  that we will host at home. China  will continue to play its part as a  responsible major country  in resolving international and  regional hotspot issues. We  will

improve institutions for safeguarding Chinese interests  and security overseas. China stands ready to work with all other countries to build a community with a shared future for mankind.


Fellow Deputies,


Unity gives us strength; good solid work will shape our future. We will rally even closer around the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, hold high  the banner of socialism with  Chinese characteristics,  and follow  the  guidance of  Xi  Jinping Thought  on Socialism  with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. We will be  enterprising, work hard, and promote sustained,

healthy economic and social development. We are working to secure a decisive victory in building a moderately  prosperous society  in  all  respects, to  ensure  the success  of  socialism  with Chinese

characteristics for a new era, to build China into a great modern socialist  country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful, and to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. Let us make new contributions to make these goals a reality.

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